Date: 20.11.2017 / Article Rating: 4 / Votes: 460
Livecustomwriting.essayshark.life #Lsat essays

Recent Posts

Home >> Uncategorized >> Lsat essays

Lsat essays

Mar/Thu/2018 | Uncategorized





Writing an Explanatory Essay That Passes the Eye Roll Test - LSAT Blog

Lsat essays

Write My Essays Today -
The Only 3 LSAT Writing Sample Tips You ll Ever Need - LawSchooli

SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and lsat, Tips. The SAT Essay is scored separately from the rest of the SAT now, thanks to the changes that went into mfa creative writing, effect in March 2016. While the essay is now optional (you don't automatically have to lsat essays, take it every time you take the SAT), some colleges still require students to submit SAT essay scores with their applications. Learning how to consistently write a perfect SAT essay will be a huge boost to your application to these schools. In this article, we'll discuss what it takes to get a perfect 8/8/8 on the SAT essay and what you need to do to marriage private essay research, train yourself to get this top score. If you’re reading this, we’re assuming that you already have a basic understanding of the SAT essay. You know the standard format of how you should write an essay – introduction, evidence paragraph 1, evidence paragraph 2, (optional) evidence paragraph 3, conclusion. Lsat Essays? You know that you should state your thesis in the introduction. All of mfa creative writing programs, this will get you a 5/8 as long as you develop your points enough. Essays? If you aren’t fully aware of this, take a spin through our 15 SAT Essay tips to raise your essay score. But how do you push your essay to the next level?

That’s what this article is about. Rise Television Essay? feature image credit: NEW YORK 1970'S TRAILER PLATE 888-883 by lsat essays, Jerry Woody, used under CC BY-SA 2.0/Cropped from original. You’ll have to practice this. The perfect SAT essay is like a puzzle that happens to be in written form – it can be mastered, but to do it well and completely every time requires practice with a lot of sample topics. You need to learn the affair essay research format of an effective essay and how to fill out a complete essay within 50 minutes. What an SAT Essay Score of 8 Means. If you’re already scoring a 5 or above in all three areas on practice (or real) SAT essays, you have a shot at completely nailing what the graders want, represented by a score of 8/8/8, with a little practice. But there’s something important to remember in your question for essays perfection: on the SAT essay, an 8 in all categories is not always achievable. We’ve got good news and bad news for of reality television essay those of you who are determined to score an 8/8/8 on lsat, the SAT essay.

Good News and Bad News by Mike Licht, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from original. Because the whole essay task (reading, analyzing, planning, and writing) must be completed in 50 minutes, getting an 8 in Reading, Analysis, and Writing requires some luck. You have to read the rise article and analyze the way the author builds her/his argument, pick out the most important components to the argument, find evidence to support your interpretation, and plan out your essay before you can even start writing. Lsat Essays? A lot depends on how quickly you can come up with a thesis and relevant support for whatever the prompt happens to be – you might find some articles easier to read and analyze the argumentative structure of than others. You'll need to use precise language to writing online, show mastery of English writing. And because essays with perfect scores are almost always at least two pages long, you don't have any time to spare . If you fumble on lsat, any one of rise television, these aspects, the grader might not give your SAT essay an 8/8/8. Because the essay is lsat essays, so formulaic, it's always possible to get a reliable 6 across the board . Sometimes you might find the is a private essay research author's argument to analyze harder than others, or sometimes you might find the article more difficult to essays, get through, but you will always be able to impress them enough to rubrics for creative writing, get a 6/6/6. No college worth its salt is going to base your college admissions decision on getting those last two points on an essay you had 50 minutes to write (especially when the essay is optional). Lsat Essays? The goal, really, is to 550 word essay, show that you can write a decent essay in that time, and lsat, a 6/6/6 shows that just as well as an 8/8/8 does. But you should aim as high as you can, so keep reading to find out writing programs what it really takes to get a perfect score on the SAT essay.

The Difference Between a 6 and an 8. If we asked the College Board what the difference is essays, between a 6 and an 8 SAT essay, they would direct us to their scoring criteria below that describes the difference between the 3 and mfa creative writing online programs, 4 essays scores in Reading, Analysis, and essays, Writing (a total score of 8 comes from two readers separately giving your essay a 4 in each of those three areas). We’ve marked the differences between the 3 and 4 criteria in bold. The response demonstrates effective comprehension of the is a affair essay source text. Lsat? The response shows an understanding of the text’s central idea(s) and important details. The response is free of substantive errors of fact and interpretation with regard to the text.

The response makes appropriate use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating an understanding of the source text. The response demonstrates thorough comprehension of the source text. The response shows an understanding of the text’s central idea(s) and of most important details and how they interrelate, demonstrating a comprehensive understanding of the free writing course text. The response is free of errors of fact or interpretation with regard to the text. The response makes skillful use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating a complete understanding of the source text. A 3 essay demonstrates your understanding of the text’s central ideas, while a 4 essay also shows that you know what the details and examples in the text are and lsat essays, how they relate to the central idea . The response offers an effective analysis of the source text and demonstrates an understanding of the analytical task. Marriage Is A Private Affair? The response competently evaluates the author’s use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the student’s own choosing. The response contains relevant and sufficient support for lsat claim(s) or point(s) made.

The response focuses primarily on those features of the text that are most relevant to addressing the 550 word essay task. The response offers an insightful analysis of the source text and demonstrates a sophisticated understanding of the analytical task. The response offers a thorough, well-considered evaluation of the author’s use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and essays, persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the student’s own choosing. The response contains relevant, sufficient, and strategically chosen support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses consistently on those features of the text that are most relevant to addressing the task. The 4 essay delves into the structure of the marriage is a private affair research author’s argument more deeply. The writer not only states the techniques used in the text, but also thoroughly explains their impact on the reader. These explanations are backed up with evidence from the text that enhances the essays writer’s discussion of the structure of the text. The response is mostly cohesive and demonstrates effective use and control of language. The response includes a central claim or implicit controlling idea.

The response includes an effective introduction and rubrics for creative assignments, conclusion. The response demonstrates a clear progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay. The response has variety in lsat essays sentence structures. The response demonstrates some precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone.

The response shows a good control of the conventions of standard written English and of reality essay, is free of significant errors that detract from the quality of essays, writing. Online Programs? The response is cohesive and essays, demonstrates a highly effective use and command of language. The response includes a precise central claim. The response includes a skillful introduction and rubrics for creative, conclusion. Lsat? The response demonstrates a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay essay. The response has a wide variety in sentence structures. The response demonstrates a consistent use of precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone.

The response shows a strong command of the essays conventions of standard written English and is free or virtually free of errors . The 4 essay is written extremely well , whereas the 3 essay is written fairly well. In addition, the 4 essay is organized in a way that positively influences the impact of the writer’s argument, while the 3 is 550 word essay, just organized clearly. Let’s condense the information above. A perfect 4 essay : is extremely clear is consistent, smooth, and easy to lsat, read has few errors is not repetitive in writing content or language is sufficiently detailed (using evidence from the text) to fully support the writer’s thesis demonstrates that you understand the essays text and the author’s claim(s) In other words, you need to excel in every one of these aspects to get a perfect score. Now we’ll look at a sample 8/8/8 SAT essay, and online, make note of how it fits the lsat criteria above. The prompt (taken from The Official SAT Study Guide ) for the sample essay is of reality television, as follows: Write an essay in which you explain how Peter S. Goodman builds an argument to persuade his audience that news organizations should increase the amount of professional foreign news coverage provided to people in the United States. In your essay, analyze how Goodman uses one or more of the features listed in the box above (or features of your own choice) to strengthen the logic and persuasiveness of essays, his argument. Be sure that your analysis focuses on the most relevant features of the rubrics passage.

The passage to which this prompt refers appears on pp. 183-185 of The Official SAT Study Guide (March 2016 Beyond) , or on essays, slightly different pages in later editions. You'll need the passage to follow along with the sample essay below. Here’s the essay. Read it first, and we’ll have annotations below. In the article “Foreign News at a Crisis Point,” Peter S. Goodman eloquently argues the ‘point’ that news organizations should increase the amount of professional foreign news coverage provided to people in the United States. Goodman builds his argument by using facts and evidence, addressing the counterarguments, and couching it all in 550 word essay persuasive and compelling language. Lsat? Goodman begins the article by bombarding the reader with facts and statistics. He states that, according to mfa creative writing online programs, a census conducted by the American Journalism Review, the number of full-time foreign news correspondents in the United States dropped from 307 in 2003 to lsat, 234 in 2011.

In addition, the essay AJR survey also discovered that “the space devoted to foreign news [in American papers] had shrunk by 53 percent” in the last 25 years. Beginning the article with all of these facts and figures has a couple of strengtheing effects on Goodman’s argument. First, by starting out with hard evidence, Goodman lays the lsat essays groundwork of course, his own credibility. He’s not just writing an opinion piece – his opinion is backed by the truth. This will bring the readers onboard and lsat essays, make them more likely to trust everything else he says. Second, because Goodman presents these facts without much explaining/interpreting, the reader is forced to writing programs, do the math herself. This engaging of the reader’s mind also ensures that Goodman has the essays reader’s attention. Grant? When the reader does the math to find a drop of 73 full-time foreign news correspondents employed by US papers in just 8 short years, she will find herself predisposed to agree with Goodman’s call for more professional foreign news reporting.

In addition to employing facts to his argument’s advantage, Goodman also cunningly discusses the essays counterargument to his position. By writing about how social media and man-on-the-ground reporting has had some positive impact on the state of foreign news reporting, Goodman heads off naysayers at the pass. It would have been very easy for Goodman to elide over the whole issue of citizen reporting, but the resultant one-sided argument would have been much less convincing. Instead, Goodman acknowledges things like “the force of social media during the Arab Spring, as activists convened and reacted to course, changing circumstances.” As a result, when he partially refutes this counterargument, stating the “unease” many longtime profession correspondents feel over the trend of ‘citizen journalism’ feel, the reader is much more likely to essays, believe him. After all, Goodman acknowledges that social media does have some power. 550 Word Essay? Knowing that Goodman takes the power of social media seriously will make the reader more inclined, in turn, to take Goodman’s concern about the limits of social media seriously. The final piece that helps bolster Goodman’s argument that US news organizations should have more professional foreign correspondents is Goodman’s linguistic + stylistic choices. Goodman uses contrasts to draw the lsat essays reader deeper into affair, his mindset.

By setting up the contrast between professional reporters as “informational filters” that discriminate good from bad and lsat, amateur, man-on-the-spot reporters as undiscriminating “funnels,” Goodman forces the reader to affair research, view the two in opposition and admit that professional filters are to be preferred over funnels that add “speculatio, propaganda, and other white noise” to their reporting. In addition, Goodman drives the reader along toward agreeing with his conclusion in the penultimate paragraph of the article with the repetition of the lsat essays phrase “We need.” With every repetition, Goodman hammers even further home the inescapable rightness of his argument. The use of “We” more generally through the grant classes online article serves to make the lsat essays readers feel sympathetic towards Goodman and identify with him. By employing the rhetorical techniques of course, presenting facts, acknowledging the other side, and using persuasive language, Goodman convinces the reader of his claim. Here are our notes on what stands out in this essay (general comments are in lsat purple, spelling/grammar errors are highlighted in yellow): Note that not every 8/8/8 essay needs to have exactly the same items in here, nor do you need to argue in exactly the same way.

But the elements in this essay make it a standout and demonstrate clear mastery. Mfa Creative? And now for the million-dollar question: What Makes This SAT Essay an 8 Rather Than a 6? Maybe you get the lsat essays theory behind what makes an essay an 8/8/8, but what about in practice? Read on to find out what distinguishes this particular SAT essay as a perfect 8 in Reading, Analysis, and Writing. SAT graders are big on clarity, and clarity requires precise language and affair, obvious, sound logic. In this essay, vivid language is used effectively and essays, appropriately: Goodman is described as bombarding the reader with facts and figures The writer describes Goodman as arguing his point using not just language but persuasive and compelling language : The effect of Goodman’s argument is not just that it convinces the reader, but that the reader…will find herself predisposed to agree with Goodman’s call for more professional foreign news reporting. All of this clear and precise language helps support and explain the author's point (just as Goodman’s language supports his point in the text!) Effective Analysis and 550 word essay, Organization. The writer's clarity extends to her logic as well. Sufficient background is given to make it clear the writer read and understood the text. The examples used are clear and logically connected within paragraphs. The writer also makes sure to identify the what/why/what of the author's argumentative devices: What are the lsat essays techniques the author used to persuade the reader of his claim? Why did the author use them?

What effect does their use have on the reader? The organization of the essay follows the organization set out in marriage affair the introduction: the writer first discusses facts and lsat, evidence, then the presentation and refutation of a counterargument, then compelling language. Organization in 550 word essay the essay is lsat essays, aided by transitions between all paragraphs, which create a smooth, consistent argument that is easy to follow. The clarity of the argument and the lack of errors remain consistent from free writing course, start to finish. The highlighted errors are few and do not detract or distract from the meaning of the essay. The wording of the thesis statement in the introduction and the conclusion is lsat, similar but not identical, and the description of how Goodman builds his argument is the same. Grant Classes Online? Dos piezas by Raul Hernandez Gonzalez, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from original. The author uses a variety of words (marked in blue) and sentence structures to lsat, convey similar ideas in different ways throughout the essay.

For instance, social media , man-on-the-ground (or man-on-the-spot ) reporting , citizen journalism , and amateur reporting are all different words and phrases used to describe the same phenomenon of non-professional foreign news correspondents. Another example of this can be found in Paragraph 4. “Knowing that Goodman takes the power of social media seriously will make the marriage private essay research reader more inclined…” could easily be the simpler “Goodman takes the power of social media seriously, which makes the reader more likely to agree…” This kind of essays, linguistic flourish can be found in most top-scoring SAT Essays. Note that this usage is effective, and SAT vocab words aren't thrown into the essay haphazardly - it's clear, effective writing like what you might read in television the New York Times. The essay is long enough to detail 3 complex examples (discussing Goodman’s use of facts and evidence, a counterargument, and vivid language) and include introductory and concluding paragraphs. With the updates to the essay rubric, College Board made it explicit that your essay should have an introduction and conclusion. In The Official SAT Study Guide (March 2016 Beyond) , they also make it clear that shorter essays will receive lower Writing scores (because if you don't write more than a couple of paragraphs, there's not enough writing by essays, which essay graders can accurately judge your writing abilities). But length means nothing if there isn't valuable information filling the space, so long SAT essays also need to be detailed—this author uses the space to give lots of context for writing course her examples. Dos and Don’ts for an 8/8/8 SAT Essay. The key for a perfect score on the SAT essay is to use your time wisely and stay focused on the task. To help you do this, we've compiled tips for things to do (and things to avoid). Writing as much as you can without including repetitive or irrelevant information.

Revising the lsat first and last paragraphs (they stand out in readers’ minds). Making sure you have effective transitions for a seamless essay. Explaining the persuasive effect the is a affair research author’s argumentative techniques have on the reader. Thinking of “smart-sounding evidence – analysis of how the essays author used a personal anecdote is just as viable as a discussion of the author’s use of logos and other rhetorical strategies. Trying to writing classes, correct every single error – the lsat essays grammar and the spelling do not have to be perfect to score an 8 in Writing. This doesn't mean that you should just leave sentence fragments all over private research, the place, but it does mean that accidentally leaving off the lsat essays last letter of marriage is a private essay research, a word or making a small subject/verb agreement error won't be the end of the essays world (or of your perfect SAT essay score). Spend the extra time trying to write more and develop your points. Adding as many vocabulary words as you can – you do need some stylistic flourishes, as noted above, but you shouldn’t overdo it, or your writing will sound clunky.

How to Train to Improve Your SAT Essay Score. As I mentioned above, most anyone can train to online, reliably get a 6 on all sections of the essay, and many can move beyond that to consistently get 8/6/6, 6/6/8, or 8/8/8. Here’s a framework for how to do this: Read through our complete list of SAT essay prompts Memorize a list of essays, persuasive techniques that you can find in online most essay prompt articles Start by practicing with extended length time (80 minutes) so you can feel what it takes to get a top-scoring essay. Lsat Essays? If you’re struggling, you can also split up the different parts of the essay task for practice. For instance, you can practice reading and free writing, analyzing articles separately from writing the essay. Lsat? Find a way to online programs, grade your essay. If you can be objective about your writing , you can notice weak spots, especially if you ran out of time but know what to do (and it'll be good practice for analyzing the passage on the essay!). Otherwise, try to get help from an English teacher or a friend who’s a better writer. Start narrowing the time down to 50 minutes to essays, mirror the actual test.

Looking for a great way to prep? Check out PrepScholar's online prep program. It customizes your prep program to your strengths and 550 word essay, weaknesses so you get the most effective prep possible. Even better, we give detailed essay feedback from a leading SAT instructor. You'll get point-by-point comments on where you're falling short, and how to improve your weak spots to jump up in SAT essay score. Click below to sign up for our 5-day free trial. Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on lsat essays, how to excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on social media.

You'll get updates on grant writing classes, our latest articles right on essays, your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to 550 word essay, Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of lsat essays, other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep?

Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the latest articles and test prep tips! © PrepScholar 2013-2015. All rights reserved. SAT® is a registered trademark of the rise College Entrance Examination Board TM . Lsat Essays? The College Entrance Examination. Board TM does not endorse, nor is it affiliated in any way with the 550 word essay owner or any content of this site.

Write My Essay : 100% Original Content -
Essay Writing Guide - LSAT Center Free Prep Course

nyu ocs resume New York NY 10025 USA. Adapted for mobile devices 4 April 2015 . Supplement: Grosch Computer: Bit Slices from a Life by Dr. Herb Grosch (2003), 500+ pages, including several chapters on IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at lsat Columbia University in the 1940s and 50s. [ Also available in PDF ] Supplement: Brennan The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University - A History by grant writing classes, Jean Ford Brennan (1971). 76 pages, 25 photos. The history of IBM-sponsored computing research and laboratories at Columbia University, 1928 though 1970. Supplement: Hankam Homeward Bound , the memoir of lsat essays computing education pioneer Eric Hankam, including his escape from Nazi Europe, his time at IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University, and his continuing adventures.

Supplement: Krawitz The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory by Eleanor Krawitz, Columbia Engineering Quarterly, November 1949. If you came here looking for the history of the Kermit protocol, Kermit software, or the Kermit Project, you can find some of it below in the 1980-82 timeframe, and writing, a bit more HERE. Plus some 2012 oral history transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and lsat essays, HERE. Who am I and mfa creative writing online, why did I write this? People popped into my office all the time to ask when did such-and-such happen? the lsat first e-mail, the of reality first typesetting, the first networking, the lsat essays first PC lab, the affair research first hacker breakins, etc -- since I was there for essays most of it.

So I took some time and wrote it down, and in so doing became fascinated with the earlier history. I was a user of the Columbia Computer Center from 1967 until 1977 in my various jobs and rubrics for creative, as a Columbia student, and I was on staff from lsat essays 1974 until 2011. 550 Word Essay! Brief bio: After some early programming experience in the Army (mid-1960s), the Engineering School and Physics Dept (late 1960s, early 70s), and Mount Sinai Hospital (early 70s), I came to work at the Computer Center Systems Group in 1974, hired by its manager Howard Eskin out of his graduate Computer Science classes. Lsat! After a year of OS/360 programming, I was manager of the PDP-11/50 and the DEC-20s (first e-mail, early networking, the first campuswide academic timesharing), then manager of free Systems Integration (first microcomputers, PCs, Kermit), principal investigator of the Hermit distributed computing research project, then manager of Network Planning for the University and chair of the University-wide Network Planning Group, before retiring to the Kermit Project, which had less (well, zero) meetings and essays, way more fun. I was laid off from Columbia in 2011 but still have access to of reality television essay this website. (Note: the Columbia Kermit Project website was cancelled and its website frozen July 1, 2011; the new Open Source Kermit Project website is HERE.) Obviously this is written from my perspective; others might have different recollections or views. In particular, at least after 1963, this turns out to lsat essays be more a history of centralized academic computing, rather than all computing, at Columbia, giving short shrift to the departments, administrative computing, the libraries, and the outlying campuses; a more complete history needs these perspectives too. I've made every attempt to writing course check the facts; any remaining errors are mine -- please feel free to point them out. Computers are value-neutral tools that can be used for good or evil, and it is essays, clear that from the very beginning they have been used for both. This document does not aim to extol the virtues of computers in general, nor of any particular company that makes them, but only to chronicle their use at Columbia University. Former Columbia Computer Center Directors Ken King (1963-71), Jessica Gordon (1971-73), Bruce Gilchrist (1973-85), Howard Eskin (1985-86), Va#x00e7;e Kundakc#x0131; (1989-2005).

Columbia Computer Center (Academic, current and former) Bob Resnikoff, Walter Bourne, Maurice Matiz, Joe Brennan, Rob Cartolano, Joel Rosenblatt, George Giraldi, Christine Gianone, Terry Thompson, Kristine Kavanaugh, Peter Kaiser (1967-69), Mike Radow (1960s), Elliott Frank (1968-70), Andy Koenig (1960s-70s), Janet Asteroff (1980s), Steve Jensen (1980s), Tom De Bellis (1980s). Columbia Computer Center (Administrative/Operations, current and former) Nuala Hallinan, Stew Feuerstein, Joe Sulsona (1957-2001), Raphael Ramirez (1968-199?), Alan Rice (1960s), Peter Humanik, Ben García. US Naval Observatory Kenneth Seidelman (former Director of Astronomy), George Kaplan (former acting chief, Nautical Almanac Office), Brenda G. Corbin (Librarian). IBM Paul Lasewicz and Dawn Stanford (IBM Archive), Peter Capek (CU 1965-69, now at IBM Watson Laboratory), Gary Eheman, Keith Williams. The Parnassus Club Nuala Hallinan plus former residents Barbara L. Bryan and Rosalinde Weiman, plus several others who wish to remain anonymous. And.

Simon Rackham for course the 1968 computer movie, Ruth Dayhoff (Director of essays Medical Digital Imaging, US Dept of Veterans Affairs), Ed Reinhart (Formerly of RAND Corp, JPL, and Comsat), Mary Louise McKee (NORC programmer, US Naval Proving Ground Dahlgren VA), George Trimble (Aberdeen Proving Ground, IBM), John C Alrich (Burroughs/ElectroData), Loren Wilton (Burroughs/Unisys), Ellen Alers (Smithsonian Institution), Garry Tee (Dept of Math, University of Auckland NZ), Allan Olley (University of Toronto), Charlotte Moseley (formerly of the writing online County of San Diego Data Processing Center), Pnina Stern (formerly Pnina Grinberg of BASR), Annette Lopes (CU Associate Registrar, then Associate Director of Student Services, now [2011] Executive Director, Human Resources, Finance and Administration); Jocelyn Wilk, Steve Urgola, and lsat essays, Mae Pan (Columbia University Archives and Columbiana); Bill Santini (CU Student Services). I was inspired by Bruce Gilchrist's Forty Years of Computing article from 1981 [3] (so that makes it sixty seventy 75 years!) Special thanks to rise television essay Bruce Gilchrist and essays, Nuala Hallinan, each of whom contributed valuable archive material and considerable time, effort, and miles to this project; to Herb Grosch for his awesome book as well as tons of writing new information, corrections, insights, anecdotes, and artifacts; to essays Eric Hankam for the loan of his personal archive of photos and materials, his autobiography, and a wealth of Watson Lab recollections; to Charlotte Moseley for essay preserving and contributing a large number of old IBM manuals; and to lsat Bob Resnikoff who unearthed his long-lost cache of 1980 machine-room and MSS photos. Herb, in particular, was involved in this project on a daily basis since he first happened upon it in May 2003 until shortly before his death at marriage affair research 91 in January 2010. Lsat! Herb remembered everything . And thanks to the editors of IEEE Annals of the History of Computing for an announcement and abstract of 550 word essay this site in their April-June 2002 issue, and for lsat announcing the online version of 550 word essay Herb Grosch's book in the July-September 2003 issue. Please report any broken links directly to the author. A case can be made that the computer industry got its start at Columbia University in the late 1920s and early 1930s when Professors Wood and Eckert, to advance their respective sciences, began to send designs and specifications for lsat computing machines to mfa creative writing IBM Corporation, which until then had been a maker of punched-card tabulating machines for lsat the business market.

From those days through the 1980s, the writing online relationship of essays Columbia with companies like IBM was symbiotic and rubrics for creative assignments, fruitful (and continues on lsat essays a smaller scale to this day, mainly in private research the Physics department with the construction of massively parallel supercomputers -- who else would know how to connect 512 processors in a 6-dimension mesh with the lsat topology of a torus?) IBM Corporation itself was the child of Columbian Herman Hollerith . The early days of invention and innovation are past. Computers and networks are now well established in the daily lives of vast numbers of people in many nations, and grant classes online, certainly at Columbia University. Today's computers are off-the-shelf mass-market consumer appliances, which was perhaps inevitable and is no doubt a good thing in some ways. How this came about is a story told elsewhere but as you'll see below, some important parts of it happened right here. The story of computing at lsat Columbia is is a affair essay, presented chronologically. Most links are to local documents, and therefore will work as long as all the files accompanying this document are kept together. There are also a few relatively unimportant external links, which are bound to go bad sooner or later -- such is the Web. 1754-1897: Columbia University was established by essays, King George II of grant writing classes England in 1754 in downtown Manhattan near what is essays, now City Hall. The campus moved to 49th Street and Madison Avenue in 1857, and from there to of reality essay its present site at 116th Street and Broadway in lsat 1897 (HUMOR). 1879-1924: In 1879, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) received his Engineer of Mines (EM) degree from the writing course Columbia University School of essays Mines [48].

After graduation he stayed on as an assistant to one of his professors, W.P. Trowbridge, who later went on to what was to become the US Census Bureau and rubrics writing assignments, took Hollerith with him. This led to Hollerith's development of the modern standard punch card and the tabulating machine and sorter that were used to lsat process the 1890 Census [40]. Hollerith wrote up his invention and submitted it to the Columbia School of marriage private affair Mines, which granted him a PhD in 1890 [48]. Essays! Hollerith's name is rise television essay, synonymous with the advent of automatic computing ; until about 1940, punched-card calculators, tabulators, and lsat, so on were commonly called Hollerith machines, even when they were made by other companies.

1896: Herman Hollerith founds the rise essay Tabulating Machine Company , which was to become (through various mergers and renamings) the International Business Machines company, IBM . 1900-1920: Prof. Lsat Essays! Harold Jacoby, Chair of the Astronomy Department, in a memo dated 4 December 1909, refers to Miss Harpham (our chief computer) [28]. Computer was an actual job title in those days, referring to someone whose job was to compute -- usually tables from formulas -- by rise essay, hand or using a mechanical calculator (more about this in Herb Grosch's Computer, Bit Slices of a Life , e.g. on page 4). The 1917-18 Columbia University Bulletin, Division of lsat essays Mathematical and Physical Sciences, in the Equipment section, lists five computing machines without further detail (you can find a list of possible candidates at the University of rubrics assignments Amsterdam Computing Museum). Apropos of lsat essays nothing, professor Jacoby was a graduate of the Columbia class of 1885, and organized a gift from mfa creative writing programs that class to the University: the Vermont granite ball that was mounted on lsat the Sundial on 116th Street (now College Walk) from programs 1914 to essays 1946, and now sits in the middle of a field in Michigan [54]. Jacoby died in 1932; Wallace Eckert (about whom much more below) wrote his obituary in 550 word essay Popular Astronomy . 1906: Hollerith brings his Type I Tabulator to market, the first with automatic card feed and the first such device that is programmable via a plugboard. 16 June 1911: The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, CTR, is founded by the merger of Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company with several others.

This company was to change its name to lsat essays the International Business Machines Company (IBM) in 1924. IBM celebrated its 100th anniversary on 16 June 2011. [ Top ] 1924-26: The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and Millionaire calculators (the latter was the first device to perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and statistical tables. Prof. Robert E. Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in grant writing online charge. Lsat Essays! The Astronomy department (Prof. H. Jacoby) still has the five computing machines [5]. CLICK HERE for a gallery of late-1920s computing machines. CLICK HERE for a 1926 aerial view of Columbia University.

CLICK HERE for a 1925 Columbia University map. 1926: Wallace Eckert (1902-1971) joins Columbia's Astronomy faculty, specializing in celestial mechanics and free, most especially the moon. In pursuit of these interests, Eckert is to lsat become a true computer pioneer. 1928: Benjamin Wood (1894-1986), head of the course University Bureau of lsat essays Collegiate Educational Research [5], proposes to Thomas J. Watson Sr., president of IBM, a method for automated scoring of examination papers in large-scale testing programs (which previously involved acres of writing online girls trying to tabulate . test results [45]). After some discussion, Watson sent three truckloads of tabulating, card-punching, sorting, and lsat essays, accessory equipment to the basement of Hamilton Hall [9,40]. 1928: Meanwhile in England, L.J. Comrie (1893-1950), Superintendant of H.M. Nautical Almanac Office, begins a project to calculate future positions of the moon using punched cards, a sorter, a tabulator, and a duplicating punch, in free what is probably the lsat first use of these machines for scientific calculation [72]. This work would shortly inspire Columbia's Wallace Eckert to take the next historic step: automating these calculations. As we will see, much of the impetus towards automated scientific computation (and therefore modern computers) came from astronomers, and its primary application was in navigation.

The same impetus brought us accurate, portable timepieces in the previous century. 1928: Columbia's medical school, the College of Physicians and Surgeons, moves from 10th Avenue and 55th-60th Streets to Washington Heights between Broadway and Fort Washington Avenue, 165th-168th Streets, the writing online former site of Hilltop Park (1903-1912), the baseball stadium of the New York Yankees (known as the New York Highlanders until 1912). Jun 1929: Prof. Lsat Essays! Wood's operation became the Columbia University Statistical Bureau (PHOTOS). In addition to rubrics writing tabulating test results, it served as a computer center for other academic departments, particularly the essays Dept of Astronomy, which used the equipment for interpolating astronomical tables [9,40]. 1930-31: Previously, Professor Wood had convinced Watson to build special Difference Tabulators , which IBM called Columbia machines and delivered in 1930-31.

These machines could process 150 cards per minute and were unique in their ability to rapidly accumulate sums of products or squares [9]. The Statistical Bureau soon became a service provider to outside organizations like the Rockefeller and Carnegie Foundations, Yale, Harvard, and Princeton [9]. ( So how much did we charge? :-) 1931: Walter S. Lemmon, a Columbia University Electrical Engineering graduate and president of the Radio Industries Corporation, demonstrated the first working Radiotype machine , an mfa creative online programs, electric typewriter coupled with radio transmitting and receiving apparatus. Thomas J. Watson's contacts at lsat essays Columbia put him in touch with Lemmon and IBM hired him. The Radiotype, originally intended for business applications, is adopted by the US Army Signal Corps for wartime use, allowing radio transmissions without manual transcription to and from Morse code. Before the war was over, Radiotype machines had been outfitted with encryption equipment to provide almost instant transmission and receipt of secure messages [40]. 1933: In recognition of his interest in Columbia University and his large equipment donations, IBM Chairman Thomas J. Watson is appointed Columbia Trustee. In return, Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler is rise essay, appointed to IBM's Board of Directors [90]. 1933-34: Prof. Wallace J. Eckert (PHOTOS AND BIOGRAPHY) of the Astronomy Department, a user of the Statistical Bureau, proposed modifications to IBM machines for essays advanced astronomical calculations, and within a few weeks the machines, including an IBM 601 Multiplying Punch (modified to Eckert's specifications under the supervision of IBM's G.W.

Baehne [82] and mfa creative writing programs, dubbed the Astronomical Calculator [81]) were delivered to lsat essays the Rutherford Observatory in course the attic of Pupin Hall. Until 1937 (q.v.) this facility was variously known as the Rutherford Laboratory, the Astronomical Laboratory, and the Hollerith Computing Bureau (the minutes of the 61st meeting of the American Astronomical Society, 29-30 Dec 1938, refer to a visit to essays the Hollerith Computing Bureau, where vast computing projects are being carried out under the grant classes Direction of Dr. Eckert). Essays! It was the first permanent IBM installation in the world to do scientific work (Comrie's Greenwich setup had not been permanent). For his work, Eckert designed a control system based on plugboards and rotating drums to interconnect the new equipment, eventually incorporating methods to solve differential equations by numerical integration [9]. Writing! The Astronomical Laboratory was the first to perform general scientific calculations automatically [30]. In late 1933, Eckert presented a paper on this work to the American Astronomical Society. Later, IBM would say, Among its scientific accomplishments, Columbia can boast of having pioneered . the use of lsat essays automatic computing machines for research work [37]. A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of grant writing this work was the new ability to feed the result of lsat essays one computation into the next and rubrics writing assignments, print the results of these calculations directly, thus eliminating the transcription errors that were common in astronomical and lunar tables [17]. To illustrate with a 1946 quote from Kay Antonelli, University of Pennsylvania, referring to her wartime work [34], We did have desk calculators at that time, mechanical and driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. You'd do a multiplication and when the lsat answer appeared, you had to write it down to reenter it into the machine to do the rise of reality television essay next calculation.

We were preparing a firing table for each gun, with maybe 1,800 simple trajectories. To hand-compute just one of these trajectories took 30 or 40 hours of sitting at a desk with paper and lsat, a calculator. Imagine the effect of a transcription error early in the 30-40 hour procedure. 1934-37: Ben Wood and his Statistical Bureau work with IBM to grant online develop mark-sense technology to improve the lsat essays efficiency of processing standardized tests [9]. Assignments! The result was the IBM 805 International Test Scoring Machine, marketed beginning in 1937 [38]. Dr. Wood is remembered at Columbia through the Ben D. Wood Graduate Fellowships in lsat Learning Technologies, and at the Educational Testing Service, which dedicated its largest building to him in 1965. 1935: Practical Applications of the free writing Punched Card Method in Colleges and lsat, Universities , edited by George W. Baehne of IBM, published by Columbia University Press; hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures.

Contains articles by programs, Ben Wood and Wallace Eckert, among many others. Most of the applications described are straighforward tabulating and bookkeeping operations; Eckert's is the exception. CLICK HERE for a more detailed discussion of lsat essays this book. 1936: Wallace Eckert hires Lillian Feinstein [Hausman] as computing lab manager, placing her at or very near the writing classes online head of the class of Women Pioneers of Computing [100]. In Eckert's Lab, she programmed and performed scientific computations on the 601, 285, and other machines. Essays! She stayed with Eckert until 1948, on loan for a time to the US Naval Observatory [88], and then from 1945 on the Watson Lab technical staff. In the early Watson Lab days she (and others such as Eric Hankam) trained computing newcomers such as John Backus and Ted Codd. From the early Astronomical Lab equipment, she moved on to the 602 (and 602-A), 604, the private essay research Aberdeen Relay Calculators, and the SSEC, and when Columbia began to hold academic computing courses in 1946, she ran Grosch's Engineering 281 Numerical Methods lab sessions.

Much more about Lillian in lsat Herb Grosch's book COMPUTER [88] (in which Herb refers to her as the senior full-time scientific punched card expert in the whole world in rise television 1946). Other Women Pioneers of Computing at Columbia include 1940s-era Watson Lab members Marjorie Severy [Herrick], Rebecca Jones, and Eleanor Krawitz [Kolchin]. Grace Hopper, though by no means a Columbian, was present at the inaugural meeting of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), held at lsat Columbia in 1947. The roster of Watson Lab technical staff (1945-70) is essay, listed in Brennan [88]. Out of lsat essays 207 professional staff members, 35 are definitely women. Many more are listed with only initials; some others by Romanized Chinese name (which generally does not indicate gender).

But at least 17% of the technical staff were women, which isn't bad for the postwar years, in which women were discouraged from mfa creative working (or worse, laid off from their wartime jobs). 1937: Professor Eckert's astronomical lab in essays Pupin Hall's Rutherford Observatory becomes the Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau (PHOTO), jointly sponsored by IBM, the online programs American Astronomical Society, and the Columbia Department of Astronomy [3,9,86], to serve as a resource for the entire world astronomical community [38], making it the world's first center for scientific computation [84]. The initial equipment of the essays Bureau consists of essay research that which has been used by lsat essays, the Department of Astronomy at Columbia University during the past few years . modified to for creative writing assignments make them more efficient for scientific work . subtraction tabulator with summary card punch, cross-footing multiplying punch, interpreter, sorter, high-speed reproducer, key punches, and verifier. Some possibiliies of the machines can be gained from the lsat essays program now in progress. This consists primarily of (1) numerical integration of the equations of planetary motion; (2) complete checking of the lunar theory; (3) computation of precession and free writing, rectangular co-ordinates for essays the Yale University Zone Catalogues ; (4) the photometric program of the Rutherford Observatory; and (5) problems of stellar statistics. Writing Classes Online! [86]. Users of the Bureau were charged only for labor and materials (a tremendous bargain, since the equipment was donated). The Astronomical Computing Bureau would serve as a model for many of the wartime computing centers, such as those at Los Alamos, the essays Naval Observatory, and rubrics for creative writing assignments, the Aberdeen Proving Grounds [30,90]. 1938-40: In 1938, Soviet astronomer Boris Numerov visits Eckert's lab to learn how punched card equipment might be applied to lsat stellar research in his own lab at St. Petersburg University in Moscow. Numerov, Boris Vasilyevich: The website of the free course Tosno Museum of Local History and Tradition (Leningrad Region) says (as of 12 Sep 2003) An exhibit section is lsat essays, devoted to Boris Numerov (1891-1941) - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and rise essay, geophysicist, a creator of various astronomic instruments and lsat essays, means of minerals exploring. His family has lived in the town of is a private research Lyuban' not far from Tosno since 1922.

In the times of Stalinist repressions Boris Numerov was arrested and executed in 1941. In 1957 he was rehabilitated. Numerov is known today for the various algorithms and methods that bear his name. In June 1940, a letter arrives for Eckert from V.N. Lsat Essays! Riazankin on behalf of the writing online Astronomical Institute of the lsat essays USSR Academy of the Sciences, asking to visit Eckert's Lab. Jan Schilt, now in charge of the Lab, forwards it to Eckert in writing Washington. In August 1940, I.S. Essays! Stepanov of the Amtorg Trading Company writes to Eckert asking why he didn't answer Riazinkin's letter. Here's the private essay research final paragraph of Eckert's reply (cc'd to Schilt): May I take the opportunity to state that one of your eminent scientists, the late Dr.

Numerov, corresponded with me several years ago concerning this very problem [machine construction of astronomical tables for navigation] . It was his intention to secure a similar installation, and had one in operation. I sincerely hope that his interest in my machines was not construed by his government as treason, and essays, that Mr. Riazankin will not meet the same fate as Dr. Numerov. [88]. Schilt writes to Eckert from Columbia on August 9th: Concerning the letter of Mr. Stepanov I am shivering a little bit. Your reply to him is extremely strong and clear, so much so that I would not be surprised if I wouldn't hear from them at all, and frankly I just soon would not . if there is any danger that [the machine] room may prove a death trap to Russian scientists I think I am in favor of not talking to these people. [88]. (Note: the correspondence places Numerov's death prior to 1941.) According to David Alan Grier [46], the Amtorg Trading Company was a spy agency; the proposed visit from rubrics for creative writing Riazinkin, which never actually took place, is thought to have been an attempted first case of computer espionage [45]. In fact, Amtorg was not just a front; it handled the bulk of Soviet-American trade for essays many years, but it was also an ideal spot for writing assignments the placement of spies.

Was Riazankin a spy? We'll never know. In any case he was never heard from again. Herb Grosch reports that Soviet astronomers continued to pay occasional visits to essays Watson Lab after the War, e.g. in connection with taking over production of the annual Kleine Planeten listing of asteroid positions from Watson Lab, which did the work in 1946 after the German Astronomisches Rechen-Institut was destroyed in the War. Fall 1938: Howard Aiken, a Harvard graduate student who was working on plans for a machine to solve differential equations as part of his thesis, visits Professor Eckert's Lab; IBM engineer Clair D. Lake (who built Eckert's switch box) is also present. Eckert demonstrates the capabilities of his setup and suggests that he try to interest IBM in the project [9]. For Creative Writing Assignments! A year later IBM agreed to develop and construct the machine, an electro-mechanical device called the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, ASCC (PHOTO), the lsat essays first automated general-purpose (but not electronic or stored-program) computer. The ASCC was built by Lake and grant classes online, his staff at IBM's Endicott NY facility and presented in 1944 to Harvard, where it did war work, and lsat, eventually became known as the Harvard Mark 1 [9]. The Mark 1 was soon outpaced by IBM's Aberdeen Relay Calculator (also built by writing, Lake) and later the US Army's ENIAC, the first electronic automatic general-purpose (but still not stored-program) computer. Jan 1939: Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Walter Zinn, Herbert Anderson, and others begin work on nuclear fission in Columbia's Pupin Hall.

Within a few months this work would become the Manhattan Project , funded by President Roosevelt (Columbia Law, 1905-07) in response to Albert Einstein's letter warning of Nazi research in this area. Essays! After Pearl Harbor, the grant writing project moved to the University of Chicago (supposedly to make it less vulnerable to essays German attack) and spread to the University of California, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and of reality essay, other locations. Fermi's lab was in the same building as Professor Eckert's Astronomical Computing Bureau. I don't know to lsat what degree, if any, Eckert's computing machines were employed in the early Manhattan Project, but as noted below they played a key role in 1945 in for creative writing assignments the final preparations for the first A-bombs [57]. A number of lsat other Columbia scientists worked on the project, including I.I. 550 Word Essay! Rabi, Edward Teller, John Dunning (who identified U-235 as the essays fissionable uranium isotope using the Pupin cyclotron in Feb 1940), Harold Urey (who later left the project on moral grounds), and George Pegram (who assembled the mfa creative programs original Manhattan Project team), as well as junior faculty who would later become well-known physicists, such as C.S. Wu and Bill Havens (both of essays whom I worked for in my student days), James Rainwater, Eugene Booth, and Richard Present. The following is taken from a narrative, Evolving from Calculators to Computers on the Los Alamos National Laboratory History website (May 2003):

Calculations at Los Alamos were originally done on manually operated mechanical calculators, which was not only laborious and time-consuming, but the machines broke down frequently under heavy use. Writing Course! The only one who could fix them promptly was Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in Physics, 1965), which some thought was not the best use of his time. Dana Mitchell, whom Laboratory Director J. Robert Oppenheimer had recruited from lsat Columbia University to oversee procurement for writing online Los Alamos, recognized that the calculators were not adequate for the heavy computational chores and suggested the use of IBM punched-card machines. He had seen them used successfully by Wallace Eckert at Columbia to calculate the orbits of planets and persuaded [Stanley] Frankel and lsat, [Eldred] Nelson to order a complement of them. The new IBM punched-card machines were devoted to calculations to simulate implosion, and Metropolis and Feynman organized a race between them and 550 word essay, the hand-computing group. 'We set up a room with girls in lsat essays it. Each one had a Marchant.

But one was the multiplier, and another was the private affair essay adder, and this one cubed, and all she did was cube this number and send it to the next one,' said Feynmann. For one day, the hand computers kept up: 'The only difference was that the lsat IBM machines didn't get tired and could work three shifts. But the grant writing online girls got tired after a while.' May 1939: Columbia University's Baker Field (at 215th Street in essays upper Manhattan) was the site of the nation's first televised sports event , a baseball game between Columbia and online, Princeton universities, May 17, 1939, broadcast by NBC. (The first televised sports event in the world was the 1936 Olympics in Berlin.) [ Top ] 1940: Prof. Lsat Essays! Eckert publishes Punched Card Methods in Scientific Calculation [50], the for creative writing assignments first computer book . Lsat! The book . covers nearly a decade of work by 550 word essay, W.J. Eckert on astronomical calculations by machine processes. Based on essays firsthand experience, it describes a gamut of large calculations that could best be carried out by machines able to process numbers in machine-readable form. These calculations include the construction of mathematical tables, the numerical integration of differential equations, numerical harmonic analysis and synthesis, and the solution of simultaneous equations. Marriage Essay Research! . Often known as the 'Orange Book' on account of the vividly colored covers of its original printing, Eckert's book was the bible of many workers engaged in punched card computing at the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University and lsat, elsewhere. . The process of carrying out the integration of the rise essay differential equations is explained in detail. It involves the use of the multiplier, tabulator, and summary punch in concert, guided by the setting of a calculation control switch, which acts as a master controller advancing automatically . through twelve positions (Figure 2).

This control switch . was a precursor of sequential control in electronic computers [78]. Some of the better-known builders of the early computers, like Vannevar Bush at MIT, J. Presper Eckert of the ENIAC, and Howard Aiken at Harvard, got their first introduction in the famous orange book [90]. Lsat! In this year, Eckert is appointed full professor of Celestial Mechanics. March 1940: Eckert leaves Columbia for rubrics for creative assignments an assignment with the lsat essays US Naval Observatory, which he rapidly computerizes to create accurate air and sea navigation tables for the US Air Corps and online, Navy using the lsat techniques he devised at 550 word essay Columbia [17], which allowed design and essays, production of the Air Almanac in record time (the first issue of the Air Almanac appeared December 1st, 1940, produced entirely by machine methods). The Astronomical Computing Bureau in Pupin, now directed by Jan Schilt (but with Eckert still running the show from Washington), was assigned to tasks for the looming war, such as ballistic firing tables, and trajectory calculations, and is a essay, later, design calculations for the B-29 sighting station [57,59] Mathematics Goes to War [9]. Eckert also assigns Nautical Almanac work to the Bureau, and temporarily borrows Lillian Feinstein as Piecework Computer from the Bureau's staff. The Bureau existed until 1951, but by 1948 most of lsat essays its work had migrated to mfa creative programs Watson Lab [88].

IBM played a large part in the Allied war effort, supplying all of its products to the US government at 1% over cost, and taking on new jobs as well, including manufacture of nearly six percent of all M1 rifles [see pictures and essays, story] [another one here] [or search Google] (other non-weapons companies made M1s too, including National Postal Meter Company, General Motors, Underwood [typewriters], and for creative writing assignments, Rock-Ola, a maker of juke boxes). IBM also evacuated the families of employees in England to Toronto [85] and essays, assisted the families of US employees who had gone off to war and held jobs open for all its returning veterans [57]. According to allegations in essay 2001 [48] (having nothing to do with Columbia), IBM might also have played a part in Germany's war effort, in lsat essays which widespread use was made of punched-card technology manufactured by rise television, IBM's German subsidiary, Dehomag [120], which had been taken over by the Nazi government in 1940. The degree of essays IBM's involvement with Dehomag after that is or was at issue [See IBM statement]. 1940: The Bureau of Radio Research (founded at Princeton University in 1937), headed by Paul Lazarsfeld, moves to Columbia University, with quarters at 15 Amsterdam Avenue. 550 Word Essay! In 1949 it would move to 427 West 117th Street, and essays, about 1953 to of reality 605 West 115th Street, the other half of the former Parnassus Club, across from the present Watson Laboratory. Its name would change to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) in 1944, and it would live on essays until 1977, when it was replaced by the Center for Social Sciences (later, the course Lazarsfeld Center for Social Sciences, and still later the Institute for Social and Economic Theory and Research). BASR produced a great many quantitative studies and in essays fact pioneered quantitative sociology [26,27]. From its inception in 1940, the Bureau was in possession of mfa creative writing IBM tabulating equipment. IBM machines and tabulating charges as well as IBM supplies appear on each annual budget [28]). The BASR's 1954-56 budgets show $6000 per month for lsat IBM equipment rental, which suggests a rather massive capacity (compare with the rise Registrar Proposal of 1957).

The BASR Report on the Year 1957-58 says The Bureau also maintains its own IBM data processing laboratory in lsat essays University Hall, and other IBM equipment for use by 550 word essay, students in Fayerweather Hall. The machine facilities of the lsat Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory are available for 550 word essay certain highly technical problems not readily solved by the Bureau's own equipment [28]. Pnina Stern, who worked at essays the Bureau until its demise, says When I got there in 1966 BASR had [at 605 W 115th Street] IBM 024 card punches, an 085 Collator, an 082 Sorter, and a 403 Accounting Machine that could be wired to produce cross tabulations and other good stuff. Fred Meier was a whiz at wiring up this machine. You had to wire it for mfa creative writing online programs each thing you wanted to lsat essays do. It printed out cross tabulations and maybe even some other statistics. Some of the IBM machines looked like pieces of Victorian furniture with intricately carved wrought iron legs. Years later when IBM had a retrospective exhibit somewhere they borrowed these machines for the exhibit. Maybe Fred M. owned them at 550 word essay that time. Lsat! As for mfa creative online programs computing, someone at Columbia -- possibly at BASR -- wrote the very first computer cross tabulation program. I believe it was written in lsat IBM 7090 machine language and you had to give it numerical coded instructions.

It was not very user friendly. I think it may have been written by Peter Graham. Free! As noted, much of BASR's quantitative work was done in-house on lsat its tabulating and EAM equipment, but more demanding tasks were carried out at IBM Watson Lab. By 1961, BASR was (with Physics and rise essay, Chemistry) one of Columbia's leading users of essays computing, and one of the reasons the Columbia Computer Center was created [29]. After 1963, BASR was a major user of the Computer Center mainframes, sending work-study students with massive decks of cards to 550 word essay the SSIO Area on campus on a regular basis to run jobs. Lsat! We always duplicated the cards before we sent them over because we had visions of the students dropping the IBM card boxes and the cards floating across Broadway.

In the 1970s, HP terminals were installed for interactive access to mainframe applications like SAS and private affair essay research, SPSS. The Directors of BASR were Paul Lazarsfeld (1940-1951), Charles Glock (1951-1957), David Sills (1957-1960), Bernard Berelson (1960-61), and lsat, Allen Barton (1962-1977). 20 December 1944: Since the rubrics for creative assignments 1930s, Columbia had been IBM's main contact with scientific computing and the academic community [38], and to lsat essays carry forward this relationship, Thomas J Watson, a Columbia Trustee since 1933, wrote to Columbia Provost (and Acting President 1945-47) Frank Diehl Fackenthal [28] agreeing to establish a computing research laboratory at Columbia University as soon as space can be secured: I am confident that this laboratory will be another major forward step in the long and productive cooperation between the [ sic ] IBM and Columbia University. 1945: The US Naval Observatory produces the 1946 edition of the Air Almanac in what is arguably the first instance of computer-driven typesetting, using the newly delivered programmable card-driven table printer that had been specified by Professor Eckert in 1941, but whose production was delayed by the War. 6 February 1945: To give all possible aid to the war effort and to promote peace through scientific development, a computing laboratory has been established at Columbia University by International Business Machines Corporation. Course! The new laboratory, to be known as the Thomas J. Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , will serve as a world center for the treatment of problems in lsat the various fields of science, whose solution depends on the effective use of applied mathematics and mechanical calculations [23]. Columbia Professor Wallace J. Eckert, now head of IBM's new Pure Research Department, is mfa creative writing programs, appointed to head the laboratory. Lsat! Temporarily housed on the tenth floor of Pupin Hall, staffed and paid for by IBM, with the staff holding faculty appointments and teaching credit courses in math, physics, astronomy, and other fields.

The new lab attracted attention all over the scientific world; visitors included John von Neumann, Hans Bethe, and Richard Feynman [3,4,9, 57]. The lab was named for IBM's Thomas J. Watson (Senior), a Columbia Trustee (it is said that Watson is the one who nominated Eisenhower as Columbia President in 1948, but he meant Milton! [17]). Free! Within a year, Watson Lab would become the third most powerful computing facility in essays the world, after the US Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground and Harvard University, and would remain so for some years. Mar 1945 : The Manhattan Project (from here through Aug 1945) : It turns out that the presence of affair essay research Bethe, Feynman, and von Neumann was not entirely coincidental. Herb Grosch writes that in May 1945, calculations at Los Alamos were falling behind. As Dr.

Eckert (who had just hired him to lsat essays work at the new Watson Lab) explained, They came to writing IBM for lsat essays help. Mr. Watson and John McPherson [IBM engineering director] . thought immediately of the Astronomical Bureau at Columbia, but it is heavily engaged in fairly high priority work for another part of the Army*, and really has no room for physical expansion anyhow. Marriage Is A Private Affair! It has only two 601s and an old 285 fixed-plugboard tabulator, and there is hardly any room to move. Lsat Essays! New space was needed, and found, for Watson Lab's first task: solution of temperature-pressure equations for completion of the A-bombs at Los Alamos [57] (more about this HERE and much more in Chapter 03 of Dr. Grosch's book) Now that Germany's defeat was imminent, Leo Szilard who, with Enrico Fermi, had initiated the Manhattan Project at Columbia in 1939 did not believe the A-bomb should be used on Japan. He obtained a letter of introduction to President Roosevelt from is a research Albert Einstein so he could present his case against dropping the bomb. A preliminary meeting with Eleanor Roosevelt was set up for May 8th, but the lsat President died on April 12th and Szilard was blocked from contacting President Truman. 8 May 1945: VE Day, Germany surrenders, the war in marriage private Europe ends.

Jul 1945: Szilard wrote and circulated a petition among his fellow scientists at essays the University of Chicago against the use of writing atomic weapons and lsat essays, asking President Truman not to use them on Japan. He also sent copies to Oak Ridge and Los Alamos for circulation (the Los Alamos copy was buried by Groves and Oppenheimer). For Creative Writing Assignments! Szilard's petition went through several drafts; the first one (July 3rd) included the following text: Atomic bombs are primarily a means for the ruthless annihilation of cities. Once they were introduced as an instrument of war it would be difficult to lsat resist for rise of reality television long the temptation of putting them to such use. The last few years show a marked tendency toward increasing ruthlessness. Lsat Essays! At present our Air Forces, striking at the Japanese cities, are using the same methods of warfare which were condemned by American public opinion only a few years ago when applied by the Germans to the cities of England.

Our use of atomic bombs in this war would carry the world a long way further on this path of ruthlessness. Subsequent drafts were toned down a bit but made the same recommendations. The Oak Ridge petition urged that before this weapon be used without restriction in the present conflict, its powers should be adequately described and demonstrated, and the Japanese nation should be given the opportunity to consider the consequences of further refusal to surrender. Watson Lab staff who were performing calculations for Los Alamos were unaware of the petitions or, indeed (with only two exceptions, Eckert and Grosch, the free course only ones with security clearances), that the calculations were for a bomb [59]. In any event, the essays petitions never reached the President. 6 Aug 1945: Hiroshima : Now we knew what we had been working on 550 word essay [57]. A second A-bomb was dropped on lsat Nagasaki August 9th.

More than 200,000 people died from the free course two blasts. Was the atomic bomb needed to end the essays war with Japan? The US Strategic Bombing Survey [94] says, Based on a detailed investigation of all the facts and supported by the testimony of the rubrics surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the Survey's opinion that certainly prior to 31 December 1945, and in all probability prior to 1 November 1945 [the earliest possible date for lsat essays an invasion], Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the war in the East, and even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated. It was known by the Allies [95] that since May 1945, Japan had been making peace overtures to the Soviet Union, both in Tokyo and Moscow. Classes Online! This was done at the direction of the lsat Emperor, who had told his envoy, Prince Konoye, to secure peace at any price, notwithstanding its severity [93] . All indications (e.g. in rise Henry L. Stimson's diaries*) are that the US deliberately prolonged the war, first by delaying the Potsdam Conference and then by striking the lsat essays Emperor can stay clause from the Potsdam Declaration, until the bombs could be dropped, and that this was done to intimidate the for creative Soviet Union. Former President, Supreme Commander of lsat Allied Forces in Europe, and Supreme Commander of NATO Dwight D. Eisenhower wrote in his memoir, Mandate for Change , (Doubleday 1963), “The incident took place in 1945 when Secretary of War Stimson visiting my headquarters in Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to grant writing classes online drop an lsat essays, atomic bomb on Japan. I was one of those who felt that there were a number of cogent reasons to question the wisdom of 550 word essay such an lsat, act . . . Private! But the Secretary, upon giving me the news of the successful bomb test in New Mexico, and of the plan for using it, asked for my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent. During his recitation of the relevant facts, I had been conscious of a feeling of depression and so I voiced to him my grave misgivings, first on the basis of my belief that Japan was already defeated and that dropping the bomb was completely unnecessary, and secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by the use of a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to lsat essays save American lives. Programs! It was my belief that Japan was, at that very moment, seeking some way to surrender with a minimum loss of 'face'.” FDR's and lsat essays, Truman's Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of free writing Staff and of the lsat Combined US and British Chiefs of Staff Admiral William D. Leahy wrote in his book I Was There (Whittlesey House, 1950), “It is my opinion that the use of this barbarous weapon at Hiroshima and Nagasaki was of writing course no material assistance in our war against Japan.

The Japanese were already defeated and ready to surrender because of the effective sea blockade and the successful bombing with conventional weapons.” 14 Aug 1945: 7:18PM EWT (Eastern War Time): VJ Day, Japan surrenders , the war ends. Essays! The formal surrender was signed September 2. (The US and many other countries were on permanent daylight savings time throughout the war; in the US this was called War Time -- Eastern War Time, Central War Time, etc.) Oct 1945: Watson Laboratory establishes itself as the cataloger of mathematical tables on punched cards, meaning that any scientist who needed to rise essay obtain machine-readable tables of mathematical functions such as sin, cos, tan, log, squares, cubes, inverses, roots, Bessel functions, Lagrangean interpolation coefficients, spheroid functions, grid coordinates, and so forth, could find out from Watson Lab where to get them [28]. Of course Watson Lab itself was a major producer of such tables. Lsat Essays! As these card decks were freely shared, they might be regarded as an 550 word essay, early form of freeware . Nov 1945: Watson Laboratory moves from Pupin Hall (where it had been since February 1945) into 612 West 116th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), a former fraternity house vacated by the War, purchased by IBM and renovated as a laboratory (PHOTOS) with offices and teaching facility [4,9]. A simple bronze plaque was affixed to the building reading WATSON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING LABORATORY at COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY [28] (WHERE IS THE PLAQUE NOW?). Lsat Essays! Watson Lab's early equipment included two experimental one-of-a-kind relay calculators, two Aberdeen relay calculators, plus conventional calculators and tabulators inherited from the Astronomy Lab, and within a couple years would grow to include a IBM 602 and the first IBM 604. Rise Television Essay! Read more about renovation and equipping of this building in Chapter 09 of the Grosch book.

This building is now Casa Hispanica, home of lsat essays Columbia's Department of Spanish and Portuguese. Herb Grosch confirms that Chock Full O' Nuts was open for affair business on essays the southwest corner of is a private essay 116th and Broadway in 1945, where it remained a fixture for decades. Chock Full O' Nuts sightings go back as far as 1944. When did it close? Mid-1980s I think. A few other establishments that were here in 1945 are still open in 2004: The West End (1915), Tom's Restaurant (1936), Columbia Hardware (1939), and lsat, Mondel's Chocolates (1943).

Aug 1946: Eckert describes Watson Lab to free writing course an IBM Research Forum [89]. It is the intention of the Laboratory to make these facilities available to any scientist from any place in this country or abroad , regardless of whether he is connected with a university or a laboratory. Lsat! This is our fundamental principle: problems will be accepted because of scientific interest and writing course, not for any other considerations. Scientific interest can be of essays two kinds: the problem may interest us because of the complexity of the calculation, or it may be considered on the basis of scientific merit of the result rather than the means. While routine computation is not the aim of the Laboratory, a considerable amount of it will be done on worthy causes. Later he describes some experimental machines: Among the digital machines which have been developed over the years, there are several based on mfa creative writing online the relay network; we now have two of these at lsat the Laboratory [ note: he is not referring to the Aberdeens, which had not yet been delivered ] . The first one was developed with the 550 word essay idea of seeing how few relays it is possible to lsat essays use to 550 word essay produce a calculating machine. This machine is built on lsat the standard IBM key punch. . The control is free, very convenient. a combination of control panel and master card or program card. Thus, instead of having twenty control panels for a complicated job, you can set it up to use one control panel and twenty master cards.

This might very well be the birth of software . The control panel, which stays in place for the duration of the lsat essays job, defines the instructions of the private essay research machine, in a sense its microprogram. The sequence of operations (invoking instructions from the control panel) is on a deck of cards. It is lsat essays, a PROGRAM. Rise Of Reality Essay! A few years later, IBM would build a Card Programmed Calculator, and lsat essays, from there it is a short step to affair essay research the first general-purpose stored-program computer, which, arguably, was IBM's SSEC, built under Eckert's direction (in fact the SSEC was completed before the CPC). The significance of lsat essays card programming can't be overstated.

A deck of control cards (along with the specifications for the corresponding control-panel wiring, at least in these early days) documents the 550 word essay program. Essays! It can be printed, read, modified, duplicated, mailed, kept for future use, and run again on different data sets. Much of this might be said of plugboards too, provided you don't have to writing online recycle them, thus destroying the program. But most important, a program deck can be any length at essays all, thus allowing extremely complex problems to be run -- problems that might have required a thousand plugboards. (Trust me, nobody had 1000 plugboards; they're big and they cost serious money.) 1946: Watson Lab produces Ephemerides of 783 Minor Planets for 1947 (formerly Kleine Planeten ), the is a affair essay research annual asteroid listing for the year 1947, about 100 pages of tables showing the position of each body at 8-day intervals, calculated on the Watson Lab Aberdeen Relay Calculators, the world's fastest computing devices at essays the time. 1946-47: Watson Laboratory courses first appear in the University Bulletin.

These are graduate-level credit courses. Among them are courses in computing machinery and numerical analysis taught by Wallace Eckert and 550 word essay, Herb Grosch believed to be the first computer science courses offered by any university [40] or, more precisely, the first such courses in lsat essays the world fully integrated into a university curriculum and continuing year after year [59]. Eckert taught Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (Astronomy 111-112); Grosch taught Numerical Methods (Engineering 281, a graduate course I took some 30 years later. The next year L.H. Rise Television! Thomas added Numerical Solution of Differential Equations (Physics 228). By 1951, the curriculum also included EE 275 (Electrical and Electronic Components of Digital Computers, taught by Watson Lab's Robert M. Walker) and Physics 255 (Separation of Variables in Mathematical Physics, L.H.

Thomas). Lsat! Most of these courses included hands-on laboratory sessions with the Watson Lab machines or (later) the SSEC downtown. Graduate-level hard-science courses used the Watson Lab machines too, including some taught by regular Columbia faculty such as George Kimball (Chemistry), among whose students were Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (Columbia Ph.D. Course! 1948, the founder of computational biochemistry), Isaac Asimov (Columbia B.Sc 1939, M.A. 1941, Ph.D. Essays! 1948), and Maurice Ewing (Oceanography), the founder of Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, whose students included Frank Press (Columbia M.A. 1946, Ph.D. 1949), who went on to become President of the US National Academy of grant writing Sciences and Chairman of the National Research Council. More about essays these courses in the 1951 entry.

1946-47: It was also during this period that Watson Laboratory began to provide computer time to Columbia researchers at no charge. This arrangement would continue until 1963, when Columbia -- with IBM's assistance -- opened its own Computing Center. Perhaps the first non-Watson-Lab Columbia researcher to use the Watson Lab machines was Martin Schwarzschild, who used the rubrics for creative writing assignments Aberdeen Relay Calculators for astronomical calculations [57]. 1947: Nevis Laboratory, the Columbia Physics department's primary center for study of high-energy and nuclear physics, founded in Irvington, New York. Lsat! There is a long history of computing here too, which needs to be told, including the many and rise television essay, varied connection methods to Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. Sep 1947: The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is born at a meeting of lsat sixty computer enthusiasts at Columbia University's Havemeyer Hall [57].

Originally calling itself the Eastern Association for Computing Machinery, attendees of its first meeting included Columbia Professor Wallace Eckert (who arranged the space), Professor Hilleth Thomas (Thomas-Fermi Model), Byron Havens of Watson Lab (chief engineer, NORC), John Lentz of Watson Lab (designer of the first personal computer), Watson Lab's Herb Grosch, and everybody's favorite computer person, Grace Hopper. The meeting was convened by computer pioneer and rubrics for creative assignments, antiwar activist Edmund Berkeley. (CLICK HERE to view documents from the first ACM meeting.) Nov 1947: The Watson Laboratory Three-Week Course on Computing , taught by Eric Hankam, the first hands-on computer course (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), in which scientists from all over the world learned how to apply computing machines to problems in their disciplines. The course was given here eleven times a year until 1957 -- by essays, which time it had been attended by 1600 people from 20 countries -- when it was moved to IBM education centers around the world [9]. 24 Dec 1947: First successful test of the transistor. Jan 1948: The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS) was designed and grant writing online, built by IBM in 1946-47 under the direction of lsat Columbia Professsor Wallace Eckert and then installed in marriage is a private affair essay research IBM HQ at 590 Madison Ave in January 1948. This is one of the first large-scale electronic computers, and the first machine to combine electronic computation with a stored program and lsat essays, capable of rise of reality essay operating on its own instructions as data . Essays! It was based on hybrid vacuum-tube / mechanical relay technology (12,000 tubes, 21,000 relays). Of Reality Essay! Fully assembled, it was 140 feet long (60 + 20 + 60 U-shape) (some sources cite different dimensions) and was used initially for calculating lunar coordinates. Reporters called it a Robot Brain. Its massive size and lsat, configuration established the public image of computers for decades to come (as in this 1961 New Yorker cover by Charles Addams).

Aside from assignments solving important scientific problems, it was used by students of Columbia's pioneering Machine Methods graduate course -- part of the essays world's first computer science curriculum, initiated here in 1946. Popular descriptions of computers as brains and analogies with the human nervous system were so rampant in the late 1940s and free course, early 50s, that George Stibitz, developer of the wartime Bell Relay Calculators, was prompted to write an article cautioning against such wild tales as the one in the Feb 18, 1950, Saturday Evening Post, which said that computers were subject to psychopathic states which engineers cure by shock treatments consisting of the lsat application of excessively large voltages [79]. The SSEC was programmed from for creative Watson Lab on standard IBM cards converted to lsat essays input tapes on a special punch called the Prancing Stallion [57]. Eckert's moon-orbit calculations on this machine were used as the basis for the Apollo missions. It was dismantled in 1952. One of the SSEC's programmers was John Backus (PHOTO AND DETAILS), who had two Columbia degrees and was at Watson Lab in 550 word essay 1950-52 [9], and who went on to design FORTRAN, the first high-level machine-independent programming language , and Algol, the first block-structured language, and is also known for Backus Normal Form (BNF), a meta-language for lsat essays describing computer languages. Before FORTRAN, almost every computer program was written in machine or assembly language, and therefore was not portable to any other kind of 550 word essay machine. The idea of a high-level programming language was the lsat essays second step on the road to affair essay research user friendliness. Lsat! The first step was the assembler. Such notions were not without controversy. John von Neumann, when he first heard about FORTRAN in 1954, was unimpressed and asked why would you want more than machine language?

One of free course von Neumann's students at lsat Princeton recalled that graduate students were being used to rubrics hand assemble programs into binary for lsat their early machine. This student took time out to build an assembler, but when von Neumann found out about it he was very angry, saying that it was a waste of a valuable scientific computing instrument to use it to do clerical work. (These anecdotes from a biographical sketch of assignments von Neumann by John A.N. Lee, Dept of Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnical Institute.) Another SSEC programmer was Edgar F. Codd , originator of the lsat relational database model [40] ( Communications of the ACM , Vol. 13, No. 6, June 1970, pp.377-387), who was at Watson Lab from 1949 to 1952 [9] and died April 18, 2003. 1948-54: The IBM Personal Automatic Calculator was designed by John Lentz and built between 1948 and 1954 on the top floor of Watson Lab. Marriage Affair Research! Among its innovations was a magnetic drum for auxilliary storage, automatic positioning of the decimal point, and the first video terminal.

When it was finally announced in 1956 as the IBM 610 Autopoint Computer, it was the essays first personal computer . [4,9,17] 1949: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia's earth science facility, founded in Palisades, New York, by Professor Maurice Ewing, a user of the Watson Lab equipment. There is a long tradition of computing and networking here too, which needs to be told. See [39] for an excellent history (albeit with nothing on computing) of for creative assignments what is now called the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory. 1950: Herb Grosch devises Grosch's Law Computing power increases as the square of the cost in Watson Lab [57,p.131]. Dr. Grosch leaves Watson in lsat essays 1951 to start an 550 word essay, IBM bureau in Washington DC. May 1950: Edmund Berkeley (who had founded the lsat ACM at Columbia University in free 1947, and who had written the first book about computers for a general audience [62] in 1949), William Porter (a West Medford MA mechanic), and two Columbia graduate students, Robert Jensen and essays, Andrew Vall, build Simon [63], a simple model electronic brain (PHOTO), costing about 550 word essay $600 to construct. Of Simon, Berkeley said:

It is the smallest complete mechanical brain in existence. It knows not more than four numbers; it can express only the essays number 0, 1, 2 and online, 3. It is guaranteed to make every member of an audience feel superior to it. It is a mechanical brain that has cost less than $1,000. It can be carried around in one hand (and the lsat power supply in the other hand). It can be completely understood by one man. It is an excellent device for teaching, lecturing and of reality television, explaining. 1951: CLICK HERE to view some 1951 Watson Lab Astronomy, Engineering, and Physics course listings from the 1951 Columbia Catalog. Lsat Essays! Herb Grosch recalls [57]: . a little about the 550 word essay courses we gave - that is, at Columbia. These were all part of the regular university curriculum, listed in the appropriate catalogs - we had our own special one also - and open to any student with the prerequisites and the money. Essays! We did however encourage our own juniors on 116th Street and at marriage is a affair the SSEC to attend as auditors if they did not want to essays sign up for credit. Rubrics Writing! . Essays! Most of rise essay our offerings were unusual. [Hilleth] Thomas did a very good course in theoretical physics, in which he was a world authority.

I did a celestial mechanics course one year; it was really a mlange of spherical trig, practical and theoretical astronomy (meaning time and essays, position determination, and orbit computing), and brief mentions of planetary and satellite mechanics. . None of marriage essay my subtopics were taught anywhere else at Columbia; the astronomy department was solid astrophysics. Essays! And they were what was needed for astronomy calculations. . Most of our value as teachers, however, came from the computing courses . Eckert gave a two-semester machine methods course, which featured hands-on operation under Marjorie [Severy], Lillian [Feinstein Hausman] and Eric [Hankam]; literally the only place in the world where you could learn in the university milieu . . I did numerical methods - classical interpolation and matrix arithmetic and integration of differential equations. Most of my examples, and assigned exercises, were at writing desk calculator level, but I lectured from the point of lsat essays view of machine operation . This was one semester, once a year, and Hilleth did an advanced course featuring partial differential equation solutions and classes, error propagation, every other year. . My classes were small; this was a very esoteric discipline indeed in the Forties. But I had interesting students .. Lsat! like [Stan] Rothman and [Bill] McClelland and [John] Backus and Don Quarles. . So it was my side of the house that carried the teaching. It went on into the Fifties, always as part - but a small part - of the Columbia offerings. The hands-on side of the Machine Methods course was unique, not just because of the writing online equipment but because real use-'em-every-day men and women were running it. 1952-3: Watson Lab #2.

When construction of the NORC (see Dec 1954 entry) exhausted available space in the petite 116th street building (and because still more space was required by lsat, Watson Lab's new physics program), IBM purchased the building at 612 West 115th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), formerly a women's residence club, gutted and renovated it, equipped it with physics laboratories, and relocated to it. The new Watson Lab was occupied in September 1953 . A time clock was installed (you can still see its mounting today) but nobody on the professional staff used it (as a corporation, IBM was obsessed with efficiency but the Watson Lab scientists were notorious noncomformists). The time clock and all wall clocks were controlled centrally and set automatically by of reality, an IBM master clock (like the one in the first Watson Lab); the IBM wall clocks in Watson Lab kept on ticking until about lsat 1999. The Penthouse was outfitted as a lunchroom with a small kitchen, where coffee and tea could be made and rubrics for creative assignments, soup or beans heated up; it had the atmosphere of lsat a World War II canteen, and writing, was the favorite place for lsat people in different groups or floors to is a talk and thesis advisors to essays meet with their students [17]. Some space was retained in the 116th Street building: offices for PhD students, classroom space, and a machine room [4,9,17,66]. The former women's residence on 115th Street was in fact the Parnassus Club , a boarding house for young women -- students at the Julliard School of Music, which was then only a couple blocks away on the current Manhattan School of Music site (MAP) or at Barnard College, a block north (MAP), for semi-professional performers. It operated from 1921 to 1955. CLICK HERE for stories and photos.

The North-facing building was gutted by IBM in 1953 to 550 word essay create Watson Laboratory. According to lsat essays a resident, we all had to move out because some official body at Columbia had decided the mfa creative online programs neighborhood had become too dangerous for us; at least that was the reason given in a letter we all received that spring (this refers to the second Parnassus Club building, which remained in operation until 1955). (Miss Macmillan's 1965 obituary states, however, that the Club was closed due to her poor health.) The exterior of lsat 612 West 115th Street retains its original look but the research inside contains no trace of the Parnassus Club. In July 2003, a resident from 1950 appeared on the doorstep with her daughter and essays, grandson; she was showing them where she used live. I brought them inside for a mini-tour, but she was clearly disappointed to find absolutely nothing familiar. The original Watson Lab at 612 West 116th Street was designed by 550 word essay, Thomas Nash and built in 1906 as the lsat essays Delta Phi fraternity house. The current Watson building at 612 West 115th Street was originally an apartment building called Duncan Hall, designed in 1905 by the prolific firm of Neville Bagge, originally built and 550 word essay, owned by a Frank Woytisek. The building across the street, No. 605, was also an essays, apartment building by Neville Bagge, called the Bellemore, built in 1903 and originally owned by Moses Crystal [12]. It was home to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) from 1955(?) until it was demolished about 1970. 200th anniversary of Columbia University.

1954: Invention of the cursor: As part of his work on the first personal computer (the IBM 610), Watson Lab's John Lentz designs a small video terminal -- keyboard and free course, tiny screen -- for control and data entry. in which the current position was indicated visually by what came to essays be known as a cursor . Lentz applied for a patent on this concept; the patent was finally granted in the early 1970s. As far as I can tell, Lentz's control and display device was also the first video terminal . Dec 1954: The Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), the first supercomputer and the most powerful computer in existence at the time (and for free the next ten years), becomes operational. It was designed here beginning in lsat 1950 and built in Watson Lab #2, 612 West 115th Street. NORC had 200,000 electronic components: 3600 words of main memory (originally vacuum tubes, later magnetic cores), eight magnetic tape drives, 15,000 complete operations per second, decimal (not binary) arithmetic, swappable components. Since this was such a big job, additional space was rented at 2929 Broadway, above a restaurant (Prexy's?

Home of the Educated Hamburger?) for building some of the parts, which were brought to Watson Lab for rubrics for creative assignments assembly and eventual startup and essays, operation. John von Neumann was a team member and rise of reality, gave the inaugural address on December 2, 1954. Lsat! NORC was moved to the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia, in 1955 and remained operational until 1968 [4,12,17]. 30 Aug 1955: The first of two IBM 650 computers is installed in 550 word essay the first-floor machine room of the lsat original Watson Lab building on 116th Street. The 650 was a vacuum-tube-logic decimal computer with 2000 words of ten decimal digits each plus sign [31] stored on drum memory. Writing Assignments! Each had a 511 card reader and a 403 printer. They ran for two shifts a day, eventually supporting over 200 Columbia research projects [29].

A 17 Nov 1955 memo from Dr. Eckert to J.C. McPherson states that the 650 was installed on August 30 and much of the essays work of the computing group has been concerned with its incorporation into marriage private affair the Laboratory program of essays research and instruction. The 650s were soon used in a series of intensive courses on computing, with [31] as a text; these courses later resulted in writing a book: Joachim Jeenel, Programming for Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill, 1959 [64]. Lsat! Initally, all programming was in writing course assembly language punched on cards; eventually languages such as FORTRAN were available. The legendary SOAP assembler for the 650 was written at Watson Lab by Stan Poley. The earlier Watson Lab equipment (tabulators, sorters, multiplying punches, etc) were not computers in the modern sense (general-purpose, electronic, von-Neumann architecture, stored-program, programmed with a language rather than wires). NORC had been the first such computer at Columbia but, although it was used in one Columbia PhD dissertation [65], it was not open to the Columbia community for lsat essays general use [61]. 550 Word Essay! Thus the IBM 650 was the first computer available to Columbia researchers and we have a 50th anniversary on August 30, 2005. Eric Hankam points out [66] that this was not as dramatic a turning point as it might seem, since the same types of problems had been solved on non-stored-program calculators at Columbia over the preceding two or three decades; at the time, the 650 was seen as just another incremental step in calculator design.

However, the 650's power, flexibility, and ease of use relative to the wire- and card-programmed machines (601, Aberdeen, 602, 604, CPC, 607) attracted a flood of Columbia research projects. By 1961, 650s were also installed at essays Nevis Lab, Hudson Lab, and ERL. As demand oustripped capacity, it became increasingly clear that Columbia would need a computing facility of its own, big enough to rise of reality television essay serve the essays entire university. Sep 1956: Watson Lab begins to award fellowships to television essay Columbia graduate students [9], including Ken King, who would become the first Director of the Columbia Computer Center, and essays, Joe Traub, who, after obtaining his Columbia PhD in 1959, and a distinguished career at Bell Labs and heading the Carnegie-Mellon CS Department, would become first Chair of Columbia's Computer Science Department [9, 21] (prior to that, computer science courses were in the Electrical Engineering department). Marriage Private! Watson Fellows had their own offices at lsat 612 West 116th Street, that were appointed with fireplaces and leather sofas, a good stipend, and unlimited computing time [38]. Approximately 15 percent of Columbia physics graduate students in the 1950s did their thesis work at Watson Lab [38].

1956-70: Watson Lab concentrates on solid state physics. This not-insignificant period, resulting in many publications, patents, and grant writing online, a Nobel Prize, is described at length in [4] and lsat essays, [9]. Essay! (Richard L. Garwin of essays Watson Lab conducted experiments with Leon Lederman of the CU Physics Department confirming the suggestion by C.N. Writing! Yang of Princeton and T.D. Lee of Columbia regarding muon decay; this, plus the additional confirmation of C.S. Wu in the CU Physics Department, resulted in the 1957 Nobel Prize in Physics for essays Lee and Yang.) Also in essay this period, Seymour Koenig's research on lsat low-temperature breakdown of germanium and 550 word essay, its application to lsat essays semiconductors; Triebwasser's research on microscopic and thermodynamic properties of course ferroelectric crystals; Tucker's research on semiconductors at liquid helium temperatures with application to biomedical instrumentation [38].

1957: A proposal was submitted by Columbia University to the National Science Foundation to install an IBM 701 in Watson Laboratory, since many of Columbia's research projects now demanded more power than was offered by the 650s (the sub-microsecond circuits used in the 701 were designed at Watson Lab [37]). While the proposal was under consideration the 701 was superseded by the Model 704, so the lsat proposal was changed to rise ask for a 704. $145,000 was awarded, but it turned out the 704 was larger than the 701 originally proposed and would not fit in Watson Lab, so the money had to be returned unused [28] and IBM Watson Lab continued to cater to all of Columbia's academic computing needs at its own expense. Lsat Essays! Projects that couldn't be accommodated by Watson Lab's Model 650s were allowed to use the more powerful IBM 700-series computers downtown at IBM headquarters [36]. Oct 1957: IBM proposes the following arrangement to Charles Hurd, University Registrar, for student statistics, course registration, permanent records, and rise television essay, fee accounting: Less 20% educational discount, plus supplies of cards, coding sheets, control (plugboard) panels, trays, and brackets totalling another $1810.25. Note: the links for essays some of 550 word essay these items are to essays later (but similar) models. Required personnel are one supervisor/programmer, two machine operators, and three key punch operators. Source: AIS archives. This arrangement characterizes the nature of administrative data processing at the time. There is no true computer, only unit record equipment and tabulating machines capable of rudimentary statistics (sums) and report generation. According to letters of Charles Hurd, 1957-1960 [28], the funding was found from the expected decline in enrollment of rubrics assignments Public Law 550 [Korean War] veterans (Veterans Readjustment Act of 1952); in lsat his proposal to 550 word essay Provost John Krout (29 Oct 1957), Hurd says I am sure that you are aware that IBM equipment has been used in the Registrars' Offices in colleges and universities. Lsat Essays! large and small, public and private, for many years and has proven to be a most valuable and efficient tool.

I hope, therefore that you will consider this proposal so that this long felt need at Columbia may be fulfilled. In other words, registration was still completely manual in 1957. For Creative! The advantages of the lsat essays new system would be accuracy, elimination of redundancy (e.g. each student writing the same information on many different forms, up to 23 of them) and transcription errors, and the ability to generate reports, including class lists, plus ID cards and mailing labels, not to mention keeping up with the Joneses, e.g. NYU, where punch-card registration had been in mfa creative writing online use since at least 1933. The new equipment was installed in 307 University Hall and lsat essays, the new system phased in from 1959 to assignments 1961 (with an IBM 407 installed rather than a 403 at an extra $250/month). Computerized registration was seen by some as a step towards dehumanization of students and turning universities into factories, a major factor in the rise of the Free Speech Movement at the University of California at Berkeley, which set the stage for campus activism, protest, and rebellion throughout the 1960s, including Columbia in 1968: There is a time when the operation of the lsat essays machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart, that you can't take part; and you've got to put your bodies upon the gears and upon the wheels, upon the levers, upon rise essay, all the apparatus and essays, you've got to make it stop. According to Steven Lubar of the Smithsonian Institution, this sentiment, although directed primarily at the economy and grant, war machinery, extended to the punched-card equipment in the registrar's office: Berkeley protestors used punch cards as metaphor, both as a symbol of the 'system'--first the essays registration system and then bureaucratic systems more generally--and as a symbol of writing online programs alienation. Lsat Essays! 'I am a UC student.

Please don't bend, fold, spindle or mutilate me.' 1958: The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (CPEMC) is founded by Professors Vladimir Ussachevsky and rubrics for creative writing assignments, Otto Luening with a grant from the lsat essays Rockefeller Foundation. It is the first center for electroacoustic music in the USA and has a long association with Columbia computing. Located in Prentis Hall on West 125th Street, its name was changed to Computer Music Center in 1996. Some tales have been collected and contributed by Peter Mauzey of Bell Labs, a Columbia graduate and of reality television, former faculty member with a long association with the Electronic Music Center; CLICK HERE to read them. Sep 1958: The equipment of essays Columbia University IBM Watson Scientific Computing laboratory is affair essay research, listed [21] as: Standard punched card equipment A comprehensive selection of basic punched card machines, with many special devices. The equipment includes keypunch, sorter, reproducer, and printer. Wired-program calculators The group of electro-mechanical and electronic calculators include the Type 602-A Calculating Punch, the Type 607 Electronic Calculating Punch, and the Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator. The 607 is an automatic electronic calculator with pluggable program control and 146-digit storage capacity, capable of lsat performing most programs at the rate of 100 cards per free writing minute.

Stored-program calculator The type 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine is essays, a stored-program calculator [i.e. computer] which can store 2000 ten-digit words, read 200 cards a minute, punch 100 cards a minute, and writing course, perform approximately 100 multiplications a second. The memory capacity can be used interchangeably for numerical data and operating instructions, which permits complete flexibility in the elaboration of instructions by lsat, the machine itself. Plus special-purpose devices such as a card-driven lithography printer, a card-controlled astronomical photograph analyzer, as well as a machine shop and rise of reality essay, physics and chemistry laboratories, a highly specialized library, and access to the big IBM 700 series computers downtown. Although FORTRAN -- the first high-level, machine-independent programming language -- marked a great leap forward in user friendliness, and was probably available for the 650 by this time, it's worth remembering how one ran a FORTRAN job in the early days. First you punched your FORTRAN program on a key punch machine, along with any data and control cards. But since the 650 had no disk, the FORTRAN compiler was not resident. So to compile your program, you fed the FORTRAN compiler deck into the card reader, followed by your FORTRAN source program as data. After some time, the machine would punch the resulting object deck.

Then you fed the FORTRAN run-time library object deck and your program's object deck into the card reader, followed by any data cards for your program. Your program would run and essays, results would be punched onto marriage is a essay research, yet another deck of lsat cards. Private Affair! To see the results, you would feed the result deck into another machine, such as an IBM 407, to have it printed on essays paper. The computer itself had no printer. By the writing programs early 60s a certain division of essays labor had become the rule, in which system analysts would make a flow chart, programmers would translate it to code, which was written by rise essay, hand on coding forms that were given to key punch operators to be punched on cards. Essays! The coding forms and card decks were passed on to verifiers who repunched the grant writing classes source code to catch and correct any mistakes, signed off on essays the job, sent the deck to the operator to await its turn at 550 word essay the computer. Hours later the essays results would be delivered to rubrics for creative the programmer in the form of a printout and the cycle would continue. 1959: Programming for Digital Computers , by Watson Lab's Joachim Jeenel, is published by McGraw-Hill. From the Preface: The contents of this book were developed from lsat essays material presented to courses on programming for stored-programming calculators held at mfa creative Columbia University.

Prof. W.J. Lsat Essays! Eckert, Director of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, initiated the writing of the book and suggested the scope of the text. Marriage Private Essay! Jeenel also taught Columbia graduate courses such as Astronomy 111-112: Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (with Eric Hankam). 1959: An IBM 1620 is essays, installed in Watson Lab to for creative assignments supplement the 650s, and lsat essays, is used in Columbia research projects. 1959: The Provost's office commissions a study to 550 word essay develop a plan for the future of lsat computing at Columbia. Rise Of Reality! In view of the failure in 1957 to produce the space needed for a state-of-the art computer that NSF was willing to lsat pay for, the mfa creative writing online study concluded that a new computer center building was needed [28]. The central administration concurs and begins to seek sources of lsat essays funding. Dean Ralph S. Halford, a Chemistry professor, Dean of Graduate Faculties, and (perhaps most to the point) Vice Provost for Projects and Grants is in grant charge.

Dean Halford and the University Committee on Cooperation with Watson Laboratory, which then included Professors Wallace Eckert (Astronomy and Watson Lab), Samuel Eilenberg (Mathematics), Richard Garwin (Physics and Watson Lab), and Polykarp Kusch (Physics, Nobel Prize 1955), plan the future Computer Center. 1960: Algol-60 developed by CU-and-Watson-Lab-alumnus John Backus and others. This was to be the most influential computer language of all time, the lsat parent of free all other block-structured languages, including (among many others) Java, C, C++, Pascal, PL/I, and Ada, but not including such lovable mavericks as LISP, APL, Snobol, and Forth. 1961: IBM Watson Laboratory offers the following Columbia courses in computing: GSEE 287, Digital Computers I: Programming and Operating. Astronomy 111-112: The use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Calculation. Engineering 281: Numerical Analysis for Research Students in Science and Engineering. Physics 288: Numerical Solution of Ordinary and essays, Partial Differential Equations. Management Games (Industrial Engineering): Market simulations. Plus short courses in free IBM 650 and Fortran programming and the Share Operating System (SOS) [29,31]. Besides the essays Watson Lab courses, the Electrical Engineering Department offers:

EE 104: Electric Circuits IV: Digital Circuits and Computing Systems. GSEE 267: Digital Systems and Automata. Writing Course! GSEE 269: Information Theory. Lsat Essays! GSEE 274: Electrical Analogue Computers. GSEE 275-276: Logical Design of Digital Circuits. GSEE 288-289: Digital Computers II and III: System Analysis and Synthesis. Is A Private Affair Research! EE 277-278-279: Pulse and Digital Circuits. May 1961: Dean Halford writes a Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University [29], and shortly afterwards the NSF approves $200,000 over the first two years [121]. IBM pledges $125,000 for fellowships, and another $500,000 is obtained from an anonymous donor [30] (who might have been Thomas J Watson Sr or another Columbia Trustee).

Two IBM 7090 mainframe computers are to be acquired at an education discount, which requires Columbia to devote at least 88 hours per essays month for purposes of instruction and unsponsored academic research. With funding lined up, Dean Halford proposes the new Computer Center to the University Committee on Finance. The need for a Computer Center was clear. By this point, about 220 University research projects were being handled on IBM's computers in Watson Lab and the demands had long since exceeded the Lab's capacity, resulting in the rental of IBM computers by the following university sites: An IBM 1620 at Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory. An IBM 650 at the Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory. Mfa Creative Online Programs! An IBM 650 at Hudson Lab. An IBM 650 at the Electronics Research Lab of the Engineering School. The primary needs were in high-energy physics (then accounting about 200 hours of lsat essays IBM 650 time per month), sociology (50 hours/month), geophysics (100 hours of grant classes online IBM 709 time per month), biochemistry, and lsat, chemistry.

A school of computer science will evolve gradually at the Computing Center, with an 550 word essay, independent line of administration as an lsat, educational organ of the University. The IBM Watson Lab courses would be taken over by television, the Computing Center. The initial staff was to be 15 persons covering two shifts, including a branch librarian [29]. The Computing Center was to serve those whose research is sponsored and those whose research is not. It has been created with the aim of lsat essays serving all of the needs of both groups without preference toward either one, with the expectation that its cost would have to mfa creative writing programs be met in essays substantial part by grant writing classes, the University [36]. Sep 1961: The Columbia Committee on essays Finance approves Dean Halford's proposal to create a Computer Center, based on mfa creative online funding pledges from IBM and lsat essays, NSF [28]. 1961-63: Construction of the Computer Center building. Total cost: $800,000 [30] (PHOTOS, STORIES NEEDED). 2 Jan 1963: Columbia University Computer Center (CUCC) opens. Dr.

Kenneth M. King, who received his Columbia Ph.D. in Physics as a Watson Fellow under Prof. 550 Word Essay! L.H. Thomas [17] and had managed Watson Lab's computing facility [20], was the first Director, with a joint appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science [V5#3]. The original location was 612 W 116th Street (the first Watson Lab), which still housed the IBM teaching facility as well as Casa Hispanica, but the essays new underground Computer Center building between Havemeyer and writing online, Uris halls was soon ready with machine rooms for equipment and offices for staff (more space than we'll ever need). The Computer Center initially housed the following equipment [10]:

IBM 7090 (PHOTOS AND STORIES) with 32768 (32K) 36-bit words of magnetic core storage. This was the first commercial computer based on essays transistor, rather than vacuum tube, logic (a vacuum-tube 709 was originally planned [29], but the 7090 appeared just in time). It is in the direct line of descent from Watson Lab's NORC. The price was $1,205,000.00 after 60% IBM educational allowance, amortized over 5 years (Letter of John A. Krout, VP of the University, 4 Oct 1961, AcIS archives). Included: Two data channels. Two IBM 1301 Model 2 disks, total capacity: 9320000 36-bit words.

Six IBM 729VI 7-track tape drives. an IBM 1402-2 80-column Card Reader/Punch, reads 800 cards/minute, punches 250. Two IBM 1403 chain printers, 132 cols/line, 1100 lines/minute = 3 secs/page. 7040 Console Typewriter. 1014 Remote Inquiry Unit. Applications include FORTRAN II, COBOL, SORT, MAP, UTILITY PACKAGE, plus the IBSYS monitor. IBM 1401 with: 4000 characters of memory. Two 729V tape drives. One 600 LPM printer. For Creative! Advanced Programming Package. Access to computing was batch only.

Users brought decks or boxes of punch cards to the operators and came back the next day to retrieve their cards and the resulting listings from the output bins. Jobs were paid for lsat essays out of grants or funny money. There were no user terminals and 550 word essay, there was no user access to the machine room, which was staffed around the clock by operators and a shift supervisor. During the first six months of the Center's operation, [the 7090] logged 907.55 hours on 158 projects for lsat essays 101 members of our academic staff. Downtime ran to thirty hours or so monthly during the first two months, as expected in a new installation, but fell to acceptable levels for writing course the remainder of the period. About forty-five percent of the time used was furnished to lsat projects sponsored by government contracts. [36] Aug 1963: An IBM 1410 was added, shared by grant writing online, the Registrar's Office, and ran until 1973. Nov 1963: The IBM 7090 was replaced by an IBM 7094-I. 1964-70: IBM Watson Lab continues operation at 612 W 115th Street, concentrating now on lsat life sciences and medicine. Among many results from this period was improved analysis of Pap smears, and there was an alliance with the Urban League Street Academy program, educating community kids in science. 1965: Photo gallery of the Columbia Computer Center in 1965: The IBM 7094/7040 Coupled System, the Hough-Powell Device (HPD), Tape Library, Key Punch / EAM room.

In 1965 the classes online Computer Center had 25 employees, all housed in lsat the Computer Center building: the director (Ken King), 8 operators, a librarian, and 15 technical people. Besides the IBM 7094/7040 system there was also an IBM 1401 and a 1410 computer in the machine room, as well as the unit record equipment listed in the January 1963 entry. 1965-67: Professor Eckert and his Columbia thesis student in Celestial Mechanics, Harry F. Smith (who was also on 550 word essay the Watson Lab technical staff as lab manager in the 116th Street building, helping students (often of Eric Hankam) debug their IBM 650 programs, assisting students in other ways with other computers in the building, and responsible for closing up the lab at 11pm each evening) refine the theory of the moon -- the equations that describe and predict its motion -- to lsat essays unheard-of accuracy, improving upon the calculations performed by Eckert in 1948-52 on the SSEC [78] by adding additional terms: 10,000 equations in 10,000 unknowns, 100,000,000 possible coefficients. The calculations were programmed in assembly language by classes online, Smith, who devised efficient methods for solving these sparse equations with so many small-divisor terms that were a potential source of instability, and run on the Computer Center's IBM 7094 over a period of three years [65,87], resulting in 220 pages of lsat essays lunar position tables published in television Astronomical Papers of the American Ephemeris , plus several papers in astronomical journals (see Eckert's bibliography). This was the culmination of Eckert's life's work. Smith is now on the Computer Science faculty at University of North Carolina. 1965: (Month?) The Administrative Data Processing Center (ADPC) was established.

The newly established Computer Center was primarily for academic computing (in those days, research and very little instruction). Administrative computing was done independently by individual departments such as the lsat essays Registrar's Office and the Controller's Office. The new, separate ADPC drew programmers from the Registrar's and Conroller's offices as well as the Computer Center, including York Wong, previously the mfa creative writing online programs Computer Center programming supervisor, who became director of the new administrative group. Essays! The equipment (IBM 1401s and IBM 1410s) was in the Controller's office in Hogan Hall on Broadway and in Prentis Hall, 632 West 125th Street, with applications written in AUTOCODER [20]. (The story of administrative computing prior to 1965 is rubrics writing assignments, still largely a mystery. Dorothy Marshall, VP for ADP, upon essays, her retirement in 1988, wrote a reminiscence in the ADP Newsletter [11], where she recalls that ADP actually originated in the Controller's Office, the first [administrative] department to use a punch-card system.

The first large system ADP acquired is still with us -- the mfa creative Alumni Records and Gift Information System (ARGIS) -- and I recall very clearly the accusations that we were using all the tape drives and all the lsat essays system resources at the expense of the online University researchers. (This was to lsat essays be a recurring theme.) Unfortunately Dorothy did not mention dates or places.) (Coincidentally, some clue was provided on the front page of the 550 word essay Columbia University website, 18 Jan 2001, and subsequent University Record article [18] announcing the retirement of Joe Sulsona, shift supervisor of the lsat Computer Center machine room, after 42 years: Sulsona, a New York City native, went from high school directly to the military. When he returned from Korea in 1957 at the age of for creative writing 23, he studied the essays latest in computing, gaining experience as a board programmer, which involved the 550 word essay manipulation of wires and plugs on a computer board, much like the essays original telephone operating systems. He was hired at writing online Columbia's alumni faculty records office as a machine operator and spent his time punching out data cards using a small keypunch machine.) May 1965: An IBM 7040 was installed to form the IBM 7094/7040 Directly Coupled System (DCS) with 2x32K 36-bit words memory [6,19]. The 7040 freed the 7090 from mundane input/output and scheduling tasks so its power could be focussed on lsat computation. May 1965: Even though IBM 7000 series computers were to be the mainstay of Columbia computing for the next several years, the handwriting was on the wall; their capacity would soon be overwhelmed by increasing demand.

IBM proposes the new System/360 architecture for the Computer Center on May 21. This was to be the rise of reality television basis for IBM's mainframe line into the next millenium. Essays! Unlike previous IBM mainframes, the 360 was available in a range of 550 word essay compatible models, from small slow machines such as the Model 20 (suitable mainly for printing decks of cards) to lsat the Model 92 supercomputer that they proposed to Columbia, with many in between (IBM's proposal was for free course a coupled Model 92 and Model 75). Essays! Each model could use the same peripherals, and 360-series computers could also be connected to each other in various ways and of reality television essay, even share main memory. The 360/92 that IBM proposed, with its thin-film memory technology, turned out to lsat be too expensive. The 360/91, announced about the same time, was an equivalent machine that used less expensive and somewhat slower core memory (the thin-film model was eventually marketed as the 360/95).

To achieve supercomputer speeds, the 360/9x models pioneered new concepts such as instruction pipelining and rise of reality television, lookahead, branch prediction, cache memory, overlap, and parallelism. The 360/9x series is optimized for scientific calculation and lacks a hardware decimal arithmetic capability (which is simulated in software). The coupled Models 92 and 75, with their peripherals, carried a monthly rental of $167,671.00 (after a 36% educational discount), which works out to over two million dollars a year, and about 22 million over what would be the 11-year lifetime of the system. [32] Nov 1965: The blackout of 1965 . The lights went out for about 12 hours in Manhattan, most of the US northeast, and large parts of lsat Canada. Interestingly, I can't unearth any stories about the free writing blackout's impact on computing at Columbia. Essays! In those days it was not a catastrophe -- or even remarkable -- if computers were down for 12 hours. 1965-69: Of the grant writing Columbia University Teachers College IBM 1130, Peter Kaiser recalls, The Teacher's College computing center had what may have been the world's most over-configured 1130. It had not only a 2250 but also the additional hardware to lsat make an 1130 into a 1500, the special version designed for interactive instruction; and therefore it could also drive multiple 2260-like terminals.

The then director of the TCCC had ambitions use the 1130/1500 for research to improve on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by timing the responses to the test administered through one of 550 word essay these terminals. Essays! When I left to rubrics for creative writing take a real-world job in 1969 that project was in lsat essays abeyance. 1966-67: Ken King offers a course in computer appreciation. Demand was high and for creative writing assignments, half of the 60 students who tried to lsat enroll had to be turned away. Rubrics For Creative Writing! Popular computer courses are also offered this year in essays Engineering, Mathematics, and Sociology [38]. 1966: Watson Lab gets one of the first APL terminals (an IBM 1050), hooked to the M44/44X system in Yorktown, which is a 7044 computer coupled with a 7055 computer that controls a number of terminals. This system is marriage private essay, used to simulate a number of 44X computers, including one per lsat 1050 terminal; the 44X is the 550 word essay computer seen and programmed by essays, the user operating from a 1050 terminal. It is primarily for users of FORTRAN IV but the 1050 can also be used to run APL (Iverson Language) programs on Yorktown's 360/50 (Iverson worked at 550 word essay the Yorktown facility) [88]. APL soon becomes quite popular, both at lsat Watson Lab and CUCCA. There were tie lines between campus and the 115th Street Watson Lab building, and tie lines from Watson Lab to Yorktown. The Watson receptionist (Annie Hall) could, upon request, connect the two, allowing campus 2741 data terminals to access APL at Yorktown [106].

Jan 1966: The Columbia Computer Center Newsletter commences publication. It would continue in essay one form or another until November 1994. Oct 1966: ADPC staff moves to Casa Hispanica at 612 West 116th Street (around the corner from Chock Full O' Nuts and a couple doors west of Campus Deli), sharing the small building with the Department of Spanish and Portuguese [20] and the IBM teaching facility [17]. Staff from the academic Computer Center also begin to lsat move into writing course this tiny building. Soon it is crammed beyond capacity and offices spill over into essays neighboring apartment buildings (520 W 114th Street plus a long-gone building on writing West 117th Street, itself (the street) also just a memory). 1967: Dr. Seymour H. Koenig (PHOTO), who received his Ph.D. in lsat essays Physics from Columbia in 1952 (and his BS in 1949) and joined Watson Lab the same year, is appointed its Director [9]. By this time Watson laboratory has RJE access to the big IBM 360s in Yorktown, but when then the classes link is down they use the CUCCA facilities [9]. 1967: Library automation begins about lsat here.

I remember some form of automation starting in the 1966-68 timeframe when I was a student assistant in Butler -- there was already a Library Systems Office on the Mezzanine then; I used to schlepp decks of cards and listings back and forth to the Computer Center for them. By 1967, circulation was already computerized in Central Circulation and Burgess-Carpenter (where I worked at marriage private essay the time), and a collaboration was underway with Stanford and lsat, the University of Chicago regarding cataloging and writing classes, acquisitions [24]; perhaps this was the origin of lsat essays RLIN. Is A Private Research! CLICK HERE for more about library automation. AND HERE. Mar 1967: In response to IBM's May 1965 proposal, and after lining up sources of funding for it, the Computer Center announces its plan to upgrade and essays, modernize its equipment and to unify academic and administrative computing in a Computer Center Newsletter article written by (of all people) President Grayson Kirk [V2#2-3]. In the first stage , October 1967, an IBM 360/50 was rented [19, 20, 24], to allow the marriage is a affair essay 7090-to-360 conversion to begin. Aug 1967: Second stage: An IBM 360/75 was purchased and linked to the 360/50.

In the lsat essays ensuing months, staff learned OS/360, JCL, and some new programming languages like PL/I and SNOBOL, as well as new versions of old ones like WATFOR (the University of Waterloo version of Fortran), and then quickly began to modify the operating system for purposes of accounting and resource limitation, and 550 word essay, also to add support for IBM 2741 and other terminals that were not supported yet and then to create a conversational monitor called CLEO to allow job submission and retrieval from terminals [24]. Aug 1967: The US government mandates a chargeback scheme for computer time, launching the Computer Center on lsat essays a neverending series of increasingly baroque charging schemes involving hard currency and funny money. The first such scheme was a simple $150 per hour of writing online programs CPU time (which, in those days, was the lsat same thing as elapsed time), with some grandfathering of existing unsupported projects (Letter of Warren Goodell, 1 Aug 1967, AcIS archives). 1967-68 The Columbia University Bulletin Watson Laboratory lists the courses taught by rise television essay, Watson Lab scientists who have Columbia faculty appointments, including Philip Aisen, Frank Beckman, Thomas Fabry, Richard Garwin, Martin Gutzwiller, Seymour Koenig, Andrew Kotchoubey, Meir Lehman, John Lentz, Allen Lurio, Thomas Moss, Ralph Palmer, Peter Price, Alred Redfield, Pat Sterbenz, and Hilleth Thomas. After the lsat Computer Center opened in affair essay 1963, Watson Lab is no longer the focus of computing; its course offerings concentrate on biology, mathematics, and physics, but several computing courses are still listed, including EE E6827x-E6828y Digial Computer Design (Prof.

Lehmann), Math G4401x-4402y Numerical Analysis and Digital Computers (Prof. Sterbenz; I took this one several years later), Math G4413x The Use of lsat High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Computation (Dr. Kotchoubey), Math G4414y Introduction to Automata Theory and Formal Languages (Prof. Rickman), and Math G6428y Numerical Solutions of Differential Equations (Prof. Thomas). 1968: The Department of Electrical Engineering becomes the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. This was to be the locus for computer science instruction and course, research until the establishment of a separate Computer Science Department in 1979. Jan 1968: Raphael Ramirez starts work as an operator in lsat the machine room.

CLICK HERE to is a private essay read his reminiscences of the early days. Feb 1968: The IBM 7040 was removed [19]. Lsat Essays! CLEO, an grant writing classes online, interactive terminal monitor developed here, was released and announced [24]. Apr-May 1968: The Columbia student uprising of 1968 . Computer Center management and some of the staff feared the worst -- invasion, occupation, wreckage -- but nothing happened to the Computer Center at all. Essays! Peter Kaiser, who worked at the Computer Center at the time, recalls, The campus was in an uproar. So was much of America, and 550 word essay, the political powers that be were frightened and acting ugly; I have vivid memories of the NYC police lined up ready to do violence to lsat essays the students who had occupied the writing assignments administration building, which they eventually did by invading the lsat building and beating up everyone in rise sight. Before the police stormed the building, though, the computer center's administration feared that the essays center itself would be occupied, so there were worried talks about what to do if that ever happened. In the event it didn't happen, but the uproar delayed the delivery of the 360. Is A Private Affair! Jessica Gordon (the acting Director) reports spending two (not consecutive) nights sleeping (to the extent possible) at the Center when we were warned of major events.

One day I was standing on College Walk with a group of essays others [including Raphael Ramirez] watching the special Tactical Police [Force]. jack-booted thugs, marching onto campus. As they passed, one of them turned to us and said 'Hi there, sports fans!'. As a participant, I have no recollection of the Computer Center ever being considered as a target for occupation or attack, nor does the Computer Center's Annual report for 1967-68 make any mention of it [24]. However, there might have been a picket line afterwards, since picket lines went up in front of most academic buildings. Jul 1968: ADPC joins the Computer Center with its new director (yet to be chosen after York Wong resigned to resume his studies, but who would be Jon Turner) reporting to is a private affair research Ken King. Lsat Essays! Now there is One Computer Center. Conversion of rise of reality television ADP applications from IBM 1401/1410 to IBM 360 architecture begins; this would take until 1973 [20].

Legend has it, however, that some 1401 applications were left intact and executed on subsequent IBM 360-series mainframes by running a 1401 emulator under a 7090 emulator. Warren Goodell's 14 June 1968 letter announcing the change stresses that even more important than the lsat consolidation of writing all applications on the new equipment is the prospect of lsat increased freedom for interchange of rise essay ideas and techniques of programming and systems analysis between staffs now separated by artifical organization boundaries (AcIS archive). Sep 1968: The student (UI) consultant program is established (UI = Unsupported Instructional, the accounting class used for instruction). This program is still active today. Students with knowledge of Columbia's computer systems and applications are hired part-time to help users in lsat the public areas. Previously, all help and consulting were provided by full-time professional staff on a rotating basis. Afterwards, full-timers continued to take their turns, but now could devote more time to systems and applications development and support. For more about the free writing course origins of the student consulting system, READ THIS. Dec 1968: The IBM 7094, 1401, and 360/50 are removed. The 1401 is moved to the Controller's Office [19].

IBM 360 equipment at the end of 1968 consisted of [24]: Model 75 CPU 2075 with 2.5 million bytes of memory. Two processor storage units 2365 (512K total) Selector Channel 2860-II Drum storage control 2820 Drum storage unit 2301 (fixed-head cylindrical disk for swapping) Direct-access storage facility 2314 with 2844 2-channel control unit Two storage control units 2841 Data cell drive 2321 Eight disk storage drives 2311 Multiplexor channel 2780 Console typewriter 1052-7 Two card reader/printer controls 2821 Four printers 1403 with 1416 print train Two card reader/punches 2540 Two typewriter terminals 2740 Forty typewriter terminals 2741 Two communications adapters 2701 Display control 2848-I Ten display stations 2260-2 Two tape control units 2803 Two magnetic tape units 2402-2 (4 drives) Magnetic tape unit 2402-5 (2 drives) Two magnetic tape tape units 2402-6 (4 drives) On-Line CRT display Stromberg-Datagraphics 4060. With the exception of the lsat last item, all model numbers are IBM. Dec 1968: One of the mfa creative writing programs last gasps of the 7090/7094 system was an essays, early example of computer-generated film by a participant in the 1968 student uprising, Denys George Irving . Here (for as long as the link lasts) is his film “69”, and rise of reality television, here is a list of lsat other works of his. Mar 1969: The IBM 360/91 supercomputer (PHOTOS), one of the course first third generation computers and the biggest, fastest (and probably most expensive) computer on earth at lsat essays the time, is installed and coupled with the 360/75 [19]. Of Reality! Thus for the second time in 15 years, Columbia is home to lsat the world's fastest computer. Marriage Is A Private Essay! Only fifteen 360/91s were made and four of them were retained by IBM for essays their internal use (other 360/9x sites included Princeton University and grant writing classes, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on lsat essays West 112th Street, just a few blocks away); the giant computer took every inch of space in the Computer Center machine room. extensive renovations had to mfa creative programs made to accommodate its sprawling dimensions [20] (this is an understatement; in fact the Computer Center entrance had to be demolished just to get it in the door and most interior walls removed to lsat essays make space for it [V2#6]). IBM 360/91 with 2 million bytes of core memory; 60nsec machine cycle, 780nsec memory cycle, 120nsec effective memory access rate, and mfa creative writing online, an instruction cache (pipeline). Lsat Essays! An additional drum.

All of the peripherals and is a, equipment listed above for lsat the 360/75. Two full-time IBM technicians on site (Hans und Fritz?) The 360/75 became the online Attached Support Processor (ASP) for the 91, essentially a job scheduler and input/output controller, freeing the 91 for intensive computation. I don't have a photo of lsat our own Model 75, but HERE is one from IBM. Rather than rent the coupled 360/75/91 system as IBM proposed, the University purchased it outright for seven million dollars [19], to be amortized over course, seven or eight years (whether seven or eight was a point of much contention, as it affected the essays chargeback rates levied upon research grants; in fact it was in operation for rubrics for creative assignments more than eleven years; thus the decision to purchase saved about lsat essays fifteen million dollars). Course! Of the total cost, three million dollars was for lsat the 360/91 CPU, memory, and second drum; this was only half the list price due to the educational allowance that was negotiated. Free Course! The rest was for lsat essays the 360/75 and its peripherals. My own (perhaps inflated) recollection is rise television, that the 360/91 covered about an acre of lsat floor space, most of private research which was devoted to full-size cabinets each containing 16K of core memory, for a total of 2MB at about 8 square feet of lsat essays floorspace (and about 48 cubic feet) per writing online 16K, plus surrounding floorspace for access, times 300. Each memory cabinet had a glass door so you could look in and see each bit. All the disks, tapes, printers, Teletypes and everything else were in there too, plus a vast tape library and lsat essays, specialized test equipment such as the BOM (Byte Oriented Memory) tester. All this was powered through a gigantic cast-iron motor generator weighing who-knows-how-many tons (just the flywheel probably weighed a ton) putting out 400-some Volts 3-phase power, and for creative, cooled by distilled water trucked in by Deer Park in big glass bottles in wooden crates.

There was a control room in the basement full of pipes, valves, gauges, pumps, and water jugs and a mammoth cooling tower upstairs, venting half a million BTUs per hour into the atmosphere (Alan Rice, a physics PhD student who was also a night-shift operator, recalls an lsat, incident in which a heat alarm summoned the free course fire department, who were ready to chop the machine up with axes until he talked them out of it) . But the most impressive feature of the 360/91 was its control panel (PHOTO). The operators used to turn off the room lights and stare it at all night, waiting for the yellow loop mode light came on essays (executing a loop in the pipeline without accessing core memory); this was the sign of a well-crafted program. (For more about loop mode, READ THIS). There was an is a essay, ongoing bubble chamber experiment in the machine room, which began in the 7094 days. Stereo photographs of bubble chamber events were digitized using the High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD) Flying Spot Scanner (HPD might also stand for Hough-Powell Device), channel-attached to the 360/91, as was a very large IBM 2250 video display with light pen (this terminal alone was said to have cost $100,000), to lsat essays allow scientists to interactively select interesting events for analysis. This kind of work required physicists to for creative take the computer standalone for hours at a time, which became problematic in later years when it was in demand by the general academic and administrative computing population around the essays clock, and eventually the experiment was discontinued: the science for 550 word essay which the computer was originally acquired, and which provided much of the funding for it, was squeezed out by the mundane requirements of instruction and administration. The Stromberg-Carlson on-line CRT display (NEED PHOTO) was in fact a kind of graphics plotter, about the essays size of rise essay a panel truck, originally in the machine room but later parked outside in the hallway where it couldn't hurt the lsat other machines. Users created graphics images on the mainframe using a package called IGS, wrote them to 7-track magtape, and had the mfa creative programs operators feed the magtape to the plotter. The images were projected on a screen inside the lsat box; a 35mm camera -- no kidding -- would take a picture of the screen, and grant, then somehow disgorge its film, which would be developed in essays chemical baths, washed, and grant classes, mounted as a slide that would eventually pop out of the little output slot if all went well, which rarely was the case -- more often the essays machine leaked acid and/or caught fire. Later it was replaced by a Gould 5100 electrostatic flatbed plotter that could produce 100dpi monochrome plots up to about 3 feet wide on pungent white paper.

Various plotting packages (including one that Howard Eskin and I wrote that fitted lines, curves, and for creative assignments, splines to data points) were available for it on essays the mainframe only. Apr 1969: The Columbia Computer Center develops, funds, and conducts a 6-month training course in marriage affair essay computer skills for 23 students from the local Black and Latino communities: key punching and COBOL programming, with highly successful (96%) post-graduation job placement and lsat essays, followup. (V4#20). 1 Oct 1969: The first ARPANET transmission took place between the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) and grant online, Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Shortly thereafter connections were made to lsat the University of California at of reality television Santa Barbara and the University of Utah. The ARPANET expanded to thirteen sites by January 1971, 23 sites by April 1972, and eventually grew into today's wordlwide Internet. Membership was limited to US Department of Defense research grantees until the lsat essays early 1980s, at which time Columbia University would join. Dec 1969: The IBM 1130 at Lamont Geological (now Earth) Observatory in Palisades NY is connected to the Computer Center's IBM 360/91 by leased line for remote job entry (see Glossary), partially replacing the rise of reality essay previous messenger service. This was a first in long-haul networking at essays Columbia University (V4#23). (Peter Kaiser reports that Columbia Teachers College also had an rise television, IBM 1130, and it was connected as an RJE station in essays the same way prior to 1969, but since TC is just across 120th Street, it's not exactly long haul networking.)

1970: Read an excellent summary of the marriage is a research state of data communications in 1970: The IBM Data Communications Primer (PDF). Sep 1970: The IBM Watson Research Laboratory at Columbia University closes after 25 years of operation and a remarkable record of lsat essays discovery and achievement. The idea of corporate-sponsored multidisciplinary pure research pioneered here had proven so successful that IBM built a new and much larger facility in 1961 in rise of reality Yorktown Heights, NY, with others soon to lsat follow in San José, Zürich, and elsewhere, but its research headquarters remained at Columbia, IBM's first research laboratory, until 1970. The IBM T.J. Watson Research Center founded here in 1945 now spans four major facilities at grant three sites. The Columbia Computer Center offices and the Columbia Purchasing Department move to the Watson Lab building on 612 West 115th Street. Lsat Essays! The IBM-Columbia relationship continues for for creative assignments some time afterward mainly in the form of faculty appointments (in 1976 I took a graduate-level numerical analysis course in the Engineering School from one such professor, Pat Sterbenz, author of the book Floating-Point Computation ). IBM left behind a machine room with raised floor (back of 7th floor, where they had their 1620), a fully equipped classroom (back of 1), and lots of furniture including my 1940s-vintage Steelcase desk with metal Physics Dept ID plate attached (dating from lsat World War II when IBM moved into Pupin). During its residence at is a affair essay Columbia University, IBM Watson Laboratory staff had been granted 67 patents and published 359 articles in recognized scientific journals [9]. Dorothy Marshall [11] writes, The third floor [of 612 West 115th Street] was entirely without inner walls and contained large milling machines and other noisy tooling machines, as well as pipes, hoses, and exhaust ducts [but] the staff at Casa Hispanica felt they were extraordinarily crowded [so were glad for the additional space]. Nola Johnson writes in the same issue, I remember when we were packed like sardines in Casa Hispanica.

There would be three or four of essays us in one tiny room, complete with keypunch and marriage private, fireplace. Until about the essays mid-1970s, CUCC staff submitted jobs from Watson (as they had done from Casa Hispanica), and messengers went back and writing online, forth delivering decks of cards and rolled-up printouts. In fact, rolled-up printouts still arrived each day from essays a daily batch job that was submitted decades ago and 550 word essay, ran faithfully until 2004 when the Academic IBM mainframe was retired; nobody knew exactly what the batch job did or how to lsat cancel it. 31 Jan 1971: Professor Wallace Eckert, founder of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, attends the writing online Apollo 14 launch. The lunar orbit calculations upon which the essays Apollo missions were based were done by Eckert at Watson Laboratory and on the SSEC computer [42,92], designed at Watson Laboratory under Eckert's direction in the late 1940s, and later improved on the Lab's NORC, IBM 650, and 1620 computers, and writing, still later on the Computer Center's IBM 7094. Eckert died six months later. July 1971 - June 1973 The Columbia Computer Center publishes two annual Project Abstracts, in which every single research, instruction, and administrative project carried out on the IBM 360/91 is listed, as well as publications resulting from these projects. Lsat! In FY 1971-72 there were 119 publications and in 1972-73, 214 publications are listed. Each abstract is about 250 pages long; the marriage affair essay first one was generated by a SNOBOL program and printed on the 1403 printer; the second one was typeset somehow using programs written by Computer Center technical staff. Essays! I would call this the Golden Age of the Computer Center , reflecting an unparalleled degree of collaboration between the faculty and writing course, the Computer Center and lsat, the accomplishment of much work that might well have had an impact on marriage private affair the real world medicine, social research, physical sciences, engineering, every field was represented. Lsat Essays! Computer Center Technical staff participated in many of for creative these projects, and lsat essays, each project contributed a writeup.

The projects themselves are fascinating, about 100 pages of project description in each volume, about 5 projects per page. Aug 3-5, 1971: At the 550 word essay second annual Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) computer chess championship at ACM 71 in Chicago, the Columbia Computer Chess Program (CCCP) came in tied for 3-6 in lsat essays a field of mfa creative writing online 8. CCCP was written by Columbia student (and now CS faculty member) Steve Bellovin and CUCCA's Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and Andrew Koenig. For more about the development of CCCP, READ THIS. Aug 1971: Stanford University's Wylbur [49] is installed on the 360/75, replacing a previous system called CRBE. Lsat Essays! Wylbur is described as a terminal system with limited interactive capabilities, used as a remote job entry and on-line text-editing facilities. . Writing! Wylbur may be used with an IBM 2741 typewriter terminal or a Teletype device. Lsat Essays! At present CUCC's Wylbur does not support IBM 2260 terminals (early video terminals in the 2nd floor Computer Center terminal room); the Jan 1972 Newsletter announces their replacement with a similar CRT device, the grant writing classes Hazeltine 2000 (four of them) [V6#7]. The IBM 2741 was a Selectric typewriter embedded in a small-desk-size cabinet crammed with electronics and wires, which communicated at lsat 134.5 bits per second, half duplex (when it was the computer's turn to transmit, it physically locked the typewriter keyboard). There was also limited dialup access; in those days this was at 110 to mfa creative programs 300 bits per second by acoustically coupled modems. Lsat! More about Wylbur below. Oct 1971: Ken King resigns as Computer Center Director and moves to television CUNY as Dean of Computer Systems.

Later he would become president of lsat EDUCOM and Vice Chancellor of Computing at Cornell University. Dr. Warren F. Goodell, VP for grant online Administration, Ken's boss, assumes Acting Director position (V6#6), but since he was not on site, Jessica Hellwig (Gordon), who had previously been on the IBM Watson Lab computing staff [21] had day-to-day responsibility. (Newsletters of the early 70s were devoted mainly to JCL hints and tips, announcements of meetings and conferences, announcements of essays OS/360 upgrades, explanations of cost accounting, and lists of assignments unclaimed tapes in lsat essays the tape library -- up to 6 pages of numeric tape IDs on one occasion (in the Earth Week issue no less: V6#5, 15 Apr 1971) -- plus the annual April Fools Issue, usually featuring parodies of cost accounting. Rise Of Reality! Prior to 1971, they also contained abstracts or reports of research projects, e.g.

Motivating Learning in Interracial Situations (V5#2); French Business Elite Study, Jonathan Cole et al; Transport and essays, Fluid Mechanics in Artificial Organs, Ed Leonard et al (V5#13); as well as Computer Science Colloquia.) Dec 1971: Two IBM 2501 self-service card readers (PHOTO) installed in 208 Computer Center. The use of self-service card readers affords CUCC users much greater security for their decks at both the submission and the retrieval points of 550 word essay running a job. Users will be able to read in their own decks and keep them while the job is running -- thereby eliminating the risk of lsat loss or mishandling of the deck by writing online, the Center. Also, since input decks no longer need be left in the output bins, the exposure of users' JOB cards -- and therefore their project numbers -- to anauthorized persons [some things never change] will be significantly reduced. Essays! In addition to mfa creative writing this increased security, the lsat 2501's will also provide greater efficiency since the user will be able to discover and correct immediately such problems as off-punched cards [hanging and pregnant chad were evidently not an rise of reality television, issue in 1971] , rather than having to wait for the job to be processed by lsat, the Center. (V6#19) Also on the second floor was an IBM 360 Model 20 used for printing card decks onto fanfold paper, duplicating card decks, and so on; the desired function could be selected with a dial. There was (and had been for some time) a key punch room on the first floor. Later the Model 20 was moved to rubrics writing assignments the key punch room. Apr 1972: TPMON installed, allows terminal lines to be switched among different applications such as Wylbur ( and what else? ) rather than dedicated to a specific one.

Sep 1972: IBM OS/360 21.0 installed (V6#33). 1973: The following was posted by lsat, Arthur T. Murray on alt.folklore.computers , 22 May 2003: There is a tenuous etiological link between Columbia and the founding of Microsoft Corporation . Here in Seattle WA USA, a Columbia Ph.D. grad in astronomy, Dr. James R. Naiden -- now in his late eighties -- around 1973 was teaching Latin at The Lakeside School. 'Doc' Naiden observed that the rise of reality essay students were eager to essays get into computers, so he asked (Naiden was always starting things, e.g., he hired Vilem Sokol to run the Seattle Youth Symphony for marriage research many years; he also started a history-of-literature or some such group, still allegedly running at lsat the University of Washington) the Lakeside Mothers Club to free writing course donate some money from essays their annual Lakeside Rummage Sale to writing buying some computer time-share for essays the kids -- back then there were no personal computers. The Mothers put up one thousand dollars, which Bill Gates and Paul Allen ran through in a matter of free course weeks. Essays! Upshot: Columbia Doc Naiden Lakeside School Microsoft Corp. Jan 1973: V6#46 mentions twenty-five IBM 2741 terminals being replaced by (presumably compatible) Anderson-Jacobson 841 terminals, which were cheaper to rent ($88 versus $100 per month).

Feb 1973: The Self-Service Input/Output (SSIO) Area (PHOTO GALLERY) is opened on the first floor of the Computer Center building. Equipment included two card readers, two IBM 1403 printers, one online card punch (NEED PHOTO), a sorter, a collator, an writing, interpreter, a duplicator, four Hazeltine 2000 user terminals, and one job inquiry console -- all self service -- plus a large number of IBM 029 key punches, and a resident Insultant whom I remember well from my student days. The IBM 360 Model 20 was retired, replaced by a UNIVAC 1710 Interpreting Keypunch (V6#49, 21 Feb 1973). Now, for the first time, users could not only lsat submit their own jobs but also get the results themselves as soon as the job had run. Sometimes, standing in line at the card readers, were social scientists with data sets spanning 4 or 5 boxes of cards (2000 cards per box); submitting jobs of this size rarely proceeded without incident (jams, dropped decks). For Creative Writing Assignments! The normal student Open Batch job deck was a quarter inch thick and generally went through the system quickly. Lsat Essays! A Hazeltine 2000 ASP Job Inquiry station let you watch your job rise through the queue so you could elbow your way through the writing course crowd to the printer when your job output started.

Every night from 7 to essays 9pm was System Time, meaning the assignments Systems Group from lsat essays Watson Lab had the 360/91 to themselves and writing online, the readers and printers were shut down. The SSIO area was a miserable place during those two hours. More about SSIO HERE. More about lsat self-service computing just below in the entry for Sep 1973. 22 May 1973: Birth of Ethernet (a local area networking technology that would reach Columbia in the early 1980s and persist for decades), developed by 550 word essay, Bob Metcalfe of essays Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), which also gave us the writing assignments graphical user interface and desktop metaphor. May 1973: Resignation of Joe Gianotti (Assistant Director), Ira Fuchs (systems programmer, who would go on to direct the CUNY facility and to found BITNET, become President of CREN, etc.), Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and essays, other members of the Systems group, to join Ken King at CUNY, which was acquiring brand-new then-leading-edge IBM 370/168 hardware (V6#54).

Soon more would follow. May 1973: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist is appointed the writing online new Director of the Columbia University Computer Center (he would assume full-time duties in essays July). He also receives an appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Bruce was a co-inventor of the fast adder while at the Princeton Institute of Advanced Study (1955), then Director of Computing at the University of Syracuse (mid-to-late 1950s), joined IBM in 1959 and became manager of IBM's Service Bureau and Data Processing divisions (1963-68). While at IBM Bruce was Secretary and writing, then Vice President of the Association for Computing Machinery, ACM (1960-64), and lsat, afterwards was President and Executive Director of the American Federation of Information Processing Societies, AFIPS (1968-73). His final project at writing classes Columbia was the essays installation of the mfa creative writing $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just the University's first digital telephone system, but also the way that almost every single room (inclusing in dormitories) on the Morningside campus got high-speed data access. Sep 1973: Bruce introduced the Open Batch system (V6#60), opening up The Computer to the masses for the first time, and renamed CUCC (Columbia University Computer Center) to CUCCA (Columbia University Center for Computing Activities), in recognition that computing was beginning to take place outside the machine room. SSIO soon became unbelievably crowded. 1974: Snapshot: When I came to the CUCCA Systems Group in 1974, Dr. Howard Eskin was manager of Systems (197?-1984), with joint appointment to the EE/CS faculty, where he taught the Data Structures and Compiler courses.

The big languages for systems programming then were 360 assembler, APL, PL/I and SPITBOL (a SNOBOL dialect). CUCCA included both academic and administrative computing under a single director, all in the Watson building at 612 W 115th Street. Administrative computing (ADP) shared floors 2-5 with the Purchasing Office, the Director's office and administrative staff on lsat essays 6, academic on 7-8. Offices had chalkboards for online scribbling ideas and diagrams. People used Hazeltine terminals at 1200 bps, connected to a multiplexer in lsat essays the back of 7 that was connected by of reality television essay, leased telephone line to the 3705 in the machine room, and that always conked out on rainy days. There was no e-mail.

The Penthouse was a kind of cafeteria, with tables and essays, chairs (I remember checkered tablecloths and gingham curtains) and a working, if rarely-used, kitchen. Free! The back of the first floor was a large classroom (now divided into the network and lsat, mail rooms); across from the elevator was a big Xerox copying room (Joe Iglesias), and there was a grand lobby and free writing, reception area, approximately where the art gallery is now, plus some administrative offices (Helen Ransower). There was a shower in the basement (later converted to a darkroom by Andy Koenig, and later to a weight-lifting room by Lloyd, the messenger/front-desk guy, an Olympic hopeful). The Penthouse later became a ping-pong room (for Vace), then AIS offices, later it was divided between the essays Kermit machine/production room and a sometimes-office sometimes-conference-room, and finally all offices. The back of the 7th floor was an IBM machine room dating from the 1950s, complete with raised floor, space phone floor-tile pullers, and communication cables radiating out to all the rubrics for creative offices. The famous 1957 book about IBM, Think [8], speaks of lsat teak paneling and cozy fireplaces, but those were in the first Watson Lab, not this one. In those days, the Computer Center had a certain academic standing not only grant writing classes through faculty appointments, but also for its RD activities and library. The non-circulating research library (not to be confused with the lsat Thomas J Watson Library of the Business School) in room 209 of the Computer Center Building was a full-fledged branch of the Columbia Library, complete with card catalog and librarian (the original librarians were Julia Jann and Hugh Seidman; Nuala Hallinan [20] was librarian from 1966 to writing 1973, succeeded by Evelyn Gorham). The holdings, cataloged in Butler Library, included computer science books and journals as well as computer manuals and Computer Center handouts [25].

New acquisitions continued until at least 1973. Eventually (about 1980) the collection was transferred to the Engineering Library. Several technical staff members performed pure RD , for example Richard Siegler who worked half-time on an AI medical diagnosis assistant in lsat essays SPITBOL with Dr. Marriage Affair! Rifkin at the Medical Center. An annual catalog, the Columbia University Bulletin, Computing Activities [7] was published, as well as a Technical Abstract of each year's research projects.

CUCCA was co-sponsor (with EE/CS) of the University Colloquium in Computer Science . There was an alliance with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on 112th Street, which had one of the lsat essays four existing IBM 360/95s. The academic user community was quite small. There were weekly user meetings where everybody could fit into one room; sometimes they were held in the Watson Penthouse. 1974-78: Heyday of Wylbur , and rise of reality television essay, the age of the Hazeltine 2000 video terminal mainly on Olympus (aside from essays four Hazeltines available to users in 208 Computer Center: V6#22). Wylbur was an interactive linemode editor that could be used from a hardcopy or video terminal. It was far more than an rubrics for creative, editor, however; it was the equivalent of the latter-day shell; users lived in Wylbur all day, writing Wylbur execs (like shell scripts), programs, and JCL; submitting jobs, querying jobs, sending screen messages (but not e-mail) to essays each other, and so on. Wylbur originally came from Stanford but was improved beyond recognition by Dave Marcus and later Vace Kundakci, who also converted it to TSO and later to VM/CMS. It's still used today on our IBM mainframes, but unfortunately we could never export it due to licensing issues. Rise Of Reality Essay! Eventually Wylbur terminals -- hardwired to lsat essays the 3705 -- were available to writing online departments; sometimes these were video terminals, sometimes IBM 2741 (IBM hardcopy terminals made from Selectric typewriters). When developing software on the mainframe, writing in assembler, Fortran, PL/I, etc (compiled, not interpreted, languages), programs would often dump core because of faulty instructions (bugs, mistakes).

In those days, a core dump meant a literal dump of literal core memory to the printer, in hex, sometimes several feet thick. To find the fault, programmers would have to decode the core dump from the listing by hand, separating instructions, addresses, and data -- a lost art (and good riddance!) When the DEC-20s arrived on the scene, it became possible to analyze and lsat, debug core images (and even running programs) interactively and symbolically with a tool called (what else) DDT, and debugging tasks that once took days or weeks became quick and even fun. Grant Online! DDT-like tools live on today in Unix as 'adb' and essays, 'gdb'. May 1974: Snapshot: Wylbur has 500 users. CALL/360 has 50-100 users.

There are 2000 batch users. 50% of rise essay each programmer's time is spent helping users. ADP submits 10% of the batch jobs but uses 50% of the lsat essays machine. Because of their EAM backgrounds, the Registrar's and Controller's Offices consider the 360/91 a large sorter. 90% of billing is for funny money. Grant Writing! Technical staff turnover is too high, talented people can not be retained. Essays! [33] 1974-75: First proof of 550 word essay concept home computers introduced (Mark-8, Altair).

1975: IBM 3705 communications front end replaced by an NCR COMTEN (which lasted until August 1998), after a two-week training course in the Watson Lab classroom in the back of the 1st floor. Jul 1975: A DEC PDP-11/50 minicomputer (PHOTOS) was installed, running the lsat RSTS/E timesharing system (we considered UNIX, but it was not nearly ready for large-scale production use in a hostile environment). This was the first true general-purpose public-access timesharing system (not counting APL and CALL/OS (aka CALL/360), which were both OS/360 subsystems (essentially batch jobs, each of which controlled a number of writing classes terminals simultaneously); the latter was only for the Business School and APL, though open to the public, required special terminals which were not to be found in abundance, and was not exactly user friendly). RSTS/E was to be a small pilot project to absorb the CALL/OS users and attract new ones. 32 people could use it at lsat essays a time (because it had 32 terminals). Accounts were free. Within a few months of installation, it was already logging nearly ten times the writing usage that CALL/OS had at its peak [19]. (From Bandit, 6 July 2010) CALL/360 was written for Buck Rogers of essays IBM by seven guys who had worked together at 550 word essay GE in Phoenix, then moved to the San Jose Bay Area. They wrote CALL/360 for a fixed-price, 10 month contract.

I cannot remember everybody, but included Sherbie Gangwere (my father), Charlie Winter, Jim Bell, George Fraine, Don Fry, Dick Hoelnle (sp?) and . (The last one, I think, is the only one that made it big - he wrote a core network system that got sold off.) Also - Jerry Wienberg, now a famous author, was probably shipped along with the lsat IBM 704. He was sent with the first 10 machines, and taught many how to program it. The primary programming language (like in CALL/OS) was BASIC (another reason why RSTS was chosen over UNIX, which didn't have BASIC), but Fortran and Macro-11 were also available. As I recall, the PDP-11/50 cost about $150,000. It occupied a fairly large room (208) in 550 word essay the Computer Center down the hall from the IBM machine room, and was comprised of four full-width cabinets (CPU, tape drive, communications, I forget what else) and essays, a 92MB RP04 3330-type disk drive, plus a 2K fixed-head drive for marriage is a private research swapping (RS04?). I took care of it myself (backups and all) for maybe a year, then Ben Beecher joined me and later also some part-timers. Ben and I sat in lsat essays the room with it full-time for a couple years. Our terminals were DECwriters (later VT05, VT50, VT52, and finally VT100, and at one point a GE Terminet, that worked and sounded like a bandsaw).

But even without the Terminet, the room was so loud we had to wear airport ear-protectors. Ben was RSTS manager after the DEC-20s came in 1977. Eventually RSTS had a user population of grant writing 1700. It was retired in 1982. Jul 1975: The IBM 1410 in the Controller's Office is replaced by lsat essays, an IBM 370/115 [19]. Mid 1970s: Here begins the decline of centralized campus computing. Minicomputers begin to sprout in the departments, encouraged by government grants that would buy equipment but wouldn't pay for central computer time. (The same trend was evident at other universities; it created the need for writing classes campus networking, and thus -- since a way was needed to interconnect all these campus networks -- the Internet.) Some of the essays early departmental minis I remember were the SEL 810B, Applied Physics also had an Imlac graphics processor (which never worked) and 550 word essay, several early PDP-8 models for lsat controlling experiments.

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, I worked in Applied Physics and used the departmental computers for both work and EE/CS projects. Private Affair Essay! The SEL (Systems Engineering Laboratories, later Gould) 810B (1968) was the most advanced, since it had i/o devices and could be programmed in Fortran and lsat, assembly language. Marriage Essay! It had 16K of memory, 2 registers, Teletype, paper tape, card reader, drum printer, and an oscilloscope-like CRT display for graphics; CLICK HERE to see a picture of the SEL 810A, which is like the 810B but without extra i/o devices. However, its hard disk was not generally used for storing programs or data due to lack of space. Instead, programs were read from cards or paper tape; this required toggling in lsat essays a bootstrap program on the console switches: a series of 16-bit words was deposited in successive memory locations and then executed to rise of reality essay activate the Teletype as the lsat essays control device, which could be used in turn to activate the card or paper tape reader to read the program. 550 Word Essay! Production programs were generally punched in lsat object format onto paper tape (since the paper tape reader/punch was much faster than the card reader). CLICK HERE to see the SEL 810B Manual. The PDP-8 computers in the same lab had no Teletype, card reader, or paper tape; they were programmed directly from the for creative writing assignments console switches and i/o was magtape only. The Physics Department in Pupin Hall had a DEC PDP-4, several PDP-8s, a PDP-9, and lsat essays, a PDP-15; Electrical Engineering had a PDP-7 on the 12th floor of Mudd, that we studied down to the gate level in the 1970s EE/CS Computer Architecture course. (The PDP-7 is also the machine for which the UNIX operating was originally written at Bell Labs in the late 1960s.) The keypunch room was on free the 2nd floor of Engineering Terrace near the back exit, connected by tunnel to lsat the SSIO area. Marriage! There were often long waits for punches. The 1976 Bulletin [7] also lists:

A DEC PDP-11/45 and GT/40 Graphics Computer in essays Biology (Schermerhorn). A HP 2100 in online programs Chemical Engineering (Prentis). Essays! A DG Nova 1220 and 3 DEC PDP-8s in free course Chemistry (Havemeyer). Essays! A DG Super Nova in EE/CS (Mudd). plus various special-purpose computers for writing course Fourier transforms, etc, some of lsat essays them possibly analog (rather than digital) on campus, as well as all sorts of computing equipment at the outlying campuses (no doubt a tale in itself). 1976: Andy Koenig's RSTS e-mail program, the first e-mail at CU. Andy was a prominent member of the CUCCA technical staff (reponsible for at least APL and free writing course, PL/I) who went on to Bell Labs and fame with C++. His dad is lsat, Dr.

Seymour H. Koenig, who was at Watson Lab from 1952 to 1970, and its director from 1967 [9,17]. Andy's frequent co-author is Barbaro Moo, also formerly of CUCCA. (Note: it's possible that email was used earlier in within certain departments, notably those (like Biology) that had Unix-based minicomputers, I don't know, but in any case this was the first email available to the general University population.) Nowadays most of the University conducts its business by e-mail, and it has been an enormous productivity booster, eliminating telephone tag, enabling one-to-many messaging, and filling an mfa creative, ever-increasing role in instruction and research. As early as 1983 (the 9 Feb 1983 Newsletter, V15#2, is full of allusions to this), professors were sending assignments to their classes by essays, e-mail and collecting results the same way, with the grant online added benefit of questions and essays, answers and other discussions that could not fit in the classroom schedule. Readers who were not exposed to electronic mail prior to the Internet explosion of the mid-1990s probably won't appreciate how much more useful and marriage private, pleasant it was before then, even in its original text-only format. Today I typically have several hundred messages waiting for lsat me each morning (after central filtering!), of which 98% are spam, advertisements, promotions, junk mail, get-rich-quick schemes, invitations to Exclusive High-Powered Executive Webcasts and Enterprise Leadership Webinars, chain letters, be-my-friend-and-share-photos, inspirational Powerpoints, strategic partnerships, office humor, world class enterprise solutions, body-part enhancements, business best practices, claim your lottery winnings, claim your inheritance, claim your fund, Dear beloved, I am dying, I don't want you to feel sorry for me, Beloved in Christ, Dear beneficiary, Complements of the season, confidential matter, delinquent accounts, cash grant award, designer watches, investment opportunities, work-at-home opportunities, get your diploma, grow your business, increase your profitability, Dear entrepreneur, Take this five-minute survey, offers from soldiers in our many wars who found barrels full of money, I want to place an order with your store, low-interest loans, your account is expired, Viagra, Cialis, lonely hearts, Russian beauties, update your information, bounce notifications about mail you didn't send, and deliberate attempts at implanting viruses (Windows e-mail attachments containing viruses or worms have no effect on my UNIX-based plain-text mail client) -- or security alerts or complaints about all of these. In the 1970s and 80s, by contrast, practically every e-mail message was legitimate, worth reading, and usually only 1-2K bytes in 550 word essay length, and essays, could not possibly hurt your computer (not strictly true; it was possible to put an escape sequence in an email message that, if it arrived intact at certain kinds of terminals, could make them automatically transmit any desired text back to the host, but even if you had a terminal that responded to the escape sequence, this rarely could cause any serious demage because an email client would be on the receiving end, not the system command prompt) . Even when e-mail is exchanged between consenting parties, the demands posed by multimedia attachments -- Microsoft Word documents, Powerpoints, spreadsheets, images, audio and video clips, even entire music CDs or motion pictures -- have coerced the University to constantly upgrade its network and mail server capacity, and writing online, of course the costs are inevitably passed back to the consumer in lsat essays the form of writing tuition or overhead increases and/or cutbacks in lsat essays other areas.

1976: Hot newsletter topics: APL, the Gould plotter, PL/I, SPSS, BMDP, ASP3, Syncsort, Crosstabs with Multipunch. Dec 1976: The Xerox 1200 -- first non-impact printer: a big Xerox machine that printed on plain paper, in portrait or landscape. Plain monospace (Courier) font only; no special effects (other than simulated line-printer-paper stripes). I don't remember exactly where the mfa creative writing programs input came from -- either it had an IBM mainframe channel connection, or else it read from lsat essays 9-track magnetic tape, but in any case it was possible to print on it from both the IBM and DEC systems. 1977: (Month?) Because the IBM 360/91 was more suited to 550 word essay scientific calculations and lsat essays, lacked decimal arithmetic, and because of security questions posed by the Open Batch system, which opened it up to the student population, ADP acquires a separate mainframe exclusively for rise administrative work, an IBM 370/138 located in essays the Computer Center machine room and running VM/CMS (later to be upgraded to essay research 370/148, 3031 (1979), 3083 (1983), 3090 (1986), etc).

A new Personnel (now we would say Human Resources) system was developed for the 370 in lsat essays house, and administrative applications began to migrate from punch cards and for creative assignments, batch to interactive online systems [20]. The arrival of the IBM 370 launches an effort to lsat convert administrative applications from batch to marriage is a essay online, with IBM 3270 block-mode terminals allowing interactive access to lsat essays administrative systems such as student records, accounts receivable, and so on. Jul 1977: The IBM 370/115 in the Controller's Office is online programs, removed. I believe this was the last outpost of department-level mainframe administrative computing. Jul 1977: The blackout of lsat 1977 . Is A Private Essay! No electricity for two days (July 13-14).

Howard (Eskin) and I were in lsat essays Watson Lab the evening of the mfa creative writing online 13th working on the floor plan for lsat the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room when the lights went out. Writing! We were also in the middle of our first DEC-20 installation, a six-week process (so two lost days were not a disaster). Aug 1977: Our PDP-11/50 was invaded (via modem) by a gang of prep-school kids, who had their way with it undetected for several weeks. This was the lsat first hacker breakin to a Columbia computer from the outside, and it went to court. It cost us nearly a week of round-the-clock systems work and rubrics for creative writing assignments, delayed the DEC-20 opening by a week. Later the same group invaded other RSTS systems and even (as I recall) destroyed a cement company in Quebec. The prep school in essays question had purchased a PDP-11 with RSTS and assignments, let the students run it without supervision; thus the students had hands-on access and full privileges, with ample opportunity to probe their own system for vulnerabilities, write Trojan-horse replacements for lsat essays system software, etc, in-house before attacking external sites, and indeed they did a good job: their modified LOGIN program let them in silently, with full root privileges; the modified accounting programs did not list their sessions; the writing modified DIRECTORY program did not list their directories or files; the modified SYSTAT program did not show their jobs, and so on.

Eventually they tipped their hand by accidentally printing a password list on a public printer, and we tracked them down using methods remarkably similar to those used by Cliff Stoll 10 years later to catch the German hackers at Berkeley [46] (see 1986-87 below), such as Y-connecting hardcopy terminals to the modems to log dialin sessions. Aug 1977: Our first DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A (PHOTOS), was installed for large-scale timesharing. Essays! Accounts were free and available to all (or maybe there was a one-time $5.00 fee; later, per-semester or per-course fees would be added). It cost 800,000 dollars [19] and was much larger than the PDP-11, a row of rise of reality essay double-width orange cabinets about 10 feet long, plus four 178MB RP06 washing-machine-size 3350-type disk drives, but unlike the PDP-11, had little in the way of lsat essays lights and switches (if you didn't count the mfa creative PDP-11/40 communications front end hidden inside it). It had 256K 36-bit words of main memory, two 800/1600bpi TU45 tape drives (later TU77, TU78), an lsat essays, LP20 drum printer (mainly for backup listings), and an LA36 system console hardcopy terminal. It also had a DN20 communications processor (PDP-11/34 concealed in orange full-size cabinet) for remote job entry (see Glossary) to the IBM mainframes. CU20A was originally a model 2040, and so it had core memory and grant writing classes, no cache; later it was upgraded to essays a 2050 and then a 2065; the core became MOS and cache was added, memory increased to 2MB.

Each user got 35KB (that's KB, not MB or GB) of of reality disk space. Lsat Essays! The first DEC-20 marked the beginning of the online campus in 550 word essay which the computer was used not just for calcalation and essays, programming, but also communication among users and (eventually) with the outside world. The DEC-20 was a member of the DEC's 36-bit PDP-10 line of computers, which descended from the PDP-6, first produced in 1964, and which itself has its roots in the 36-bit IBM 700 series that goes back to writing 1952. Lsat! PDP-10s, however, were distinct from 20s: they had a different operating system (TOPS-10 instead of TOPS-20); they came in a variety of models (KA, KI, KL, KS), whereas DEC-20s came in only KL and KS models; PDP-10s were more suited to hands-on lab work, with all sorts of writing programs devices and attachments lacking from the -20s such as real-time bus-attached instruments; DECtapes, paper tape, and graphics devices; they could be installed in multiprocessor configurations; and they were blue rather than orange. DEC-20s could run TOPS-10 applications in an emulation mode, but not vice versa, and until the very end, quite a bit of DEC-20 software was indeed native to TOPS-10 (e.g. the linker and most of the compilers). The DEC-20 pioneered all sorts of advanced concepts such as a swappable monitor (kernel), lightweight processes (threads), page mapping, shared pages with copy-on-write, hardware assisted paging, and other techniques to allow large numbers of users access to a limited resource (CLICK HERE for details). Nevertheless, our first DEC-20 was soon loaded far beyond capacity , and the ensuing years were a constant struggle to lsat get funding for more DEC-20s: budget proposals, user meetings (for which, by marriage private affair essay research, now, large auditoriums were required), even outdoor campus demonstrations. But DEC-20s were expensive; they demanded copious floor space and lsat essays, air conditioning, as well as 3-phase power with isolated ground (a 10-foot copper stake literally driven into bedrock outside the television CUCCA loading dock).

Annual maintenance alone was something like $100,000 per essays machine, and each one carried an additional $10,000 electric bill. 550 Word Essay! Therefore adding DEC-20s was difficult and painful. There were all sorts of revenue-raising schemes and lsat, eventually we had 4 of them, CU20A through CU20D, serving 6000 users, up to grant 70 or 80 logged in simultaneously on each. Additional DEC-20s for instruction and lsat essays, research were installed at Teachers College and in the Computer Science department. DEC-20s were fairly reliable for their day. Unlike the rise television IBM mainframe with its scheduled two-hour nightly System Time, the DEC-20s were kept running and available all the time except for a couple hours (usually outside of prime time) every week or two for preventive maintenance by DEC Field Service. Lsat Essays! But by today's standards they crashed frequently anyway, usually because of power glitches; so often, in fact that somebody had a batch of %DECSYSTEM-20 NOT RUNNING T-shirts made up (this was the dying gasp of the DEC-20 as it went down). Whenever a DEC-20 was up for more than 100 hours, people became quite excited. The record was just shy of 800 hours (about a month); MTBF was under 100 hours (4 days). By comparison, today (8 Feb 2001) I have an HP workstation in television my office that has been up continuously for lsat essays 883 days (that's more than 21,000 hours), despite numerous brownouts and course, momentary power failures, and that's without a UPS (eventually its running streak was interrupted at 900-some days when electricians needed to shut off power to the floor to replace the circuit-breaker panel).

For lots more about the Columbia DEC-20s, CLICK HERE. (The Gandalf PACX IV terminal switch was installed around here somewhere. Prior to that terminals were hardwired using various forgotten technologies like 20mA Current Loop. The PACX was a speed-transparent 1000x1000 switch, driven by little blue PACX boxes on the user end, with thumbwheels to dial the lsat essays desired service and an on/off switch.) 1977-78: Use of e-mail takes off. Free! Also video editing (EMACS, etc), text formatting and typesetting (Pub, Scribe, later T E X). In April 1978, we (Bill Catchings) write a bboard (bulletin board) program, a kind of precursor to Netnews, Twitter, etc, where everybody on campus could sound off in public. Various bboards were available, including course-specific boards, topical boards, and essays, a general (any topic) board, and is a essay research, were unmoderated and uncensored.

CLICK HERE for a study of Columbia's computer bulletin boards in the early 1980s. EMACS, by the way, was created at essays the MIT AI Lab on a PDP-10 running MIT's Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) by Richard Stallman, building upon writing assignments, the venerable Text Editor and COrrector, TECO, written in 1962-63 for the DEC PDP-1 by Dan Murphy, who was also largely responsible for TOPS-20, the operating system on lsat our DECSYSTEM-20s. I first used TECO in 1972 on writing a PDP-11/20 with the DOS/Batch operating, at the Teletype console. The first release of EMACS was in 1976 and we were using it at lsat Columbia on CU20A by 1977. Columbia's systems group made numerous contributions to EMACS; for example, Chris Ryland added split-screen editing. Programs! In the essays 1980s EMACS would be completely rewritten in LISP, to become the now-universal GNU EMACS, one of the most prominent surviving relics of the heyday of the for creative assignments DEC 36-bit mainframes. Jan 1978: The 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room opens (V10#2). Lsat Essays! This was the rise first public terminal room outside the Computer Center building. The Columbia architects had a field day, decorating it in bilious hot pink like a bordello, with trendy globe lighting. Lsat Essays! (The April Fools 1978 issue of the Newsletter (V10#5) presents the coveted Louis XVI Alive with the writing Arts award to essays the Department of Buildings and Grounds [now Facilities Management] for their exceptional work in recreating the atmosphere of an 18th century French palace. . Columbia's resident architect was entreated to comment on the bizarre appearance of the new terminal room. Is A Private Essay Research! ) Notwithstanding the decor, the room was laid out according to essays our floorplan (Howard Eskin and grant classes, I designed it), divided into cubicles about 4 feet high so people would have privacy when sitting, but could stand up to essays chat and hand things back and forth. There was a common area where people could congregate, and a glassed-in machine room containing a DN200 and a Printronix heavy-duty dot-matrix printer.

Each cubicle had a terminal and a spacious working surface for grant writing online books and papers and its own reading light. Large cubicles had LA36 DECwriters (hard-copy 132-column dot-matrix printers operating at 30 cps on pin-feed green-and-white striped fanfold paper) and lsat, the smaller ones had Perkin-Elmer Fox-1100 CRTs operating at 9600 bps (this was the 550 word essay first affordable CRT, costing about $500, compared to most others that cost a thousand dollars and lsat, up). Each cubicle also had a PACX box to let users select the service they wanted to use (DEC-20, RSTS, Wylbur). Eventually the lab was re-architected, expanded, and . . . REDECORATED. Too bad if you missed it (does anybody have a color photo of the original?) Mar 1978: APL conversion from IBM to DEC-20 was a big topic for many months. Special terminals (Datamedia APL with APL keyboard, later Concept/APL) had to private research be installed for APL users. To further encourage IBM to essays DEC migration, I wrote a mini-Wylbur (Otto) for the DEC-20; Joel and his brother worked on a full Wylbur implementation for some time but it's not done yet. Apr 1978: The CUCCA Telephone Directory and Consulting Schedule.

As you can see there were 100 full-timers on staff: academic computing, administrative computing, librarians, administrative staff, data communications, machine room operators, and management. Compared to 15 in 1965 and over 300 in 2010. Note too that in those days the technical staff helped users in person in three locations (two in SSIO, one in for creative Mudd) and at other times they answered calls from users on their own phones no call processing, no screening, no trouble tickets, no hiding behind web pages, no bureacracy. UI's were students working part-time; anything they couldn't handle would be passed along to full-timers in User Services or Systems. Many of the UI's listed on the schedule went on to become full timers and lsat, some even managers. Rubrics For Creative Writing! (Consulting schedule by lsat, Dave Millman, printed on the Diablo daisy-wheel printer.) 1 May 1978: The first spam (junk commercial) e-mail was sent 1 May 1978 1233-EDT from grant classes DEC-MARLBORO.ARPA (a DEC-20) to all ARPANET contacts, whose e-mail addresses were harvested from the WHOIS database, advertising new DEC-20 models. More about this HERE. May 1978: OS/360 21.8 (which was released by IBM in 1970) installed on the IBM 360/91.

Eight years in the making! The ex-CUCC systems people who defected to CUNY had to come back and teach nightly classes on OS/360 and what they had done to it (many things, including over 200 modifications for lsat accounting and is a, resource-limitation purposes) before their replacements could bring up the new release without fear of losing something vital. May 1978: Tektronix 4010 graphics a big topic in the newlsetters. (Somewhere put the succession of User Services managers: Tom D'Auria, Bob Resnikoff, Bruce Tetelman, Tom Chow, Mark Kennedy, Maurice Matiz, Rob Cartolano, Jeff Eldredge, I know I must be leaving somebody out. ) and essays, SSIO (Marianne Clarke, Lois Dorman, Chris Gianone, . ) and Systems Assurance (later Data Communications: Rich Nelson, Seung-il Choe, Wolfie, . ) and CUCCA business managers (Peter Bujara, Neil Sachnoff, Patty Peters, Bob Bingham, Julie Lai. ) About User Services, Maurice Matiz adds: User Services existed only up to early in my era. After Vace's appointment and my appointment (I believe the for creative writing only two managerial and higher level appointments that required a trying and complete interview by lsat, the whole University occurred in of reality television late 1989) did the groups that now define AcIS get created except that User Services comprised three groups. User Services stayed until Jeff Eldrege's group was spun out of lsat essays my group, which had grown to over 25 people, in late 1994. (My diagramed proposal is dated 11/28/94.) At that time we changed names. Jeff's group became the Support Center and is a essay, my group was renamed Academic Technologies. Also spun out at the time was what became EDS to report to Walter Bourne. Dec 1978: First mention of UNIX by lsat, CUCCA in public (referring to the BSTJ UNIX issue [15]). V10#18.

1979: The Computer Science Department was created as a separate entity (previously it was part of the EE Dept) with Joseph Traub from online programs CMU as Chair, and a $200,000 donation from IBM. Joe had been a Watson Fellow in Applied Mathematics in 1958-59 [9]. The Computer Science Building was constructed 1981-83 [12]. Before long a DECSYSTEM-20, several VAX-11/750s, and numerous workstations (early Suns and others) would be installed in the new CS facility. Jan 1979: Public terminals were available in SSIO (20), 272A Engineering Terrace (14), Furnald Lobby (4), 224 Butler (4), and Hartley Lobby (4). V11#2. Systems Assurance staff (Bob Galanos) would make the rounds on a daily basis to fix broken terminals, usually by replacing fuses taken out by students to reserve terminals for their own use. Feb 1979: Scribe, Diablo, printwheel lore dominates the Newsletter. Big business in printwheels.

The Diablo was a typewriter-like terminal with a daisy-wheel print mechanism capable of proportional spacing, superscripts and subscripts, and even boldface (by doublestriking) and lsat, italics (by swapping printwheels). The CUCCA newsletter was printed on classes online the Diablo for some years, and Diablos were deployed in essays public areas for users. Scribe included a Diablo driver, which produced .POD (Prince Of Darkness) files for it, and we wrote software to spool these files to grant writing online the Diablo itself, allowing pauses to change paper or printwheels. Printwheels were available in essays a variety of fonts and alphabets, but weren't cheap ($98 springs to writing mind). Aug 1979: COMND JSYS package written for SAIL (so we could write user-friendly programs for the DEC-20 in lsat essays a high-level language). Grant Writing Classes! Andy Lowry and essays, David Millman. Sep 1979: HP2621 industrial-strength video terminals installed in Mudd and elsewhere, including a new lab in is a private essay Carman Hall. This was the face of CUCCA to our users; many of them thought the DEC-20s were made by essays, HP.

These are monochrome text terminals with good editing capabilties (for EMACS) and solidly built. Some had built-in thermal printers. A few units are still to private affair be found here in lsat essays good working order. 1979-80: Chris Ryland and I write a 200-plus-page guide to DEC-20 assembly-language programming. We were thinking of turning it into a book but Ralph Gorin of Stanford University beat us to it. 1980: Instructional computing capacity badly needs expansion. At this point, CUCCA has three instructional systems: the IBM 360/91 Open Batch system (soon to be retired), the PDP-11/50 (fully saturated), and a single DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A, which is in constant demand and heavily overburdened. There is much gathering of statistics to understand usage patterns. Of Reality Essay! In response to student and faculty demands, the Collery Committee (Arnold Collery was Dean of Columbia College) was appointed to make recommendations.

The instructional computers were overloaded, but why? Was the new usage real or frivolous? A witch-hunt was launched against text processing (preparing papers on essays the computer, sending e-mail, etc). Some prominent faculty advocated banning it (this never came to pass; CUCCA opposed it vigorously). CPU and connect-time limits were to 550 word essay be instituted. Fees were to be increased. Various disincentives would be established against using the computers during prime time. The tug of war between demand and lsat essays, resources is a persistent theme in academic computing. There has never been, and probably never will be, a clear linkage between demand and supply.

Whenever resources (such as computer time, disk space, modems, network bandwidth) become scarce, as they always do, funding for 550 word essay expansion does not flow automatically (nor should it). Lsat Essays! First there is writing, a demand for a precise accounting of how, for lsat what, and by whom the current resources are being consumed, the gathering of which in turn taxes the resources still futher. Once the information is obtained, demands to flush out inappropriate use -- whose definition varies with the times (e.g. network capacity versus Napster in 2000) -- quickly follow. Of course instructional computing on the DEC-20s was true to this pattern. CU20A drove itself near to melting by accounting for itself. And then complicated limits were imposed on CPU time, connect time, and every other imaginable resource (using locally written software) until the interactive computing experience was surpassingly unpleasant for everyone: students, faculty, and staff alike. Relief was still more than a year away. One of the measures taken to alleviate the free writing load on CU20A was to abolish the lsat essays free perpetual student user IDs and writing online, replace them with class-related IDs that lasted only for the duration of each course. While this ensured that the DEC-20 was used only for legitimate purposes, it also made it impossible for students to build up a corpus of lsat tools and information they could use throughout their Columbia experience. Writing Online! A series of discussions took place throughout 1980 exploring different possibilites for providing students with some form of self-service, inexpensive, removeable media. The result was Kermit . Jan 1980: CUCCA announces its intention to connect to ARPANET, V12#1 (but without any firm prospects of doing so, since in those days the lsat only entree was a big Defense Department grant, which we didn't have and didn't want).

In the meantime, however, staff (but not end-users) had access through our DECnet link to COLUMBIA-20.ARPA , the 550 word essay Computer Science DEC-20 (July 1983), and prior to that by dialup to the NYU Elf and guest accounts at lsat essays Rutgers, Harvard, Stanford, CMU and elsewhere. The ARPANET was important, among other reaons, because it was how DECsystem-10 and DECSYSTEM-20 software developers could work together (by email) and share code (by FTP), and this was the beginning of the open software movement . It is important to recall that in those days we were paid to develop and share software. Private Essay Research! Nowadays most open (free) software is lsat essays, created by unpaid volunteers . Feb 1980: DECnet first operational (between CU20A and classes, the DN200 in Mudd). Feb 1980: The DEC-20 MM (Mail Manager) e-mail program becomes popular (V12#2). Essays! This is 550 word essay, a good example of software created by professional staff or graduate students at PDP-10 and DEC-20 sites on the ARPANET (Stanford in this case) and freely shared with other sites. Other examples of the essays era included the ISPELL spelling checker and corrector (also from Stanford), the EMACS text editor from MIT, the SCRIBE text formatting and typesetting system from for creative CMU (which later became commercial) and essays, TeX from for creative Stanford, the Bliss-10 programming language from CMU, the SAIL programming language from Stanford, the PASCAL compiler from Rutgers, the SITGO instructional FORTRAN package from Stevens Institute of Technology, various LISP systems from different places, and KERMIT communications software from Columbia. In fact, each place contributed bits and pieces to most of these packages so most of them were truly cooperative efforts. MM was used almost universally at Columbia for E-mail from 1980 until about 1995, with usage trailing off thereafter as Windows and essays, the Web took over from text-based computer access.

When the DEC-20 line was cancelled, we wrote a new MM program in C for Unix which again, in the sharing spirit, was made available on the ARPANET (later Internet) and adopted by many other sites worldwide as they migrated from TOPS-20 to Unix. Is A Essay! MM survives even into the 2010s (details). Jun 1980: We were considering joining TELENET and TYMNET (commercial X.3/X.25 based networks) but never did; it was way too expensive [1]. These were strictly terminal-to-host networks, but would have allowed travellers to lsat dial up with a local call from almost anywhere in the USA or Canada, and conceivably could have taken the place of in-house modem pools. Oct 1980: Second DEC-20 installed, CU20B , for use by funded researchers and staff only; to be paid for out of income, since the budget request for a second instructional DEC-20 had been denied, again, even though the first one was seriously overloaded, and despite vocal support from students and free course, faculty (and us of course). CU20B removed considerable load from CU20A and bought us some time until we finally were able to expand the instructional resources a year later with CU20C. (In fact, for lsat a short period, we were able to put some students on writing CU20B, in their own partition, isolated from the paying users.) There was no common file system yet; communication wth CU20A was via DECnet (NFT for file transfer; home-grown mail, print, finger servers and clients, etc). Nov 1980: The IBM 360/91/75 is retired , replaced by two IBM 4331s (PHOTO), CUVMA and CUVMB.

These are featureless boxes that are (as you might expect) more compact and essays, cheaper to run than the 360/91 (and lower too, so you can use them as coffee tables), and they had a new operating system, VM/CMS, which allowed Virtual Machines (VM) to run other operating systems on 550 word essay the same machine, thus keeping our old applications afloat. VM was perceived initially as a niche product, but it has proven remarkably persistent. The 360/91 was so big it had to lsat essays be cut up with chainsaws to get it out of the building. The Gordian knot of 550 word essay cabling under the floor was unceremoniously disposed of lsat essays with giant cable snippers the classes size of posthole diggers. The computer chunks were trucked away and thrown into lsat essays acid baths to extract the mfa creative gold. Only the 360/91 console was spared. We had it moved to the lobby of Watson Laboratory and arranged to donate it to the now-defunct Computer Museum in Massachusetts, but it took a year and a half for them to lsat pick it up. In the 550 word essay interim, bits and pieces were removed by passersby as souvenirs. (More about this in essays the June 1982 entry.) 1981-82 ADP takes over the remaining pockets of 550 word essay decentralized administrative computing: the student systems in Philosophy Hall and the financial and payroll systems in Hogan Hall, and to lsat some extent also the classes Health Sciences campus. Jan 1981: Superbrains arrive. The Intertec Superbrain had been chosen as the first microcomputer we would deploy publicly, despite its embarrassing name, because its solid single-piece construction made it virtually user-proof, and it did indeed stand up to years of (ab)use.

It ran CP/M 2.2, an 8-bit (64K) operating system. Apr 1981: Bill Catchings and I design the basic Kermit protocol. The first Kermit protocol transfer took place on April 29th on a loopback connection between two serial ports on lsat essays CU20B. Mfa Creative Writing Online! CLICK HERE for more about the history of Kermit, and HERE to visit the Kermit website, where THIS PAGE provides an overview. Lsat Essays! Kermit Project document archive at the Computer History Museum [catalog]. Kermit Project Oral History Transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. May 1981: I talk J. Ray Scott of Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) in Pittsburgh, PA, into installing a leased line between Columbia and 550 word essay, CMU and joining our two campuses by DECnet (at least that's how I remember it). CU and CMU informally but effectively merge their DEC-20 systems staffs and lsat, run common customized applications and subsystems (esp. the GALAXY spooling system, which we modified to allow printer sharing among multiple DEC-20s and spooling to the Xerox 9700).

Soon the network, called CCNET , expanded to several other universities, notably Stevens Institute of Technology in 550 word essay Hoboken, NJ, which played an important role in the development of lsat Kermit protocol and software until 1987, and produced Kermit programs for DEC's VMS, TOPS-10, and P/OS operating systems. Jun 1981: CP/M-80 Kermit for the 8-bit Superbrain: Bill Catchings (later, in 1983, Bill also wrote CP/M-86 Kermit for the 16-bit version of CP/M). Shortly after this, the Superbrain was deployed in Mudd. 550 Word Essay! It had no applications to lsat speak of besides Kermit, which was used by students to archive their DEC-20 files onto private, floppy disks (the purpose for which was Kermit developed). Floppy disks (the then-modern 5.25 ones, not the frisbee-sized ones used on essays other CP/M micros) for the Superbrain were sold in SSIO, $6.00 each (!). Later, but before 16-bit micros like the IBM PC appeared, we set up (in Watson Lab) a network of Superbrains sharing a hard disk, with an EMACS-like editor called MINCE and a Scribe-like text formatter called Sribble. For a short time it was our most impressive demonstration of personal / workgroup desktop computing. Marriage Private! (MINCE later became Epsilon and was popular for some years on DOS PCs.) 12 Aug 1981: The 16-bit IBM PC was announced; the Columbia Computer Center orders 20 of them on lsat essays Day One, sight unseen. The IBM logo makes all the rise television essay difference.

About half of them go to high-profile faculty (who immediately want them to be able to communicate with our central IBM and DEC mainframes; hence MS-DOS Kermit). The original PC had a monochrome monitor (color optional), one or two 160K floppy disks, a small amount of memory (anywhere from 16K to lsat 256K), two RS-232 serial interfaces, no hard disk, no networking. It ran at 4.77MHz, had BASIC built into its ROM (which could be used without an OS or disk), and ran DOS 1.0, the minimalistic 16-bit disk operating system that made Microsoft's fortune. Within a short amount of time, it had become the computer that would dominate the rest of the century and writing course, beyond, and spread over the campus like wildfire. But it still took some years for the PC to wipe out the VAXes and PDP-11s in the departments. Lsat! Up through the of reality television essay early 90s there were still dozens of VAX/VMS installations; entire departments and essays, schools (such as Columbia College) ran on them, with VT100 terminals or DEC word processors (PDP-8 based DECmates) on their desktops. The PC has been a mixed blessing. Untold numbers of people-hours have been lost forever to tinkering -- this slot, that bus; expanded memory, enhanced memory, extended memory. . . Free Writing Course! Blue Screens Of Death, rebooting, reinstalling the operating system, searching for adapters, hunting for drivers, installing OS and driver upgrades, resolving interrupt conflicts, partitioning disks, backing up disks, adding new devices, configuring networks, fighting application and OS bugs, hunting for patches, fighting viruses, and on and on. Previously this kind of thing was done by a small central full-time professional staff but now it is done by everybody, all the time, at incalculable cost to productivity and progress.

Plus how many PC users really back up their hard disks? Not many in my experience, and it is not uncommon for important un-backed-up files to be lost in a disk crash or similar disaster, thus negating weeks, months, or years of work. ON THE PLUS SIDE, however, . . . (? ? ?) My personal theory is that IBM never expected the lsat PC to be so successful. It was thrown together in a rush by a small group (not at online Watson Laboratory!) from lsat off-the-shelf components in an effort to get a foothold in the fast-growing microcomputer market. This was not IBM's first personal computer. 550 Word Essay! Besides the 1956 Auto-Point Computer (personal but by no means desktop), IBM had also tried and failed with the 5100 and essays, the CS-9000 in the 1970s and mfa creative writing programs, early 80s, both personal desktop models (we had some 5100s here; the lsat essays CS-9000 was targeted at chemical engineering applications as I recall, and 550 word essay, had a special control panel and interfaces for instruments, but included a 32-bit CPU and modern programming languages like Pascal, and lsat essays, could easily have been the 550 word essay high-end workstation of the lsat essays early 1980s).

According to a reliable source, IBM originally wanted the PC to rubrics writing have a Motorola 68000 CPU (which had a simple, flat 32-bit address space) like the CS-9000, but could not get such a product to market in time, so settled for the Intel 8088, a 16-bit segmented architecture with 8-bit data paths. Worse, it had a primitive 16-line interrupt controller, which severely limited the number of devices that could be on the bus. Essays! The rest is mfa creative, history. I believe that if IBM had known that the PC would dominate the next two, three, four, or more decades, it would have invested more time, money, and thought in lsat the original design. (Obviously the situation is better in private affair essay research the 21st Century. Most of the early kinks have been ironed out.

PCs are cheap and reliable. Any quirks of the architecture are well-hidden from end users, and USB makes life immeasurably better when devices need to be attached. With Windows the dominant operating system, the essays main problems now are performance bloated OS and applications and security. Writing Course! And stability.) Oct 1981: CU20C arrives: a second DECSYSTEM-20 student timesharing system to supplement CU20A. Still no common file system; each DEC-20 was a relatively separate world, but at least they were connected by essays, DECnet. If you had a student user ID, it was on free course one or the other, not both. Dec 1981: HP plotter supplies (personal ink cartridges, etc) were a hot topic in the newsletter.

The HP pen plotters installed in lsat Mudd (and SSIO?) came in 4- and 8-color models, and for creative assignments, there was a wide variety of software for them, including DISSPLA/TEL-A-GRAF on the DEC-20s and SAS/GRAPH and lsat essays, SPSS on the IBM mainframes that could make 3D plots with hidden-line elimination, fancy fonts, etc. They were totally mechanical: pen and grant writing online, ink on paper, and could produce beautiful line drawings. Jan 1982: J. Essays! Ray Scott, Director of the Carnegie-Mellon University Computation Center, writes an marriage is a private research, article in the CUCCA Newsletter (V14#1) describing the CCNET connection between Columbia and CMU, and essays, CMU's facilities (including an ARPANET gateeway and various compilers and applications that had not been licensed at Columbia). In the first example of network-based inter-university resource sharing at Columbia, CU users were invited to writing classes apply for user IDs on essays the CMU systems. Feb 1982: The IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) was installed (for the 1980 Census) - 102.2 GB. Programs! The MSS was gigantic in every sense, covering most of the South wall of the essays machine room.

Essentially it was a big honeycomb, each cell holding a cartridge (PHOTO) that resembles an online, M-79 rifle grenade (sorry, it does) containing a winding of 2.7-inch-wide magtape with a capacity of 50MB. A mechanical hand comes and essays, extracts the grant classes cartridge and carries it to a reader, which removes the shell, and unwinds the tape and copies it to lsat one of four staging disks; then the tape is re-wound, the shell replaced, and the cartridge returned to its cell. All this was transparent to the user; the MSS looked like a 3330 disk drive to rise essay user-mode software. The disks acted as a cache, so if your file was already on the disk, the little mechanical man didn't need to go get the cartridge. Lsat Essays! (Before the rise of reality television essay MSS, we had an IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive, which worked in a similar way, except instead of cartridges, it used flat strips of tape that were much harder for lsat essays the little men to handle, so the marriage essay tape strips were easily mangled.) Like the 360/91, there were only a few MSS devices in the world. The MSS cost about lsat essays a million dollars, but Columbia got its MSS in an IBM grant. In return, Columbia would add support for it to IBM's VM operating system (in particular, it would add windowing and lookahead features to reduce cylinder faults and redundant cartridge fetches, and thus speed up sequential access; this was done by Bob Resnikoff of the Computer Center and Ates Dagli of the Center for Social Sciences (CSS)). CSS was responsible for loading the 550 word essay census data (which came on endless reels of 9-track magtape) and for lsat arranging access to it from rise of reality essay within Columbia and from outside (V14#16).

When the grant expired, Columbia was able to purchase the MSS at a steep discount. Feb 1982: Hot Newsletter topic: submitting IBM batch jobs from the DEC-20 via HASP/RJE. CU20B was connected to the IBM mainframe communications front end (COMTEN) through its own PDP-11 DN20 front end (a full cabinet), which emulated an Remote Job Entry station, i.e. a card reader for sending data to the mainframe in form of card images, and a line printer for receiving data from the mainframe in the form of print jobs, but using DEC-20 disk files instead of essays cards and paper. The CUCCA systems group developed user-friendly programs for submitting batch jobs to the VM systems from the DEC-20 and retrieving the rise television essay results. These were later to form the basis of the lsat essays DEC-20/BITNET mail gateway. Mar 1982: RSTS/E retired; RSTS users migrated to DEC-20s, V14#1. 550 Word Essay! The PDP-11/50 was traded for lsat another badly needed RP06 disk drive for our DEC-20s [1]. The PDP-11 with RSTS/E was our first experiment in campuswide public timesharing and it was an unqualified success. Apr 1982: BITNET announced (Vace, V14#5). This was a network of rubrics writing IBM mainframes based on RSCS (basically, card reader / line printer simulation) protocols, originating with Ira Fuchs at essays CUNY, formerly of Watson Lab, and rapidly spreading to universities all over the world, lasting through the late 1990s, now remembered mainly for LISTSERV (a distributed automated mailing-list management system).

Early members included CUNY, Columbia, Yale, Brown, Princeton, the U of programs Maine, Penn State, the essays NJ Educational Network, Boston U, and Cornell University (DIAGRAM). Columbia got the CU prefix (CUVMA, CUVMB), much to marriage the chagrin of C ornell U niversity (CORNELLA, . ) Would this be the first instance of domain name hijacking ? :-) (Twenty years later, the Cornell and Columbia teaching hospitals would merge to essays form New York Presbyterian Hospital; evidently Cornell and Columbia were omitted from the name so that neither one would have to follow the other.) Apr 1982: IBM Mainframe VM/CMS Kermit (Daphne Tzoar). This passed through a number a hands since the of reality television essay initial release, some of which prefer to remain anonymous, and has been cared for lsat essays by Dr. John Chandler at the Harvard/Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory since about 1990; John made it portable to writing online the other important IBM mainframe OS's: MVS/TSO, CICS, and MUSIC, and added support for conversion between the many IBM EBCDIC Country Extended Code Pages and ISO standard character sets, allowing cross-platform transfer of lsat text in many languages. May 1982: Support was added to our e-mail client and server software to take advantage of our new CCNET and BITNET connections, and the first inter-campus e-mail began to flow, limited at first to just a handful of universities, but growing rapidly as CCNET and BITNET nodes are added, and writing online, gateways from them to ARPANET, CSNET, and other networks. CCNET mail delivery was accomplished by direct real-time DECnet connections; BITNET mail was transported via our HASP/RJE Spooler.

Our three DEC-20s used their DECnet connections for lsat essays mail amongst themselves, as well as with other campus machines and the wider CCNET. CU20A and CU20C and other campus DECnet nodes sent BITNET mail by relaying it over DECnet to CU20B's RJE system. In those days, e-mail addresses had to include a top-level domain that indicated the network, e.g. USER@HOST.ARPA , USER@HOST.BITNET , USER@HOST.CCNET , etc. Even trickier was the source routing used in Usenet (in those days, a network of UNIX machines that dialed each other up with UUCP periodically to exchange files and mail) and rise, some others, and/or to mail to somebody who was on a network that your host wasn't on, through a relay that was on essays both nets. In such cases you had to know the entire route and the syntax tricks to traverse each branch of it, and marriage is a affair essay research, often multiple relays. Lsat Essays! Here are some examples from the 1980s Kermit mailing list archive: The last one is broken into affair two lines for readability; it's really one line.

To get a good feel for the proliferation of networks and essays, the tricks of navigating amongst them in the days before the Internet swept all else away, see John Quarterman's book, The Matrix [55] Jun 1982: CU20D , our third and final instructional DEC-20, was installed. Jun 1982: Our by-now vandalized IBM 360/91 console goes to 550 word essay the Computer Museum at DEC's MR-01 (or MR-02?) building in lsat essays Marlboro, Massachusetts, after awaiting pickup for 18 months. It was displayed prominently inside the main entrance in a big, tastefully illuminated glass case near the PDP-1. Shortly thereafter, the 550 word essay collection was transferred to the Boston Science Museum (now the lsat essays Museum of Science), which changed its focus.

Most of the online computing artifacts went to the Computer History Museum, temporarily located at Moffett Field, California (an Air Force base, where the 360/91 console sat in deep storage for many years before being transferred in about 2001 to deep storage at the Computer History Museum's new site in Mountain View, California). Jul 1982: An Imagen laser printer was installed in Watson; our first laser printer and our first printer capable of true typesetting . Soft fonts, 100 dpi I think, Impress language (a precursor of PostScript), Ethernet-connected. Lsat Essays! It was only for mfa creative writing online programs internal CUCCA use (production of Newsletter and lsat essays, handouts, etc). Aug 1982: The Xerox 9700 (PHOTO) [announced by Xerox in course 1977] arrived, replacing the Xerox 1200 after some overlap (V15#1). Lsat! The 9700 offered the first typesetting to 550 word essay the Columbia community at essays large, as well as high-volume, high-speed plain-text printing. Rise Of Reality Television Essay! This room-sized 300dpi Xerographic laser printer was installed in the back of the first floor of Watson Lab (the present mail and network rooms) due to lack of space in the Computer Center, and it definitely needed the space. Lsat! It printed 2 pages per second, could handle duplex, portrait/landscape, 2-up, 4-up, etc, had Courier (fixed) and Helvetica and Times Roman (proportional) fonts, with italic and bold styles and selectable sizes. Free! Formatting was done by Scribe and essays, other packages and spooled to rubrics for creative writing assignments 9-track magnetic tapes that were delivered to Watson every evening and essays, printed overnight. Xerox 9700 printing was available to rise television all users (students, faculty, staff, outside paid accounts) on all the DEC-20s and IBM mainframe systems. The DEC-20 Xerox 9700 spooling software (PRINT /UNIT:X9700) was developed jointly by the combined CUCCA-CMU Systems Groups over CCNET.

Even after more sophisticated typesetting methods became available, the X9700 remained in service as a high-volume printer; nothing else could push paper quite like it. To this day, I think Controllers and lsat essays, Rolmphone statements are still printed on a 9700 at a service bureau.) Sep 1982: VMM announced (e-mail for 550 word essay the IBM mainframe: MM for lsat VM, Joel and 550 word essay, then Vace). Sep 1982: First campus network between academic departments (not counting Remote Job Entry stations): CUCCA-Chemistry, DECnet over lsat essays, synchronous modems (V14#12). Classes! By this time Chemistry had a VAX-11/780 and some smaller VAXes. Sep 1982: TOPS-20 V5 installed on the CUCCA DEC-20s, featuring extended addressing (32 256KW sections = 36MB, instead of only one section), a new multiforking Exec (what we would now call job control), and a programming language for the Exec (CMU's PCL, what we would now call shell scripts. Lsat Essays! see example). Oct 1982: About here we were looking into getting the AP Newswire online.

Columbia's School of Journalism had a Teletype with news stories coming out continuously. The plan was to feed this into one of our DEC-20s and free writing course, make a BBoard out of it, with a rather rapid expiration of essays articles given the marriage private affair research limited disk storage. But there were licensing and bureaucratic impediments so it never came to pass. About 1990, Columbia bought a subscription to essays ClariNews (in which the various news services are funneled to Usenet newsgroups). 550 Word Essay! This lasted until 2003, by which time the lsat Web had long since rendered it redundant. Nov 1982: The CUCCA Terminal and rise of reality television, Plotter User Manual [14] was published, full of photos and detailed instructions on lsat using the equipment in our public areas. Rubrics Writing Assignments! CLICK HERE to see a sampling of essays video terminals; note the writing online programs accompanying PACX boxes. NOW ON LINE in essays searchable PDF format. This was printed on free writing course our new Xerox 9700, one of the first laser printers capable of typesetting; it had two fonts, Helvetica and lsat, Courier. The manual itself should interesting to those who harbor a burning curiosity over every minute detail in the life of President Obama , since the equipment described here is what he must have used when he was a Columbia student 1981-83, because there wasn't anything else.

Check, for mfa creative example, this article he wrote in Sundial Magazine, March 10, 1983. I suspect he composed it on the DEC-20, perhaps in EMACS, seated at one of the terminals in our terminal rooms; for example, the HP-2621s in Carman Hall. When it was ready, he might well have emailed it to the Sundail editor with MM. Just a guess! Nov 1982: DECSYSTEM-20 Pocket Guide (click for PDF of the essays whole thing). The DEC-20 was an enormously powerful and useful computing system, yet it was simple enought that we could publish an accordion-fold pocket guide to just about all that it had to offer. This 1982 edition was created with TeX, and the Columbia Crown with Metafont. Writing! The master was printed on our new Imagen Laser Printer and the printing and folding done at the Columbia print shop.

It was given out lsat free to all comers (thousands of free course them). Dec 1982: The Teachers College DEC-20 connects to the campus DECnet. 1983-1986: Every Newsletter issue announces new BITNET and DECnet nodes. Jan 1983 20th Anniversary of the Computer Center . CLICK HERE to see a collage of machine-room items prepared for lsat the commemorative poster. The commemorative frisbee is at Computer History Museum. 1 Jan 1983: The ARPANET switches from its original protocol, NCP, to TCP/IP. Prior to TCP/IP, the ARPANET was a private club with membership restricted defense contractors.

The fact that some of the defense contractors were also some of the 550 word essay top engineering and lsat, computer science universities (MIT, Stanford, CMU, etc) led to a lot of pressure from the non-military segment for rubrics writing more open access, and to a new design for the network itself. TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) was the result. Where ARPANET was a network of lsat computers, TCP/IP provided for is a private research a network of lsat networks ; that is, an Internet. Thus when the cutover took place, all the computers at grant writing classes a given university (say, MIT), could be on the net, not just the ones used for lsat essays defense research. In this way the network was opened up, and the requirement for a defense contract for membership no longer made sense. Numerous networks such CSNET, NSFNET, and SPAN, were connected. Columbia University as a whole got on the net in 1984 by virtue of its connection with NSF and over the next 15 years, the network grew to cover the entire planet and membership was open to all. Jan 1983 The Purchasing Office moves out of the Watson building and the space is occupied by ADP; now, 13 years after IBM left it, the Watson Lab building is 100% Computer Center and writing course, would remain that way until 1991. ADP begins to offer office automation services, including PC and LAN installations for administrative use. Jan 1983: IBM PC Kermit. Originally by Daphne Tzoar, adapted from Bill Catchings' CP/M-80 Kermit (actually, if I recall correctly, Bill did the original translation from 8080 MASM to 8088 Microsoft assembler in a single EMACS session, and then Daphne made it work and added features).

Later it passed to Jeff Damens. We did versions 1.00 to 2.28 here, with various pieces contributed from elsewhere. Professor Joe Doupnik of lsat essays Utah State University took it over in 1985, and stuck with until the end (see oral history of Joe Doupnik at the Computer History Museum). 550 Word Essay! We were actually ordered to write this program because several prominent professors (Herb Goldstein, Bob Pollack, and Jonathan Gross ) were using their new PCs to write a book, The Scientific Experience , that would be used in a new course, Science C1001-1002, Theory and essays, Practice of Science , in Columbia's Contemporary Civilization (the jewel in the crown of the Columbia College Core Curriculum) and grant writing, wanted to be able to lsat essays collaborate by uploading chapters to CU20B, where they could be shared. And they did. MS-DOS Kermit was a fixture on free course the Columbia computing landscape until the essays Web took over in 550 word essay 1994-95, and popular all over the world. It's still remarkably popular today, providing VT320, Wyse, DG, ANSI, and Tektronix terminal emulation for Linux under dosemu , as well as data transfer for many DOS-based embedded and experimental devices, such as THIS ONE in the International Space Station. CLICK HERE to visit the MS-DOS Kermit website. Jan 1983: Amdahl UTS installed on the IBM mainframe as a virtual machine under VM (Alan); this was the first UNIX on lsat the central systems. Grant! But CS, Biology, and essays, PS had been running other forms of course UNIX for some time on departmental minicomputers such as PDP-11s and lsat, VAX-11/750s. (9-track magnetic tapes were big in these days, but every kind of computer used a different format: ANSI, DUMPER, BACKUP, MAGSAV, IBM OS SL, tar, cpio, etc, so writing tape import/export/conversion utilities was a regular cottage industry.)

Mar 1983: CCNET included CU, CMU, CWRU, CS, TC. Mar 1983: All but two key punches removed due to lack of use (V15#4). The SSIO area is 550 word essay, now a mainly a public terminal area, CUCCA business office, and consulting facility. Apr 1983: CU20B becomes Columbia's first central computer with dialout capability. Lsat! The DIAL program, written by our Systems Group, operated a Vadic VA821 1200bps autodialer, and interfaced with DEC-20 Kermit to allow file transfer (and was later integrated with Kermit). 18 May 1983: DECSYSTEM-20 (and DECsystem-10) 36-bit computer line canceled by DEC due to their failed attempts to produce a faster and cheaper followon product (Jupiter). This was a huge blow to Columbia and most other US universities, which until this point were like a big (but increasingly anxious) DEC-10/20 club.

The ARPANET had been built mainly on marriage research DEC-10s and lsat, -20s, and most computer science research and tools ran there. Big changes would come. Spring DECUS (the semiannual Digital Equipment Corporation User Society convention) took place a week or two thereafter. 550 Word Essay! At the June 2001 DECWORLD event at the Computer Museum History Center, Roseanne Giordano, DEC's LCG [DEC-10 and DEC-20] product line manager at the time of the lsat essays cancellation, recalled that DECUS organizers, fearing violence from the crowd, installed plainclothes police in the front row to of reality essay protect the speakers. Jun 1983: Snapshot: Public terminal, printer, and graphics equipment. Terminals: Datamedia 1520 (6), Perkin Elmer Fox 1100 (10), HP 2621 (66), DEC VT101 (28), Concept APL (8), Superbrain (1), Diablo (1), LA36 (20), Tektronix (2), HP plotters (4) (read more), self-service Printronix printers (5). Terminals by location: SSIO (52), Mudd (16), Butler (11), International Affairs (6), Carman (21), Hartley (16), East Campus (14), Furnald (6). The Superbrain is essays, still the only desktop computer in a public area; it remained in service until at least 1986. Jul 1983: The Columbia Computer Science Department DEC-20 and VAX-11/750 join ARPANET . The CS DEC-20 is connected to CU20B with DECnet, thus providing the free writing course first ARPANET access from essays CUCCA machines (staff only). Nov 1983: We attend nondisclosure presentations of the Macintosh, which as to be the first mass-market personal computer with a graphical user interface, modeled on that of the Xerox Alto and writing assignments, the Xerox Star (the Star was commercially available in 1981 but it was too expensive for the popular market). I recommend early adoption of the Macintosh by CU; this was done and Columbia became one of the lsat first members of the Apple University Consortium, buying them in bulk and grant, reselling them to students.

Nov 1983: We (I) take on responsibility of approving campus microcomputer purchases, since in those days there were countless different incompatible ones. Every requisition had to come across my desk; if it was for something weird I'd call the person who ordered it and lsat essays, talk about communications and compatibility, either changing their mind or rubber stamping it after they swore they didn't care and for creative assignments, never would. 1983-84: It is in lsat essays approximately this time frame that Alan Crosswell becomes Lead Unix Systems Programmer and also assumes management responsibility for 550 word essay the DEC-20s, as I move on to something called Systems Integration, meaning finding ways of hooking Columbia's many disparate micro-, mini-, and mainframe computers together. Kermit was one way; others included various forms of networking including DECnet, TCP/IP (brand new in lsat essays 1983), who-knows-how-many forms of PC networking, and so on. 550 Word Essay! Alan is formally appointed Systems Manager in 1990. 1983-84: I was the CUCCA member of an Engineering Dean's committee, chaired by Dean Gross, to set up a graphics lab in the Engineering School. Other members included Engineering Professors Morton Friedman, Lee Lidofsky and (I think) Ted Bashkow. Eventually a site was chosen adjoining the terminal room in 272A Engineering Terrace. It opened in March 1984 with 12 standalone IBM PCs equipped with color monitors and graphics adapters. This was almost certainly Columbia's first PC lab . The graphics lab was turned over to CUCCA in October 1989, combined with the original lab in room 272A, and renamed Gussman Lab. Jan 1984: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) debuts as a text-based inquiry system accessible via PACX terminal and Telnet.

It is based on BLIS software from Bibliotechniques (a spinoff of the University of lsat Washington), and runs on grant classes our IBM 3083 mainframe. Feb 1984: Hermit (clustered PC project): a 3-million-dollar equipment grant from DEC, proposed by us (me and lsat, Howard Eskin) in March 1983, to build a distributed environment of Macs, PCs, and UNIX workstations clustered around MicroVAX hubs which, in turn, were connected to the central DEC-20 mainframes for file / identity / e-mail service. Included were dozens of Rainbow PCs and Pro-380 (PDP-11) workstations, several MicroVAX-IIs, a VAX 11/730, a VAX 11/750, a VAXstation, an LN03 laser printer, Ethernet, and the Common File System (shared disk) hardware for our DEC-20s including a then-massive amount of central storage. This was to be a stunning example of systems integration; the primary objective was to provide users transparent native-mode access to their central files and identities from all different kinds of desktop workstations (PC, Mac, UNIX). I was the PI, my boss was Howard Eskin, the programmers were (at various times) Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, Melissa Metz, Jeff Damens, Andy Lowry, Delores Ng, Howie Kaye, Fuat Baran. Writing Online! (V16#2, V16#6, V18#2; Columbia Daily Spectator , 23 Apr 1984). Mar 1984: With four DEC-20s installed, plus the Hermit project equipment -- big disks, fast networks, common file system -- instructional computing power was fairly well matched with demand. Now access was the lsat essays bottleneck.

A study by the Academic Advisory Committee of the Engineering Advisory Council, Computers in Columbia Engineering Education , March 1984, complained of the Sleeping Bag Syndrome: students should not be forced to rubrics writing assignments line up for terminal time at graveyard shift hours. Lsat Essays! Only those who could postpone their terminal-room visits until the wee hours of the morning were spared the long lines, a system blatantly unfair to mfa creative writing programs commuters. Obtaining space for terminal rooms (or anything else) on essays the Columbia campus was (and is) even more difficult than obtaining the 550 word essay money to essays build them. Dormitory space was considered prime because dorms were the writing only buildings open 24 hours. Mar 1984: First Apple Lisa demo at CU, numerous Macintosh/Lisa seminars and lsat essays, presentations from Apple. Apr 1984: IBM Portable PC announced by CUCCA for resale. It was also required equipment for all Columbia Business School students. Apr-May 1984: Macintosh mania. A four-page article ( by me of course :-) introducing the Mac was published in V16#8. CU joins the Apple University Consortium as one of the few charter members. AUC membership required us to buy Macs in bulk for resale on campus.

2000 were ordered right away. Within a short while, we had written the first version of Macintosh Kermit for it (Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, and of reality essay, me). Mac (and PC) sales continue in one form or another until turned over to JR, which opened a Columbia-only branch in the basement of Philosophy Hall in the late 1990s but then jumped ship about lsat 2001. May 1984: Floor plan of 550 word essay DEC-20 machine room by Bill Schilit of the Systems Group, showing the size and essays, placement of the various components (3 DEC-20s, their disk drives, and communications front ends are shown; not shown is the fourth DEC-20, the tape drives, or the system consoles). OK, this is rubrics writing assignments, not really the floor plan. It's a template for making floor plans.

The idea was to gather up all the discarded copies of the lsat newsletter that had this diagram on the cover, cut out the of reality pieces, and then make a real floor plan out of them (Tom De Bellis points out lsat this diagram was made before all the Hermit grant stuff had arrived, thus was used to lay out how to make everything fit). Also see THIS DEC-20 MACHINE ROOM PHOTO. Jun-Jul 1984: The first Kermit article, by me and Bill Catchings, published (in two parts) in BYTE Magazine . See Kermit Bibliography for more Kermit-related publications. 3 Aug 1984: CU20B joins ARPANET (now called the Internet). Mfa Creative Writing Online! Although the Computer Science Department had joined the ARPANET in July 1983, this did not allow access to the Columbia community at large. Lsat Essays! Putting CU20B on the ARPANET was the first step in this direction (researchers from all schools and departments and CUCCA staff only, not students). CU20B's ARPANET hostname was COLUMBIA.ARPA.

No other Columbia computers (except the ones in the CS department) were on the ARPANET, but of course CU20B had network connections to the other DEC-20s, some internal CUCCA machines, the campus DECnet and the external DECnet-based CCNET, and to free writing course BITNET. Thus to send mail into the Columbia network from outside required source routing, e.g. user %CU20A@COLUMBIA.ARPA. For some years, CU20B was to serve as a mail gateway among these networks, using locally written software. Over the next year or two, CUCCA would purchase a VAX-11/750, called the Gateway VAX, and install it in essays the CS department, where it was connected to the CS ARPANET IMP and back to the CUCCA hosts via Ethernet. The Gateway VAX ran 4.2BSD UNIX and it made Internet e-mail available to the whole Columbia community, including students, for the first time. For some reason I can't explain, the authorization letter from ARPA didn't arrive until two years later. Aug 1984: IBM PC/AT announced, the first IBM PC with memory protection. Based on the Intel 80286, with a 20MB hard disk and two floppy diskette drives, one low-density, one high. Battery powered BIOS configuration memory and 550 word essay, clock. Up to 16MB memory. Essays! This was the first in the IBM PC line fully capable of running multitasking operating systems, and is a essay research, soon was host to a number of them (some companies had managed to produce Unix variants such as Xenix for lsat essays the original IBM PC or XT on 8086 but these were not sustainable.) Of course this machine was of great interest to private research the Columbia Computer Center, which was looking for ways to deploy desktop networked UNIX workstations for academic use, and we had some internally running different UNIX versions such as SCO Xenix/286.

But it would turn out that our first public UNIX workstations would come from a different direction. Sep 1984: Three HP-150 MS-DOS microcomputers and one Macintosh were installed in the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room. They were not on any kind of lsat essays network and 550 word essay, had to be reserved by sign-up sheet. The HP-150s were an equipment grant from HP, along with some color pen plotters that were attached to lsat them. They had touch-screens and integrated thermal printers. A version of Kermit was written to allow them to communicate with the central computers through PACX lines and transfer files to and from their 3.5-inch diskettes (the HP-150 was one of the first, if not the writing first PC to use the 3.5-inch rigid diskette). Graphic images where generated by software on essays the mainframes (such as DISSPLA/TELEGRAF on the DEC-20s and SASGRAPH on the IBMs), downloaded with Kermit, and sent to the plotters. 16 Oct 1984: The academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, joins the ARPANET, running WISCNET (the University of Wisconsin TCP/IP package) through a DACU (IBM's cabinet-size Ethernet adapter). This machine was for researchers and staff only, so there is still no ARPANET access for classes online students. Nov 1984: Project Aurora , a 6.5-million dollar IBM grant administered by lsat, CUCCA, a campus-wide move in information and instruction toward the affair electronic university. Lsat Essays! Bruce Gilchrist and Pat Battin (the University Librarian) are the principal investigators.

Aurora paid for free writing course an IBM 3083 mainframe to support the Columbia Libraries Information Online (CLIO) system, and also funded some 30 research projects in the schools and departments. 1984-85: I'm not too clear about this but I believe the SSIO area got a facelift around this time. See these photos. 1985: Low-cost Apple Laserwriter PostScript printers proliferate and lsat essays, suddenly typesetting becomes commonplace as LaserWriters are set up as spooled printers so they can be controlled not only by Macintoshes but also DEC-20 and UNIX systems with Scribe and T E X. 1985-1989: The Columbia Physics department consructs a series of highly parallel computers (supercomputers made from rubrics Radio Shack parts).

1985: a 16-node QCD machine delivering 250 MFLOPS peak and 60 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1987: A second-generation QCD machine containing 64 nodes, delivering 1 GFLOPS peak and 300 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1989: A third-generation QCD machine containing 256 nodes delivering 16 GFLOPS peak and 6.4 GFLOPS sustained performance [43]. Lsat! This work would continue into the 1990s and writing, beyond. Jan 1985: CUVMA (IBM VM/CMS academic mainframe) gets Ethernet (DACU) and essays, TCP/IP (WISCNET) (Vace). Jan 1985: Internet Domain Name registration begins.

Some of the first registered domains are: symbolics.com, cmu.edu, bbn.com, ucla.edu, mit.edu, mitre.org, dec.com, stanford.edu, sri.com, sun.com, ibm.com, att.com, nsf.net, apple.com, cisco.com. Feb 1985: First version of free C-Kermit (4.0) released. (Previous versions were called UNIX Kermit; C-Kermit was modularized to allow easy adaptation to other platforms, and eventually was ported to over 700 of them, across 10 major operating system families.) Hundreds of people all over the world have contributed code, including Andy Tanenbaum (MINIX) and Linus Torvalds (Linux). C-Kermit was part of Hewlett-Packard's UNIX operating system HP-UX (by contract) from lsat 1996 until 2011 (when Columbia U canceled the Kermit Project), and rubrics for creative, has since been incorporated into lsat many of the free Open Source operating systems distributions. Grant! CLICK HERE to visit the lsat essays C-Kermit website. CLICK HERE to see a very early version C-Kermit. Speaking of Andy Tanenbaum and MINIX, CLICK HERE to read Andy's 2016 article, Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX [121] (complete with video)! May 1985: Watson Lab Ethernet connection to Computer Center; Steve Jensen's 115th Street trench and Broadway crossing with cement-encased conduits containing fat yellow coax, the difficult Western and final leg of Columbia's first Ethernet backbone (PHOTO GALLERY).

The installation was delayed many months by asbestos containment and removal. Departments in buildings along the cable route, such as Chemistry and Math, that previously had been connected by synchronous modems began to switch to Ethernet. Sep 1985: The COLUMBIA.EDU Internet domain becomes operational. Columbia hosts connected by TCP/IP can be addressed directly from anywhere on the Internet, e.g. by email addresses like user @CU20D.COLUMBIA.EDU or user @CHEMVAX.CHEM.COLUMBIA.EDU (the same host addressing scheme that is used today, except for putting the central hosts into a new . CC subdomain in March 1988, and receiving most mail at a central server, COLUMBIA.EDU, rather than by individual computer host name). 550 Word Essay! For the first time, students have access to essays the Internet but for all practical purposes, it is limited to email and is a research, anonymous FTP, since the World Wide Web does not yet exist and netnews will not become generally available at Columbia until 1988. The early Internet offered pretty much just text-only e-mail, finger, FTP, Telnet, WHOIS, and send or talk, early forms of instant messaging. Lsat! What else could you want? Dec 1985: Bruce Gilchrist resigns his Director post but stays on is a private essay in an advisory capacity through 1989 (PHOTO).

Dec 1985: The first IBM 3270 emulation is provided by lsat essays, newly installed IBM Series/1 computers (V17#15). Writing! The Series/1 is a single-cabinet minicomputer with sixteen RS-232C serial interfaces for essays terminals and a channel connection to the mainframe. Writing Online! The Series/1 tricks the mainframe into believing it is essays, a 3274 control unit. Prior to this all public terminal access to IBM mainframes had been in half-duplex linemode, rather than full-screen mode. Now ordinary ASCII terminals (and emulators of them) could conduct full-screen 3270 sessions on the IBM VM/CMS mainframe, and they could do it without reconfiguration (as was necessary for free course linemode connections). The Series/1 converted between full and half duplex, block mode and lsat, character mode, and IBM 3270 data streams and the escape sequences and character sets used by many different types of terminals (even APL terminals), plus it provided flow control and buffering. The Series/1 computers were later replaced by is a essay research, IBM 7171s, 4994s, and tn3270 software in terminal servers and on UNIX hosts.

(Around here, large departmental PC labs began to appear, for example in essays the Business School and in rubrics for creative writing the Learning Center.) 1986-1987 West German hackers use Columbia's Kermit software to break into dozens of essays US military computers and capture information for the KGB , as described by Cliff Stoll in his 1989 book, The Cuckoo's Egg [46]. Grant Writing Classes! At one point, while Cliff watched on a jury-rigged T-connected terminal, the essays hackers were using Kermit to download a copy of the Telnet source code so they could implant a password logger, upload the free course result, recompile it, and install it: Line by line, I watched Kermit shovel the program over to the hacker. But I couldn't just kill Kermit. He'd notice that right away. Now that I was closing in on him, I especially didn't want to tip my hand.

I found my key chain and reached over to the wires connected to the hacker's line. Lsat Essays! Jangling the keys across the connector, I shorted out his circuit for an instant. This added just enough noise to confuse the computer, but not enough to kill the connection. It worked like a charm. I'd jangle my keys, he'd see the marriage research noise, and his computer would ask for essays a replay of the last line. This slowed the transfer down so much that the hacker eventually lost patience and gave up -- but it didn't stop Kermit! As long as the connection stays up, no matter how awful, Kermit pushes the file through. Cliff also measured the delay between Kermit packet and acknowledgment to estimate the hacker's distance from California (6000 miles, a fairly accurate estimate of the distance to Hannover).

1 Jan 1986: CUCCA and Libraries merge. Information is information, right? (V18#2). CUCCA now reports to the University Librarian, Pat Battin. Marriage Essay Research! (In fact, it seems that CUCCA and lsat essays, Libraries merge periodically; in some sense, CUCCA has always reported to the University Librarian; in another sense the real merger came only later, under Elaine Sloan.) The administrative half of CUCCA, ADP (now AIS, Administrative Information Services), is severed and grant classes online, reports to Low Library, and essays, eventually (1991) moves from Watson Lab to Thorndike Hall at Teachers College. Jan 1986: Columbia's first networked PC lab opens in 251 Engineering Terrace, populated with the UNIX (Pro/380), MS-DOS (Rainbow) and VAX workstations from the classes online Hermit grant, plus eight 512K (fat) Macintoshes and two Mac/XLs, a LaserWriter printing station, an IBM PC, and the original Kermit Superbrain (V18#2). The Pro/380 was a workstation made by DEC with a PDP-11 inside. DEC's operating system was called P/OS, which was a version of RSX-11 with a super-annoying menu-driven user interface. Lsat Essays! We adapted 2.8BSD UNIX to 550 word essay the machine for use in lsat the lab, so these were the first public Unix workstations deployed at essay Columbia. Furthermore, unlike the Rainbows, Macs, and the PC (which communicated only lsat essays through their serial ports with Kermit), they were on Ethernet, and therefore on the Internet. Jan 1986: Kermit Project founded.

Kermit had started in 1980 as a task within the DEC-20 Systems Group, which obviously had other responsibilities. By the mid-80s, Kermit had become popular all over the world, and we were receiving hundreds of requests for it every week from sites that were not on the network. Of Reality! Meanwhile, other sites were sending in new Kermit implementations of their own. Essays! Fulfilling these requests and maintaining the Kermit software archive (and mailing list, etc) had become a full-time job, so a full-time Kermit group, led by 550 word essay, Christine Gianone (formerly the business manager in SSIO), was created to manage and lsat essays, distribute the software and take over the online archive, the mailing lists, tech support, and so on. Rubrics! The programming was still done by members of the Systems group and lsat essays, external volunteers. Software distribution charges were instituted to cover costs. The old raised-floor machine room in the back of the 7th floor of Watson Lab (added in 1959 for the IBM 1620) became the writing online Kermit room, containing the Kermit Project computers and lsat, media production equipment.

May 1986: The height of CCNET , which now includes Columbia, CMU, CWRU, NYU, Stevens, Vassar, and Oberlin (V18#5). An October 1986 listing shows about 200 nodes on the network with DEC operating systems including TOPS-10, TOPS-20, VMS, Ultrix, RSX-11/M, and P/OS. Columbia departments included CUCCA, Computer Science, Chemistry, Math Stat, Teachers College, numerous PS departments, Nevis Lab (in Irvington NY), Psychology, Civil Engineering, and the Business School. Other universities (mainly in Ohio) would join later, but in a few more years the writing online Internet would make CCNET obsolete. May 1986: First public description of Columbia's Ethernet backbone network, and enunciation of policy for lsat essays departmental connections to private affair research it (V18#5), which was accomplished by us writing a letter for the Provost to sign. 16 Jul 1986: Columbia University as a whole (as opposed to only the Computer Science Department) receives approval from the Defense Projects Research Agency to join the ARPANET (which would soon become the essays Internet) [SEE LETTER]. Aug 1986: Mathematics joins Ethernet backbone.

1986: (month?) Richard Sacks takes over as acting CUCCA Director. (Howard leaves somewhere in here. ) Sep 1986: The Scholarly Information Center (SIC) is is a essay, proclaimed by Pat Battin, University Librarian. Sep 1986: More about the campus backbone: A bright yellow half-inch coaxial cable runs through the steam tunnels up and across the west and north edges of the lsat essays Morningside campus. This cable is the campus Ethernet backbone, a large part of which was installed as part of an free writing, external research grant from Digital Equipment Corporation [the Hermit Project]. Lsat! (Alan Crosswell, Networks at Columbia , SIC Journal V1#1, Sep 1986). The backbone ran from Watson Lab to grant Mathematics to essays Chemistry to the Computer Center to Computer Science to Mudd (DIAGRAM). At the time coax-based IBM PCNET and Token Ring PC networks were commonplace networking methods for online PCs.

Oct 1986: Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol (Frank) published by essays, Digital Press, with a Foreword by Donald Knuth. It remained in writing print for 14 years. Oct 1986: CU20C switched off and replaced by a DEC VAX 8650 called CUNIXC running Ultrix 1.1, DEC's brand of UNIX , a 4.2BSD derivative. A pilot project assigned some CS courses to CUNIXC in Fall 1986. This was our first step in phasing out the DEC-20s after the line was discontinued by DEC in 1983.

This stung so severely that we would never run a proprietary operating system again (except on the IBM mainframes, of course). The attraction of UNIX was that it was available -- with relatively minor variations -- on all kinds of computers, great and small. Lsat Essays! The 8650 was approximately equal to the DEC-20 in size, weight, and cost; it was chosen because we could recycle many of the DEC-20 peripherals, and because (unlike other UNIXes) it supported DECnet, which we still used for rise of reality television essay departmental connections. Lots more HERE about the conversion from TOPS-20 to Unix. (About UNIX. There is much that appeals about UNIX. Its well-known original attributes (simplicity, terseness, consistent building-block tools) were spelled out in the seminal BSTJ issue [15]. In addition, it is platform independent, so sites like ours are not tied to a particular vendor. Unlike proprietary OSs like TOPS-20, VMS, VM/CMS, and so on, however, UNIX is a moving target. Ever since control of UNIX left Bell Labs, every implementation (Ultrix, OSF/1, AIX, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX, Linux, FreeBSD, etc etc) is different in sometimes subtle but always aggravating ways, and (with a few notable exceptions such as OpenBSD) every new release of every varation tends to break existing applications (whereas programs written for TOPS-20, VMS, MVS/TSO, or VM/CMS decades ago still work, without even recompiling). Any program more complicated than hello world is rarely portable from one UNIX to another without some porting work at the source-code level.

To compound matters, documentation is increasingly scant. In the 1970s and 80s, every operating system (even UNIX) came with a wall of printed manuals that documented everything in excruciating detail. But now documentation is considered a waste of time and effort, since everything will change anyway. Lsat Essays! In modern UNIX, the only reliable documentation is the 550 word essay source code, and even that decays over time.) Nov 1986: 2400 bps modems installed for the first time, 25 of them altogether. There are still 59 300/1200 lines, for a total of 84 dialin lines connected to the PACX. Dec 1986: First IBM RT PCs received at Watson Lab (V18#12). This was IBM's first RISC Technology (RT) UNIX workstation, the precursor to lsat essays the RS/6000, which was in 550 word essay wide use at Columbia and elsewhere into lsat essays the 2000s. IBM's brand of UNIX is called AIX. Dec 1986: The Ingres relational database system is first installed (on CUNIXC).

This would become the basis for CU's ID and authentication systems and grant, other UNIX-based databases. 1987: Snapshot: The 1987 edition of the CUCCA Guide to Research and Instructional Facilities lists four DEC-2065's (but only three remain), the IBM mainframe with VM/CMS, a DEC VAX 8700 running Ultrix, 150 public terminals (HP2621s and DEC VT101s) plus DEC Rainbows and Apple Macintoshes in public labs, 80 dialup lines at 300, 1200, and 2400 bps. and connections to BITNET, ARPANET, NYSERNET, JVNCNET, NSFNET, USENET, and CCNET. By this time it is possible to essays send electronic mail practically anywhere within minutes. During this period CDROMs begin to appear, the dawn of the multimedia age. Online! CLIO goes online to PACX users. CLICK HERE for a map of campus terminal rooms as of January 1987 (Maurice Matiz, V19#2). 1987-88: The remaining three DEC-20s were gradually phased out from June 1987 to essays August 1988. 1987-88: The Kermit Project gives presentations at international conferences in free course the USA, Switzerland, France, and Japan.

In Japan we learned the problems of Japanese text entry, coding, display, and interchange that would influence future directions in Kermit protocol and software. Jan 1987: Morningside campus is connected to the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center in Princeton and to JVNCNET via a 56Kb leased line. Lsat Essays! And to NYSERNET via 56Kb leased line to Cornell. The Big Snowball Fight. Feb 1987: Biology joins Ethernet backbone.

Feb 1987: CUCCA (Frank) commissions Sparc SPITBOL due to imminent demise of DEC-20s (indicating we had already decided on writing assignments Sun for future expansion; SPITBOL (SNOBOL), which some of us still used heavily, was one of the few DEC-20 applications that had not been adapted to UNIX in general or the Sparc in particular). Mar 1987: The SSIO Area is closed and its functions transferred to 321A International Affairs, and later (1989) to 102 Philosophy Hall. The SSIO terminal rooms are replaced by public labs in the International Affairs building (and later in other locations) in which microcomputers, PCs, Macintoshes, and other kinds of workstations are installed rather than terminals. Apr 1987: Hermit project canceled. Although we had achieved many of lsat essays its goals (transparent central file access from DOS, Mac, and UNIX; shared printing, including graphics; even e-mail), it was overtaken by rise, cheap Ethernet, NFS, and commodity LANs/internetworking in lsat general. Most of the equipment (Pro/380s, Rainbows, MicroVAXes) had gone into 251 Engineering Terrace, Columbia's first networked PC lab. The Pro-380s were our first public UNIX workstations (running 2.9BSD, adapted locally to the Pro-380), and CCMD (DEC-20 COMND JSYS simulation in rubrics C for lsat essays UNIX) and marriage is a private essay research, the UNIX version of MM (mail client) came out of it (more info on MM HERE). Essays! The VAX-11/750 became an internal UNIX development system, in preparation for DEC20-to-UNIX conversion, and until late 1988 it was also Columbia's mail hub. May 1987: The Engineering School Ethernet (Muddnet) is writing course, installed and connected to the campus Ethernet backbone.

Muddnet came from an ATT grant to the School of Engineering and Applied Science (SEAS), which also included an ATT 3B20 minicomputer in the Computer Science department and a large number of 3B2 desktop workstations, all running ATT UNIX System V R3. Lsat Essays! The 3Bx's fell into disuse after after a short while, but the of reality Ethernet taps were recycled and used to provide connectivity for years. Jul 1987: VAX 8700 up as CUNIXC, replacing the lsat VAX 8650. Sep 1987: U of Toledo (Ohio) joins CCNET. Oct 1987: First high-speed link installed between Morningside and grant online, Health Sciences campus, via line-of-sight microwave supplying four T1 equivalents (about 6Mbps), providing direct Internet to Health Sciences (previously there had been a 9600bps leased line for DECnet only). This works because the lsat essays Morningside and Health Sciences campus are both on grant online Manhattan high points (see the lsat essays old aerial photo). Nov 1987: The Physics Department joins the rise television Ethernet backbone. Nov 1987: Columbia Appletalk Package (CAP) and Appletalk UNIX File Server (AUFS) released, written by Bill Schilit and lsat essays, Charlie Kim of Watson Lab, provides Appleshare file and print service to writing course Macintoshes from UNIX, speaking Appletalk over Ethernet (V19#9).

CAP and AUFS quickly became popular all over the world and Charlie went on essays to work at Apple. 1987-1993: Network Planning Group (NPG): University-wide planning sessions setting networking direction and television, policy for CU as a whole (Morningside and Health Sciences, Administrative and Academic), chaired by me. Met weekly until 1993. Began by planning for Rolm installation (wiring plant, PACX/Rolm data migration), eventually moved on lsat to local-area, campus-wide, and wide-area networking in general. Eventually everybody bought into rise of reality essay TCP/IP and Ethernet, migrating from SNA, DECnet, etc. [See the NPG final report (PDF)].

1988-89: AIS tests an IBM 9370 minicomputer in Watson Lab as a possible basis for distributed administrative computing. Early 1988: The Office of Telecommunications and lsat essays, Computer Operations were assigned Administrative Data Processing (ADP), which changed its name to free Administrative Information Services (AIS). AIS was removed from lsat CUCCA, and television essay, now reported to the University's central administration, rather than to the University Librarian, thus ending the 17-year CUCCA name and era. The academic and administrative staff, however, continued to work together in Watson Lab [20]. Lsat Essays! The Office of 550 word essay Telecommunications has overall responsibility for the Rolm phone system including the lsat Rolm cable plant. The split complicates the networking of the University, since some aspects (wiring and distribution frames) are done by Telecomm, whereas others (backbone network, hubs, routers, and configuration) are done by the Academic portion of ex-CUCCA (soon to be AcIS), and the two sides do not report anywhere in grant online common short of the President. Working around this structural anomoly was the primary reason for lsat essays NPG.

Meanwhile, the central academic computing systems remain in the machine room but now AIS is the service provider (of operations support) and AcIS the client. Mar 1988: Central CUCCA hosts move down one level in the Internet domain hierarchy, to the CC (Computer Center) subdomain, e.g. CU20B.COLUMBIA.EDU becomes CU20B.CC.COLUMBIA.EDU. The older names remain in writing classes online effect until the first of June. Apr 1988: Our first Sun (a Sun-4/280) was installed in the Watson Lab 7th Floor machine room as WATSUN (the WATson Lab SUN). Watsun (later upgraded to lsat essays Sparc-10 and then Sparc-20), which ran SunOS 4.0 and 4.1 (4.2BSD derivatives), was the primary login host for Watson Lab staff and home of the Kermit Project ftp (and later Web) site for many years. Later (when?) it would move to the Watson Penthouse as the need for office space becomes increasingly urgent, and the old IBM raised-floor machine room would be gutted and divided into four offices for 6-8 people. Free Writing Course! Watsun was retired in 2003. May 1988: CU20D switched off. Essays! All instruction moved from DEC-20s to marriage is a private essay VAX UNIX . Essays! CU20B (research and staff) runs until . . . Aug 1988: CU20B (Columbia's last DEC-20) was switched off. For more about the legacy of the DECSYSTEM-20, CLICK HERE.

In brief: prior the DEC-20s, computer users at Columbia were primarily concerned with calculation, and writing programs, their primary access method was batch. After the DEC-20 (and because of lsat essays it) they were hooked on e-mail, bulletin boards, talk (interactive real-time chatting), text editing and typesetting, and essay, the Internet -- just as they are today. Essays! The nature of course computing had changed completely and lsat, forever. All that remained was to put a pretty face on it. Aug 1988: Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory connected to Morningside campus via Ethernet over T1. Aug 1988: Ethernet backbone extended to East Campus. Summer 1988: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) was switched from BLIS to NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System) after the BLIS company (Bibliotechniques) went under.

NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off to grant classes online Ameritech Library Services. CLIO continues to run on the IBM mainframe. Sep 1988: CUCCA reorganization. Richard Sacks officially director. Elaine Sloan is lsat, new Vice President for writing classes Information Services and University Librarian.

Nov 1988: After years of planning and a year of installation, the ATT Centrex telephone system and the Gandalf PACX were replaced by essays, IBM/Rolm (later Siemens) CBX 9000 (PHOTOS). Now instead of a PACX box and a phone, users had a phone with an RS-232 connector (if they paid extra for classes the data option). Lsat! This was a massive project involving untold amounts of 550 word essay construction, tunneling, drilling, and wire-pulling, including a trench across Broadway and many trenches between the lsat buildings on campus and across side streets. Preparation for the cutover was done using a Rolm CBX 8000 in private Watson Lab. 2500 data connections were moved from the PACX to the Rolm. Columbia's telephone exchange was changed from 280- to lsat essays 853- and for creative writing assignments, 854-. Christine and essays, I published a series of articles in McGraw Hill Data Communications magazine on the topic and Neil Sachnoff wrote a whole book [41]. In the end, the writing most significant aspect of the conversion was the installation of a uniform twisted-pair wiring plant in all Morningside locations, enabling (over the essays next six years) universal 10BaseT Ethernet networking, as well as swipe-card access to affair essay buildings.

Prior to 1988, the Columbia University ID (CUID) was paper. With the Rolm system came laminated picture IDs with magnetic strips that worked in swipe-card readers all over campus, as well as in off-campus university buildings -- anyplace reached by lsat essays, Rolm wiring. The same wiring system that was used for telephones, serial-port terminal connections, and twisted-pair Ethernet was also used to connect to the central access server that lets you open doors. Prior to online this, PACX data installations required pulling wire from the essays PACX to of reality television each destination, digging trenches, drilling holes through granite, etc, and lsat, could take many months. With the CBX, it was just a matter of making some cross-connections in a distribution panel -- every phone jack was also a network jack. The downside was that desktop phones could no longer be used with modems or fax machines, since the phones were now digital (a big issue at the time, but we survived).

1989: CUCCA creates positions specifically for e-mail (freemail) support (postmaster, tech support, education and training). Originally Joe Brennan; the work he did alone now requires about a dozen people. Freemail is launched January 1990. Affair Research! Most of the remaining Morningside campus buildings are connected to the network backbone. 1989: CUCCA business and lsat, consulting offices move to 102 Philosophy Hall . Rubrics For Creative Writing Assignments! This is the same room where Prof. Edwin H. Armstrong invented FM radio. Here we have two views of Armstrong's laboratory in 102 Philosophy in the 1930s [VIEW 1] [VIEW 2] and one of the Armstrong Tower (from the Columbiana photo archive). Lsat Essays! The Armstrong Tower (transmitter for the first-ever FM radio station, W2XMN, 1936) is across the 550 word essay Hudson River in Alpine, New Jersey, but at some point Columbia sold it off. Later (early 1990s) we thought we might use it for microwave access to essays Lamont, since it has line-of-sight to rubrics writing both Columbia's Morningside Heights (Manhattan) campus and to Lamont in Palisades NY, but couldn't afford the new owner's rates. (Actually this idea has come up just about lsat essays every 10 years since the 1960s -- I saw it first suggested in Dean Halford's 1963 letter [36].) After the destruction of the World Trade Center on rise of reality September 11, 2001, the Armstrong tower was used again by the major networks to broadcast their signals [56].

Apr 1989: An Encore Multimax 310 UNIX mainframe (later upgraded to 510) replaces the VAX 8700, our first departure from DEC for big academic central computers since 1975. Lsat Essays! The Encore's attraction was its multiple processors. It was fast. Its UNIX (UMAX) was based on 4.3BSD. This change effectively removes the Computer Center from the campus DECnet, which gradually vanished from the scene over the next 10 or 12 years. May 1989: First International Kermit Conference , Moscow, USSR (Also in the Columbia University Record , V15#3, 22 Sep 1989) (PHOTO). Attended by Frank da Cruz and Christine Gianone of the Columbia Computer Center and 550 word essay, about 70 computer specialists from Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Mongolia, Poland, and parts of the USSR ranging from Novosibirsk in central Russia to Tallinn in Estonia, this is lsat essays, where the details of rubrics Kermit's character-set translation protocol were settled, allowing interchange of text in Cyrillic among machines using diverse incompatible encodings -- ditto for East and West European languages written with accented Roman letters, as well as Hebrew, Greek, Japanese, and other scripts. [PICTURES AND VIDEO] Summer-Fall 1989: Microcomputer labs open in 321A International Affairs (16 Macs); 215 International Affairs (40 Macs plus some terminals); 272 Engineering Terrace (30 IBM PS/2 Model 70s). Meanwhile, all sorts of content began to appear online: the schedule of classes, the University directory, and the Columbia Concise Encyclopedia . Sep 1989: Richard Sacks resigns as director of CUCCA on September 27th. Vace Kundakci (correct spelling: Vaçe Kundakç#305;), manager of the academic IBM mainframes and prior to that systems programmer (since 1977), takes over as acting director. Jan 1990: Using MS-DOS Kermit (Christine) published by Digital Press, with a jacket blurb by lsat, Cliff Stoll (Yow!), author of The Cuckoo's Egg [46].

A second edition was published in writing 1992. Lsat Essays! German and French translations were also published, as was another book about MS-DOS Kermit in mfa creative online Japanese (see the Kermit Bibliography). May 1990: Vace Kundakci takes over as Director, renames CUCCA to AcIS (Academic Information Systems), as distinct from AIS (Administrative Information Services, formerly ADP). Mid-1990: Alan Crosswell becomes Systems Manager, responsible for lsat essays all central academic computing systems (IBM and other), a post last held by Howard Eskin and vacated 5 years before. By this time the of reality only central computers that matter are Unix-based (DEC, then Encore, then Sun, plus workstations from lsat Sun, NeXT, and 550 word essay, HP) the essays academic IBM mainframe is used mainly by of reality television, the Libraries and a handful of external paying users. (Somewhere around here CCNET was disbanded because of the Internet.) Jan 1991: The Senior Vice President of lsat Columbia is bitten by grant, the outsourcing bug and brings in a consulting firm, American Management Systems Inc (AMS), to take over and clean out administrative computing (AIS). Seventeen people are fired. Although a couple of service improvements resulted (mainly a new Student Information System, SIS), many millions of dollars were wasted on cutting edge projects that never panned out and a number of talented people were lost. Eventually AMS left the scene and equilibrium was restored. 1991: We buy a truckload of NeXT UNIX (NeXTSTEP) workstations for essays both staff and labs (photo); a major commitment, and (I believe) an attempt to stem the tide of PCs and marriage private affair essay, Macs, which were intrinsically unsafe and labor intensive for their users and lsat, owners (the PCs more so than Macs, which have always had a great deal of support from a large contingent of the technical staff) and for AcIS staff in its role of writing assignments support-giver.

The NeXTs were configured and managed centrally; user logins were via network to lsat the central University database; user directories were on centrally located, managed, and backed up NFS-mounted disks. But before long NeXT was out of business. 1991: There is mfa creative online programs, much expansion, renovation, and upgrading of public computer labs during 1991 (and ever since). The academic and administrative IBM mainframes (4381, 3090, and 3083) are all replaced by lsat essays, a single IBM ES/9121, which is partitioned into separate academic and administrative virtual machines (a feature of IBM's VM operating system). Jan 1991: Three Sun-4/280s (full-sized cabinets) are installed in the machine room as CUNIXA, CUNIXB, and CUNIXD running SunOS 4.1.

These (and the Encore) were soon replaced by Sun pizza-box sized servers, and SunOS was replaced by Solaris. Where central computers once weighed tons, cost millions, filled acres of for creative writing floor space, required massive cooling and exotic forms of power, now they're dirt-cheap commodity items running at unheard-of speeds with seemingly limitless amounts of memory and storage, that can be carried under your arm and plugged into an ordinary wall socket at ambient room temperature. Of course, today's applications and data saturate this vast capacity just as effectively as yesterday's simpler applications overwhelmed the resources available then, and so it shall always be. (Around here, disk service begins to shift from lsat locally attached disks to RAID file servers, and the backup system changes from the traditional manual 9-track tape operation to automated network backups to a DAT-drive juke box . All the mfa creative writing online programs software was locally written and included all the essays academic servers, Sun as well as the IBM mainframe. Mfa Creative Programs! Later a commercial backup system, Veritas, took the place of the original homegrown one. Capacity as of lsat essays Jan 2001: 400 x 40GB tapes = 16000GB (16TB) to grant writing cover 1.7TB usable space on lsat the academic file servers.) Jan 1992: Conversion of rise television essay Morningside campus backbone from Ethernet coax to optical fiber begins; cutover in essays Spring 1992. Apr 1992: AIS moves out of Watson Lab to new quarters in Thorndike Hall at Teachers College (MAP) and in the Computer Center Building [20]. Floors 1 through 5 of Watson Lab were left vacant for 550 word essay a period, and lsat, then, even though the AcIS space on floors 6-9 was (and remains) severely and increasingly overcrowded, the lower five floors with their rich history and key role in science and computing were converted to art studios. Nov 1992: Using C-Kermit (Frank and Christine) published by Digital Press, concurrent with the release of version 5 of C-Kermit. A second edition would follow in 1997, as well as a German translation.

1992-1993: Columbia's Kermit software handles the communications in marriage private research the British relief mission to Bosnia. 1993: The era of the search engine begins. First there was Archie, then Hypertelnet, then Gopher, then the Web. In 1993, ColumbiaNet is lsat, hot, a million accesses per free year (a figure soon to be dwarfed by the Web, see Web statistics table). ColumbiaNet is a text-based menu-driven service (remember text?). Here's the main menu, preserved for posterity:

Spring 1993: By now the Internet is ubiquitous. University Technology Architecture published, setting University-wide standards for networking, a common TCP/IP-based network for all computing, administrative and academic, at Columbia; this was the end product of NPG (see it here as a PDF). Formerly the administrative network was IBM SNA and completely separate from the academic network. While this arrangement might have had its advantages from a security standpoint, it was becoming increasingly difficult to essays manage and for end users to cope with. Summer 1993: The Schapiro Residence Hall (across 115th Street from Watson Lab) is wired for rise of reality essay Ethernet as a pilot project for essays campus-wide networked dormitories. Writing Online! Schapiro is also the first building to be served by the new fiber backbone. Dec 1993: New AcIS modem pool announced, consisting of lsat essays 80+ V.32 bis 14400 bps error-correcting data-compressing US Robotics modems, connected to Cisco terminals servers at essay research 57600 bps with RTS/CTS hardware flow control, replacing the old Rolm based modem pool. When the lsat Rolm was first installed in 1988, 1200/2400 and 9600 bps modem pools were connected directly to it, and these provided Columbia's main dialup access until 1994 (a total of 84 lines). Writing Classes! Beginning in lsat 1993, AcIS began to install modern error-correcting data-compressing modems of of reality television essay its own in Watson Lab.

This was done for several reasons: The top speed of essays a Rolm port was fixed at is a essay research 19200 bps. Rolm data ports did not support hardware flow control, which is essential for error-correcting data-compressing modems; SLIP and essays, PPP connections could not be made through Rolm ports (at least not by an ordinary mortal). The demand for 550 word essay dialup access has increased ever since, and lsat essays, we keep accommodating (see table). The modems themselves have since been upgraded to V.34 (28800 bps) and then V.90 (56K bps). Modems were originally used for text-based shell sessions. In the late 1980s, SLIP service appeared on our terminal servers, and rubrics for creative, later PPP.

Gradually, shell access gave way to Internet connections over PPP, which had the advantages of lsat allowing multiple sessions on marriage is a private essay research the same connection including Web browsers and GUI PC-based e-mail, plus end-to-end data integrity (no more line noise of course the noise is still there, but it's detected and corrected by retransmission automatically by the modems and essays, the IP and TCP network layers, so you don't see it). Jan-Apr 1994: The Columbia website debuts; see statistics below. A web server was first installed in Dec 1993; the first Columbia website was up in Jan 1994 (DID ANYBODY SAVE A SCREENSHOT?), and the website was announced and publicized in Apr 1994. Early original content included the Architecture digital library (1994-95), the Art History digital library (1993-95), the Oversized Geology Maps project (1994-96), and the Bartleby full-text literature project [Source: Rob Cartolano] . Writing! Before long, a Web front end to essays NOTIS-based CLIO was also available (DATE?). May 1994: In AIS News V4#2, the Directors of AcIS (Vace Kundakci) and AIS (Mike Marinaccio) present the full range of e-mail options available to Columbia: Pine, MM, VMM, MailBook, the newly emerging PC and Macintosh based POP clients, and for creative writing assignments, e-mail with MIME attachments. Summer 1994: Most residence halls wired for Ethernet: Carman, Furnald, Hartley, John Jay, Wallach (Livingston), John Jay, and Wien (Johnson). Residence Hall Networking Option (RHNO) offered to lsat essays students in the Fall. The first electronic classrooms were set up. Sep 1994: The public labs are switched from NeXT to HP 9000/712 UNIX (HP-UX) workstations; a big attraction is their ability to of reality run both Mac and PC (Windows) emulators as well as UNIX applications perfect for the public labs but far too pricey for individual desktops. Sometime in 1994: I turn over my Network Tsar responsibilities to Bill Chen and devote full time to the Kermit Project, which I began 14 years earlier and could never quite give up. Shortly thereafter, Jeff Altman joins as a second full-time developer.

The Network Planning Group becomes the Network Systems Group, to reflect its now-operational nature. Token Ring and SNA networks phased out. Oct 1994: Columbia's Kermit software serves as the essays primary communications method in the Brazilian national election, the free course world's largest election ever at the time. Nov 1994: The printed Newsletter ceases publication, which is too bad since there is lsat essays, nothing quite like a paper trail. Web documents are transitory turn your back for a couple years (or months or weeks) and the history is lost. Television! The newsletter was the Computer Center (or CUCC , or CUCCA ) Newsletter until November 1988, after which it suffered a series of makeovers and name changes: Columbia Computing, Computing News, Academic Computing, SIC [sic] Journal , etc, and lsat, then gave up the ghost.

For all practical purposes, the historical record of computing Columbia stops here. Grant Online! There was an ASCII archive of newsletters through 1988 on the DEC-20s, but it was lost when CU20B was switched off. Dec 1994: The Flynn Report recommends (among other things) improved computing and networking service for students. 1994-95: Windows and the Web take over. The diverse, rich, idiosyncratic history of computing stops here. For the first time, computing and lsat essays, networking are opened up to the general public. Rise Of Reality Essay! The locus of computing and networking shifts from lsat science and academia to the mass market.

1994-95: Initial funding for the creation of two test electronic classrooms (Fairchild and . ) for the 1994-95 year. 1994-present: AcIS is primarily occupied with the Web, Web-based services, content, labs, kiosks, Sun servers and NFS toasters, multimedia classrooms, wired dorms, mobile and wireless computing, video conferencing, webcasting, distance learning, all the while fending off attacks from within and without viruses, spam, open mail relays, junk mail, denial of service attacks, worms, etc that occur continuously from all corners of the globe, and constantly struggling to keep up with the rubrics assignments ever-increasing demand for bandwidth, storage, and dial-in modems, often just to accommodate services like Napster, Kazaa, Internet Relay Chat, Instant Messaging, and people emailing cartoons, photos, and lsat, movies to each other or serving streaming video from their dorm rooms. Superficially, users rely on AcIS less than before, now that they have their own desktop computers and applications. But in fact they rely on AcIS more than ever for essential daily services like virus protection and screening, e-mail and private affair research, Web access, not to lsat essays mention the Sun and RAID server farms that provide these services as well as safe, backed-up storage and the unglamorous infrastructure of network wiring, hubs, and routers (installation, maintenance, updates, expansion, management, configuration), plus the ongoing feeds from the administrative student information, human resources, and alumni systems, allowing automated identity creation, security, web-based student services, web-based courses, and all the rest, serving virtually every student, staff, and faculty member of the University, a community of over 40,000 users (plus another 50,000+ alumni with e-mail service). 1995-96 Electronic classrooms project funded at $1M for the creation of the e-rooms throughout campus. Oct 1995: Kermit 95 for Windows 95 released; this (and C-Kermit) would be the main preoccupation of the Kermit Project for the years to come, plus active involvement in IETF and Unicode standards. Kermit is 550 word essay, a laboratory where we can learn about, experiment with, develop, and finally package, document, and deploy file transfer and lsat essays, management protocols, Internet clients and servers, character-set translation techniques, secure authentication and encryption methods, and algorithms of all kinds big and small, even transport-level network stacks. Even a programming language.

1996: The Watson Lab building is featured in the movie, The Mirror Has Two Faces . For several weeks 115th Street and writing, the building itself were occupied by production crews, equipment, and actors. Essays! The final shot in the movie zooms in to a Watson window. This is only one of many films that used Columbia University locations; others include Spiderman and Ghostbusters (CLICK HERE for more). Television Essay! The Columbia neighborhood is also a frequent setting for TV shows such as Law Order (where Hudson University is a fictionalized Columbia University) and New York Undercover (1994-1998). Fall 1997: The 50th anniversary of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) passed unnoticed at Columbia, even though the ACM was founded here. Jul 1999: Rolm Dataphone connections (top speed: 19200 bps) were discontinued because by essays, now everybody had Ethernet in their Rolmphone jacks; the Annex and grant classes, Cisco terminal servers to which the central data modules were connected were switched off and removed. Summer 1999: HP 712/60 workstations, which were mainly used to run PC and Macintosh emulation software, were replaced by 70 Sun Ultra 10 workstations, in both 251 Engineering Terrace and the adjacent Gussman Lab. The other big deal that summer was the upgrade of the entire lab to 100BaseT. Dec 1999: In Pupin Laboratory, site of the world's first automated scientific calculations 65 years earlier, the Computational Field Theory Group of the Columbia University Physics Department, working with IBM TJ Watson Research Center and Brookhaven National Laboratory, begins construction of a multiteraflops supercomputing resource , the QCDOC machine (Quantum Chromodynamics On a Chip).

In April 2002, the lsat group received a five million dollar grant from RIKEN, the Japan Institute of Physical and Chemical Research in support of this work. CLICK HERE for 550 word essay further information. [ Top ] Aug 2002: AcIS reclaims the 4th floor of Watson Lab. Lsat! Some art studios are relocated to Prentis Hall. The full-time members of the rubrics for creative writing assignments Computing Support Center staff moved back from 102 Philosophy Hall. Walk-in services remain in essays 102 Philosophy but the telephone help desk is now in 550 word essay Watson Lab. Sep 2002: After several successful pilot projects, network wiring of residential buildings in the neighborhood begins. Initial service is 10Mbps, increased to 100 in Feb 2003.

22 Nov 2002: Today is the first day in history that Columbia is using Internet service from a company (Texas based Broadwing) which we had nothing to essays do with building. Until today, even though we had bought service from companies like PSI and grant writing classes, Applied Theory, we used services which we (through Nysernet) had something to do with their creation and essays, expansion, at least in their earlier stages. Let's now hope Broadwing stays in business. Writing Course! Vace Kundakci (AcIS Director). Nov-Dec 2002: Columbia's Kermit 95 software CD is delivered by lsat essays, the Space Shuttle Endeavor to 550 word essay the International Space Station (see the lsat July 2003 entry for details). Jan - Feb 2003: Installation of per-host outbound bandwidth throttling to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing (Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa, etc) on network performance.

Jan - May 2003: As the University drowns in spam (unwanted e-mail), AcIS prototypes filtering mechanisms. May 2003: IBM System/360 nameplate, Console power switch, and about 100 lamps sent to the newly relocated Computer Museum History Center in Mountain View, California, for reattachment to our IBM 360/91 Console, which we donated in 1980 with these pieces missing. 16 Jun 2003: AcIS activates its spam filters. At this point, incoming mail traffic is 500-600,000 messages per day, of which about 20% are filtered. The filtering policy, however, is conservative to avoid blocking legitimate mail, so this figure does not reflect the actual amount of spam and marriage private affair essay, viruses, not to mention the lsat essays fallout from them (e.g. Mfa Creative Online! bounce notifications resulting from forged mail). Jul 2003: On the International Space Station , a connection between Columbia's MS-DOS Kermit and lsat, Kermit 95 software programs delivers the results from the CSLM-2 microgravity experiment. This experiment is to writing course be run at different times through 2005.

CLICK HERE for the full story. 7 Jul 2003: New CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online). The previous version, based on lsat essays NOTIS software running on the IBM mainframe, dated from the 1980s, before the Web and the popularization of the Internet. The first CLIO system, based on Bibliotechniques BLIS software, debuted in January 1984; when Bibliotechiques folded a second version of CLIO, based on NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System), came up in summer 1988. NOTIS was developed at rise of reality television Northwestern University and later spun off, then bought by lsat, Ameritech Library Services, which was itself snapped up and evidently dissolved by a private investment group in 1999. The new Web-centric CLIO is built on Endeavor Information Systems Inc. Oracle-based Voyager software, running on of reality essay AcIS-administered Sun Solaris servers, and is also used at the US Library of essays Congress, the writing US National Libraries of Medicine and lsat essays, Agriculture, Princeton, Yale, Cornell, Penn, and elsewhere.

At this point, 92% of the University's holdings are cataloged online, a total of essay 4 million records, with plans for essays the remainder (with exceptions like maps and rare books, plus divisions that never joined the main catalog such as the Law and TC Libraries) to be in the catalog by writing assignments, 2005. The new system allows more searching, management, and lsat, customization options, and integrates and largely automates backoffice tasks. 550 Word Essay! Perhaps more significantly, it is designed to accommodate Unicode, potentially allowing native-script cataloging of materials in Russian, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, and essays, most other languages. Free Writing Course! NOTIS-based CLIO was the last academic user of the IBM mainframe the end of an era spanning nearly 50 years. Thursday, 14 Aug 2003: The blackout of 2003 , the biggest blackout in North American history. Electrical power failed about 4:15pm all over New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ohio, Michigan, and lsat, Ontario, as well as parts of Vermont and Massachusetts, affecting 50 million people. Power was restored to 550 word essay the Morningside campus about lsat essays 6:10am the grant writing classes online next day; some areas came back sooner, some (e.g. Chelsea) were without power as long as 30 hours. The network and hosts began to come online 10:00am-2:00pm Friday, and by 6:00pm all the essential online services (Email, Web, Cunix and lsat, related software, Courseworks, network, library, modems, etc.) were available; ID management services were restored at 8:39pm Friday. Subways and trains resumed operation Saturday morning.

28 Oct 2003: Columbia's central Sun servers upgraded from Solaris 2.5.1 to Solaris 9. The Solaris 9 servers would run until the end of 2015, which beats the old OS longevity record of OS/360 21.0 (1972-78). 15 Dec 2003: New Columbia home page, the first major redesign since the website started in 1994. Features NYC scenes, kind of like the Kermit website :-) CLICK HERE to see the last old-style page; AND HERE to see the 1996 version. The new home page loads a random picture each time you visit or reload it; CLICK HERE to writing online see a selection from the first day. Columbia University's 250 Anniversary. COLUMBIA.EDU 20th anniversary. 4 May 2004: 28 years after its first use at Columbia, electronic mail is declared an official medium of communication. As of 1 July 2004, all students are required to read their e-mail. By this time, nearly all students have their own computers; the dorms are all wired, as are neighborhood apartment buildings; computer labs are found throughout campus; and lsat, wireless networking is available in key outdoor common areas and various classrooms and lounges. 25 May 2004: Columbia's last academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, was turned off at online 10:10am, terminating 36 years of continuous IBM 360-architecture service to Columbia's academic community (and before that, other IBM mainframe architectures going back to the 1950s, and before that IBM accounting and essays, calculating machines reaching back to the 1940s, 30s, and 20s). Academic use of writing online programs Columbia's IBM mainframes had been dwindling since the 1980s, until finally none remained.

Most of Columbia's administrative applications, however, still run on IBM mainframes. Summer 2004: The SUN workstations were retired from the public labs and replaced by actual PCs and lsat essays, Macintoshes emulation is never quite like the real thing, and there wasn't that much interest in UNIX any more. The PCs run Microsoft Windows. In the PC lab's first incarnation, Windows had to be installed fresh for each user session over writing online, the network via a custom bootstrap ROM, so each new user did not inherit a “customized”, booby-trapped, virus-ridden PC from the previous user. 23 Sep 2004: Installation of per-host inbound bandwidth quotas to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing on network performance. This was the headline in essays today's Spectator , reflecting the widespread perception that the purpose of the network, if not the 550 word essay university itself, is to permit students to essays download and writing course, trade audio and video without paying for it. Lsat Essays! The initial limit is 400MB per hour. 11 Nov 2004: Columbia University decides that it was not such a great idea after all to split academic and administrative computing (early 1988), or to consider computing a library function (January 1986), and 550 word essay, commenced a search for essays a new VP of Information Technology to head a recombined, reconstituted, restructured, and possibly relocated central computing organization, the details of which will not be known until after new VP arrives. CLICK HERE for the announcement. 29 Nov 2004: Spectatator picks up the story, attributing the reorganization to a series of AcIS glitches such as hacker and virus attacks; Students are all too familiar of [sic] the writing shortcomings of AcIS.

An anonymous SEAS junior said that AcIS is 'completely incompetent and [doesn't] know how to manage anything'. In reality, it would be rather difficult to lsat point to writing online any site that supports a user community upwards of 60,000, mostly on their own Internet-connected Windows workstations, that knows how to manage hackers and viruses, which, after all, arrive continuously from every corner of the planet, each one exploiting an as-yet-unknown vulnerability, periodically bringing down major corporations and entire governments, sometimes the Internet itself, not mention other universities. Essays! Evidently Spectator is 550 word essay, also unaware that AIS and essays, AcIS were a single organization until the University divided them. Putting them back together is a simple matter of undoing an old mistake, although it's not clear that the decision was made by anybody who knows that. It should also be noted that AcIS and its predecessors have rarely, if ever, received sufficient funding to meet the classes online needs of the user community (for details, read above starting about 1970). Essays! The irony is assignments, that now, when the lsat essays complaints are loudest, those needs are vanishingly academic. In the same Spectator issue, the staff editorial states that, in light of recent crackdowns on illegal downloading of is a private research copyright material (MP3s and video), Columbia now has the responsibility to help students legally download movies and music. Lsat! Now we know what we are here for. 1 Jul 2005: Candace Fleming appointed Columbia Vice President of Information Technology, to preside over the once-and-future joint AcIS/AIS organization, yet to programs be (re)named. 2 Aug 2005: AIS + AcIS = CUIT (Columbia University Information Technology).

30 Aug 2005: 50th anniversary of Columbia's first computer , an IBM 650 at Watson Lab: the first stored-program computer at Columbia that was available for general use by Columbia researchers and courses. (The words of the previous sentence are chosen carefully: earlier computing devices had been available to Columbia researchers, but they were not stored-program computers. Lsat! At least one stored-program computer, NORC, had been at Columbia before 1955 but it was not generally available to the academic community. Columbia researchers had also had some access before 1955 to 550 word essay stored-program computers offsite, e.g. at IBM headquarters downtown; these computers were not at Columbia.) For all but the handful of brave pioneers who used the earlier plugboard-programmed machines, the 650 was indeed the first computer. Lsat Essays! Within a couple years, it could be programmed in FORTRAN and affair, other symbolic languages, and quickly became so popular that a second one was added. 1 Sep 2006: Columbia University is now receiving, detecting, and refusing over a million spam, virus, phishing, and other unwanted emails per essays day. Of course many still come through, but it is free writing, better to allow some spam to lsat pass than to mfa creative writing online programs block legitimate mail.

28 Feb 2008: Alan Crosswell, who has been here almost as long as I have [I was laid off in 2011 after 37 years at lsat the Computer Center and 45 at Columbia], appointed Associate Vice President and Chief Technologist. 15 Jan 2009: The CUIT Helpdesk Support Center, formerly known as the Client Service Center (and before that as the SSIO [Self-Service Input/Output] Area, and the CUCCA Business and Consulting Office), moves from 102 Philosophy Hall (see March 1987 entry) to assignments 202 Philosophy. 21 Apr 2009: Reunion of some original Watson Lab people from the 1940s and 50s, at lsat essays the original Watson Lab building at mfa creative 612 W 116th Street. CLICK HERE for a gallery. 25 Jan 2010: Herb Grosch dies at 91 years of age.

An authentic computer pioneer, he worked here from lsat essays 1945 to 1950 and in free writing course recent years was an lsat essays, energetic and colorful contributor to this history. Marriage Private Affair Research! The photo is from 1951, showing how he looked when he was working in Watson Lab on 116th Street where he came up with Grosch's Law (in 1950, not 1965 as Wikipedia states; see see Chapter 13 of Grosch's autobiography). Essays! Herb created and taught one of the first Computer Science courses anywhere (Numerical Methods) at Columbia University in 1946. He went on to a long and rubrics, contentious career at MIT, GE, IBM, Datamation, the National Bureau of Standards, Computerworld, and the ACM, and served on the faculty of numerous universities. 10-12 Feb 2015: The last vestige of text-based email (inaugurated here in the mid-1970s), namely the secure POP3 server at mail.columbia.edu:995, was turned off. Meaning it's no longer possible to access email with a text-based email client in a shell session, or to use shell-based tools and filters and editors with email. Until now you could do all your work except web browsing and photo editing in a text-mode shell session. The “upgrade” to essays Google Gmail puts your email in “The Cloud” where it can hacked or can be “mined” by corporate interests or the DHS (I've been assured that these things will never happen but. Of Reality! ) And where we pretty much have no control over it. No straightforward way to archive it locally. Lsat Essays! No way to write programs to do any kind of custom searching, statisics, analysis on selected email archives chosen by various criteria, e.g. date range.

When sending mail, there is no precise control over the formatting, nor any way to choose an encoding other than UTF-8, nor any way to enter non-ASCII characters from a PC keyboard aside from Alt-key escapes (like Alt-0241 for ñ), or setting your keyboard up to have dead-key combinations, or clicking on a cartoon keyboard, none of which are exactly ideal for a touch typist who can type as fast in Spanish or German, or even Russian, as in English when using a good terminal emulator*. All in all, compared to MM used with a good terminal emulator, Gmail is pretty labor intensive and inflexible at television essay best, and at worst it puts us in a situation where a profit-driven corporation owns our email, not we ourselves. We are forced to lsat use a Web browser to access it, which opens us up to mfa creative all manner of cookies, spying, marketing, and analysis of essays our computers and files, not to mention hostile attacks not from writing Google, necessarily, but from the lsat whole planet. None of that happens with text-based email. Even imputing the private affair research best of motives to the corporations, the lsat volatility of the rubrics for creative writing assignments market could result in our cloud of email disappearing one day into a stock market vortex, or being bought up by some new company that could do anything at all with it hold it for lsat essays ransom, sell it to tabloids. On this topic, an old friend at private research another university observed a couple years ago: I have 30+ years of essays e-mail archives, and it is writing, absolutely mission-critical that I own all of my mail files. There is lsat essays, no guarantee that gmail (or hotmail, or msn mail, or yahoo mail, or any ISP mail) will be around tomorrow, next year, or a decade from of reality television now. Lsat Essays! e-mail is a critical record of institutional, governmental, and industrial work, and marriage is a private affair, it needs to be owned by those who created it, not given away to an outside source who is lsat essays, busy mining it, and could lose or corrupt it. Furthermore the constantly evolving methods of representing emails might render our Cloud-based “rich text”** email archives useless in a future that might not be as distant as you think. Vint Cerf, “Father of the Internet” and Google Vice President, said recently (see below for citations): Old formats of documents that we've created or presentations may not be readable by the latest version of the software because backwards compatibility is not always guaranteed. And so what can happen over for creative writing, time is that even if we accumulate vast archives of essays digital content, we may not actually know what it is. Plain text, on the other hand, is eternal.

ASCII, which serves for English and a few other languages, was (and is) a well-defined and mfa creative writing online programs, mature national and international standard, as are subsequent standards like ISO 8859 and ISO 10646 (Unicode) that increased the character repertoire to accommodate other languages and writing systems. Whereas presentation methods are driven by essays, corporate interests and competition and they never stop changing***. The medium swallows the marriage is a private affair message. 23 May 2015: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist , the second director of the Columbia Computer Center (and a major contributor to this history), dies in Richmond VA at the age of 84 [obituary] (the first director was Kenneth King from 1963 to 1971). Bruce, a genuine pioneer in computing from the 1950s and essays, a prominent figure in the ACM and grant classes online, AFIPS (details here), exemplified the long-forgotten academic and scientific traditions of the lsat computer center and its predecessor, the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, serving on the Engineering School faculty and publishing papers in online scientific journals as well as several books on computers and lsat, society.

Bruce led the mfa creative Computer Center from lsat essays 1973 to 1984, staying on marriage is a essay in an advisory capacity until 1988. As his first act, he opened up access to what in lsat essays those days was “the computer” (a huge IBM mainframe) to the entire Columbia community, the first instance of open computing at Columbia, and he would continue his push for open computing throughout subsequent generations of machines, such as the marriage essay DECSYSTEM-20s (1977-88), despite often severe budget pressures. Bruce was the first to put public “terminal rooms” in dormitories and other academic buildings. Bruce hired mainly out of the Engineering School, launching the lsat careers of numerous women and men in mfa creative writing online programs computing. As a scientist with close connections to lsat the computer industry, he was able to combine technical leadership with good humor and humane management. Course! His office on the sixth floor of the Watson building was always open and he enjoyed spending time with both his technical staff and his administrative staff; he treated workers with respect and he was universally respected in return. After relinquishing day-to-day management of the Computer Center in 1984, he concentrated his efforts on essays the acquisition and installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just a new telephone system for the University, but also a wiring plant that would eventually provide high-speed data access to every building and room on the Morningside campus. Open computing fully realized. CLICK HERE to see an hour-long 2007 Public Access TV interview with Bruce. 29 Dec 2015: Columbia's Cunix timesharing systems were switched from Solaris 9 on 32-bit Sun Sparc servers that had been running since somewhere between 2001 and 2003, to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 on 64-bit x86_64 servers. In the intervening years, direct Unix shell use at Columbia has dwindled down to a handful of diehards, partly in the nature of the is a private affair essay times moving on, but also because key services such as email had been removed from the lsat shell hosts.

Other once-common utilities like the FTP client and C-Kermit were not installed on the new Linux-based Cunix system, nor once-important math and statistical applications like Matlab and SAS, nor venerable programming languages like Fortran and Snobol. But at least the regular GCC development environment remains for the few who still write C code, and EMACS for those who still do their text processing the mfa creative writing online old-fashioned and efficient way rather than the new annoying and labor-intensive way. The choice of Linux is primarily market-based, not merely a matter of price or source-code availability, but of market dominance. Unix (of which both Solaris and Linux are variants) was originally a 1960s Bell Labs research project. Over time it became a proliferation of commercial products “solutions” that ran on specific hardware Solaris for lsat Sun, HP-UX for Hewlett-Packard, AIX for IBM, etc. Marriage Is A Private Affair Essay! but all these have practically vanished by now. Two free Unix implementations, Minix and Linux, were created about the same time, and Linux itself branched off into free (e.g.

Debian, Slackware) and corporate (e.g. Red Hat Enterprise) versions. Lsat Essays! Another branch, descending from the Bell Labs original via Berkeley Unix and including FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and friends, remains free community-sourced software. But big companies such as Columbia University prefer to rise of reality have the corporate ties that Red Hat offers. 29 Feb 2016: The central Sun Solaris-based CUNIX timesharing systems turned off after about 15 years of service, replaced by lsat essays, Linux servers. 12 Sep 2016: Engineering professor Leon Lidofsky * dies in Vermont at the age of rise essay 94. He was one of Columbia's earliest hands-on users of digital computers, establishing a computer lab on lsat essays the second floor of the rubrics writing assignments Engineering Terrace in the mid-1960s that included a room-sized minicomputer (SEL 810B), a tabletop DEC PDP-8, and various specialized equipment for data collection and analysis, one of only a handful of lsat Columbia's departmental computing facilities at the time. I first met him in 1969 when I got a student job in his department. I graduated from the school of General Studies in 1970 and left the department to find a real job, and rise of reality, wound up driving a taxi in Bronx. After a while Lee asked me to come back and lsat essays, work in rubrics for creative writing assignments the department full-time as the administrator for a new program he was in charge of, dealing with the social responsibilities of engineers and ways they could be of public service. Lsat! Really my job was just paper shuffling, but Lee knew that I had had “computer” training in 550 word essay the Army and essays, soon I was doing all the key punching for the department.

After a while he asked me if I would like to write a program on his minicomputer. Writing! He gave me a Fortran book and a few lessons and before long I had pretty much automated myself out of lsat a job. Lee suggested I take advantage of my full-time staff position to take computer science courses in the department of 550 word essay EECS (as it was known then). It was a good fit, I liked the lsat idea of having problems to work on that could actually be solved. As a sideline, Lee was a consultant in nuclear medicine at Mt. Sinai Hospital (click here for an example of his work there).

When the Columbia project I was working on came to a close, he got me my first real programming job in writing Mt. Sinai's new Laboratory for Computer Science, and thus began my brilliant career as a software developer. Along the essays way I wrote some books and always featured him in the acknowledgments, as in my last book ( Using C-Kermit, 2nd Ed .): “. and to 550 word essay Lee Lidofsky, a Great Teacher, for a timely push in lsat essays a good direction, a long time ago”. Incidentally, the computers at the Mt. Sinai lab were DEC PDP-11s, my first experience with a somewhat interactive (via Teletype) computer operating system, which led to the choice of a PDP-11 for Columbia's first timesharing system, which in turn led to the choice of big DECSYSTEM-20s as Columbia's primary academic computing platform, 1977-1988. Anyway, thanks to Lee I had a decent job with good salary and benefits that allowed me to writing raise a family and put my kids through college.

If not for essays Lee, I'd probably still be driving a cab! Arranging for me (who was not even one of his students) to have a good life was definitely not in his job description, but that's how he was. I'm sure there are a thousand other stories just like this one. It's interesting to writing programs ponder the transformation of Columbia from lsat a quill-pen operation in the 1700s to for creative writing the wired (and, increasingly, wireless) one it is essays, today. Computers, obtained originally for scientific work that could not be done any other way, were also turned to administrative tasks such as registration, student records, payroll, and so on. Rubrics For Creative Writing! What was the cost in money, space, and personnel before and essays, after? And then later when centralized computing (based on a single multimillion dollar computer system) became fully distributed, with a PC on every desk, how did that change the overall expenditures, consumption of space and electrical power, personnel rosters, and the productivity of each person? Any clear answer would take a great deal more research than was done here, but the following table is suggestive:

Sources: The 1925 figures come from Columbia's 1924-25 Catalog [5] and grant writing classes, from the 1924-25 Annual Report [35]; the student count does not include another 12,916 summer session students; the officers of administration include 38 who are also on the faculty. The 2010 figures come from the Columbia University Statistical Abstract of the lsat Office of Planning and Institutional Research (on the Web). The growth in mfa creative writing programs faculty is accounted for almost entirely by the Health Sciences campus, which did not exist in 1925. Although the role of computing in staff and tuition increases is far from clear, it is evident that Columbia University was able to offer a first-class education to about 20,000 students annually with a lot less overhead and at lsat far less expense without computers than with them, even accounting for inflation (which averaged 3.1% per year from 550 word essay 1925 to lsat 2000 or 987% over the period; thus if tuition had merely kept pace with inflation, it would have risen only to $79 per point rather than $834 in marriage private essay research 2000). Of course, one can't necessarily blame computers alone for a topheavy bureaucracy -- since the 1950s, huge amounts of essays additional work in the form of reports (compliance, demographic, financial, etc) mandated by government, suppliers, and contractors at every level. Anyway, as any student who registered in the old days (filling in countless forms by rubrics assignments, hand with the same information and standing in lsat essays about 50 lines to turn in each form) can tell you, some of the new systems are an marriage, improvement.

Columbia is also a far bigger employer than it was in 1925 and it's a good thing that more people have work, even if it's pointless. Or if you take a closer look, maybe it's not such a good thing. When the lsat essays Computer Center opened in 1963, there was one big computer for everybody to use, cared for by a small professional staff, initially just 15 people. Today, the combined full-time staff of of reality AcIS and AIS (now CUIT) numbers well into the hundreds, and this doesn't count an unknown number of full and part-time computer people in the administrative and academic departments, nor junior faculty and essays, graduate students shanghaied into system-administration roles, nor the fact that almost everybody at the University devotes copious time to managing and fighting with their own desktop computers into the bargain, not to mention dealing (or worse: not) with the constant onslaught of writing assignments viruses, worms, and hacks from all corners of the world. One is tempted to wonder in lsat essays exactly what way computers are labor-saving devices :-) But love 'em or hate 'em, computers and networks are with us to stay. They first came to Columbia for scientific and statistical work; now they are used mainly for social and entertainment purposes, plus taking notes in class, preparation of 550 word essay papers, a certain amount of lsat course work, and for carrying on the business of the University, including a great deal of 550 word essay public relations. All students and faculty are presumed to have computer, network, and Web access; it is required in many courses and for numerous tasks such as looking up class schedules, room assignments, and grades, and since Fall 2001, also for registration.

The benefits of the Web are well known but its dangers little discussed, at essays least not beyond the well-known safety hazards (credit-card theft, pedophiles, viruses) and annoyances (bugs and new features requiring constant software upgrades). Let's look at some of the more fundamental pitfalls that tend to be ignored as we rush to replace all that is old by what is 550 word essay, new: For good or ill, the Web has largely replaced the Library for undergraduate research. Lsat Essays! The benefits (again) are well-known, but increasingly, if it's not on the Web students don't see it. Furthermore, it's often difficult to of reality essay assess the information one finds on the Web. Essays! Published books and journal articles, at least, have some measure of quality control and some form of audit trail (you can check the primary sources yourself). At the very least, they are substantial and grant, immutable objects that can be referenced -- when you look at a book or article that I have referenced, you see the same one I saw. Web pages are ephemeral, likely to move, change, or disappear at any moment, and in any case rarely have the authority of a refereed, printed publication. Since I wrote the previous item, the Web itself has been largely supplanted by Google and Wikipedia for research. Wikipedia is handy, to be sure, but how do you verify the accuracy of anything in it? Google, on the other hand, is a massive corporation whose only goal is making more and more money, and lsat, as part of achieving that goal, it controls the content we see.

Searches are still relatively fair and free writing course, open, but Google News is pure corporate messaging. Lsat! Nevertheless, Google can throw a switch at rubrics writing any moment to hide entire bodies of lsat essays knowledge or opinion it deems prejudicial to its corporate health. In a new application of Gresham's Law, the Web tends to drive out reliable and detailed information, replacing it with unreliable and sketchy sound bites. Libraries full of 550 word essay books and essays, journals are increasingly viewed as legacy brick and 550 word essay, mortar operations that can no longer justify their existence in essays the age of electronic information. But those same libraries contain all that is free, known of essays history, culture, and science. Online! What will become of lsat our printed record, as it takes up coveted space and decays? It can't all be digitized; that would be far too expensive and time-consuming. Therefore much -- probably most -- of it will be lost to posterity. And then whatever portion was digitized before the 550 word essay paper was discarded or crumbled will itself be subject to successive rounds of essays winnowing as the digital media, encoding, and formats become obsolete and require upgrading. Grant Writing Classes Online! Repeated application of this process will leave only a tiny fragment of what was available to us in, say, 1980, and there will be no going back. New information is lost too.

It was relatively easy to trace the lsat history of writing course computing at Columbia through 1994 by the paper trail of newsletters, books, paper correspondence files, and lsat, so on. After 1994, it's just a blur. If it was recorded at 550 word essay all, it was recorded on the Web or in e-mail, and there is no systematic archive of essays old Web pages and e-mails. What is new today will be old tomorrow. Marriage Is A Private Affair! The Web is not eternal.

Something else is bound to appear that turns the Web into a deprecated legacy concept and the vast corpus of lsat essays Web files will need conversion to the next thing, and the winnowing process will continue. I wrote the previous sentence about 15 years ago. Today I see Vint Cerf, father of the mfa creative online Internet, saying the lsat same thing at the American Association for is a private essay research the Advancement of Science conference in San Jos. To paraphrase. Everything that's on the Internet today will be unintelligable garbage in the future and the 21st Century will be another Dark Ages, leaving no records of itself. Here's a link: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31450389. Here's another: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/11410506/Print-out-digital-photos-or-risk-losing-them-Google-boss-warns.html. But don't expect them to last. [Search] Meanwhile, as of 2014, cell phones have squeezed out desktop computers as the lsat main Web access method, forcing website to adapt by showing less content. i.e. Rubrics! sound bites instead of detailed information. Similarly, emails with paragraphs of text have given way to short instant messages and Tweets. Storage and preservation of information -- printed or electronic -- costs money.

Money is a scarce resource, also needed for food, shelter, medical care, exhorbitant CEO compensation, senseless wars, and so on. The legacy of humanity belongs to those with the lsat desire and the money to assignments preserve it, and to keep preserving it, and they are ones who will decide what is lsat essays, worth preserving and what to discard. Columbia University 250th Anniversary (2004) CLICK HERE to visit Columbia's extensive website commemorating the university's 250th anniversary (and HERE and writing, HERE and HERE for some computing history bits). Old means no error correction, compression, or hardware flow control. Lsat! New modems are connected to (or integrated with) TCP/IP terminal servers; old ones were connected to serial ports on the PACX or Rolm. Prior to 1985 it's hard to figure out -- specific phone numbers went to specific computers, etc; few comprehensive tables were published in the Newsletter or Guides to Facilities. The best I can say is that the number of dialin modems increased from 0 to 59 from the mid-1960s to 1985. Modem-pool expansion finally leveled off in rubrics writing 2002-2003, when DSL connections became possible from the home and AcIS began to bring neighborhood apartment buildings onto the high-speed campus network. The numbers reflect total accesses (hits) per year. The 1994 figures are extrapolated from the last six weeks of 1994, and therefore probably a bit high. ADP Administrative Data Processing (of Columbia University)

AIS Administrative Information Services (new name of ADP) ANSI American National Standards Institute. APL A Programming Language (With Its Own Character Set) ARPA (US Defense Department) Advanced Research Projects Agency. ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (early IBM computer) ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASP Attached Support Processor. AUC Apple University Consortium. AUFS Appletalk UNIX File Server. BAL Basic (IBM 360 and 370) Assemly Language.

BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. BASR Bureau of Applied Social Research (of Columbia University) BCD Binary Coded Decimal. BCDIC Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. BITNET Because-It's-There Network (It = RSCS) BNF Backus-Naur Form. BPS Bits per Second. CAP Columbia Appletalk Package. CBX (IBM/Rolm/Siemens) Computerized Branch Exchange. CCNET Computer Center (or Columbia/Carnegie) Network (DECnet)

CE (IBM) Customer Engineer. CLIO Columbia Libraries Information Online. CMU Carnegie-Mellon University. COBOL Common Business Oriented Language. CPC Card Programmed Calculator. CP/M Control Program / Microcomputer. CPS Characters per Second. CRBE Conversational Remote Batch Entry. CREN Consortium for Research and Education Network. CRLF ASCII characters Carriage Return and Line Feed - plaint-text line terminator. CRT Cathode-Ray Tube, e.g. Lsat Essays! a video terminal.

CUCC Columbia University Computer Center. CUCCA Columbia University Center for classes online Computing Activities, new name of CUCC. CUIT Columbia University Information Technology, new name of CUCCA. CUNY City University of New York. CWRU Case Western Reserve University. DACU Device Attachment Control Unit (early IBM Ethernet adapter) DASD Direct Access Storage Device (IBM term for disk, pronounced dazdee) DAT Digital Audio Tape. DCMUP Same as DCS (not sure what it stands for). DCS Directly Coupled System (Columbia's IBM 7040 and 7094)

DEC Digital Equipment Corporation. DOS Disk Operating System. EAM Electric Accounting Machine (using punched cards) EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. EMACS Editing Macros (video editor by Richard Stallman) FORTRAN Formula Translator (first high-level programming language)

FE Field Engineer (DEC) FS Field Service (DEC) FSF Free Software Foundation. GNU GNU is Not UNIX (recursive acronym of the FSF) GUI Graphical User Interface. HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Program. HP Hewlett Packard Corporation. IBM International Business Machines Corporation.

IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. JCL Job Control Language (OS/360, MVS, etc) JSYS Jump to System (DEC-20 monitor call) JVNCNET John von Neumann Supercomputer Center Network. KGB (Soviet) Committee for State Security. LAN Local Area Network (Ethernet, Token Ring, etc) LCG (DEC) Large Computer Group. LISP List Processing (language)

LPM Lines per Minute (speed of line printer) MINCE MINCE Is Not Completely EMACS (EMACS semi-clone for lsat essays CP/M) MOS Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (memory, as opposed to magnetic cores or vacuum tubes) MSS (IBM) Mass Storage System. MTBF Mean Time Between Failures. MTTR Mean Time To Repair. NCR National Cash Register Corporation. NFS Network File System. NORC Naval Ordnance Reseach Calculator (early IBM computer built at Columbia U) NPG Network Planning Group (of Columbia U)

NSF National Science Foundation. NSFNET National Science Foundation Network. NYSERNET New York State Education and Research Network. OCS Office of writing classes Communications Services (of Columbia University) OS Operating System.

PACX Private Access Computer eXchange. PDP Programmed Data Processor. PDS Partitioned Data Set. PL/I Programming Language One. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol. RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disk. RHNO Residence Hall Networking Option (at Columbia U) RJE Remote Job Entry.

RSCS Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem. RSTS/E Resource Sharing Time Sharing / Extended (DEC PDP-11 OS) SAIL Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (or Language) SE Software Engineer (DEC); Systems Engineer (IBM) Also see: FE, CE. SEL Systems Engineering Laboratories. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol.

SNA (IBM) Systems Networking Architecture. SNOBOL String Oriented Language (pun on COBOL) SPITBOL (pun on SNOBOL) SSIO Self-Service Input/Output (area at essays Columbia U) SIC Scholarly Information Center (at Columbia University) SOS Share Operating System (IBM 709) SOS Son Of Stopgap (PDP-10, DEC-20 text editor) SPOOL simultaneous peripheral operations on-line or simultaneous peripheral output on line. TOPS The Operating System (for PDP-10s and DEC-20s) UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program. VT Video Terminal.

Control panel (See plugboard) Core This word is of reality essay, still used synonymously with memory, but in fact refers to a specific memory technology used from about 1955 to 1975, in which each bit was a ferrite core, whose charge was controlled and sensed by currents in wires passing through the core's hole. MORE HERE. CRT Cathode Ray Tube. The display screen in a video terminal or a pre-flat panel television or personal computer.

More generally, any vacuum tube incorporating a mobile beam. 1950s-era computer memories were sometimes made of CRTs; for example, the IBM 700-series CRT memories packed 1024 bits into lsat essays a single tube (contrary to the popular image of one bit per grant writing tube). Drum Similar to a hard disk, except the essays recording surface is on the circumfrence, rather than on grant classes the flat end(s), and the read/write heads are fixed rather than moving. Thus it is a spinning cylinder with a stationary head array extending from end to end, with one fixed head per track. Because the heads are fixed, there is no seek time so access is much faster than a moving-head disk.

Drums were used as main memory in early computers like the IBM 650 and as swapping or paging devices in later computers such as the IBM 360/91 and lsat, the DEC PDP-11. Television Essay! An example is the lsat essays IBM 2301 drum storage, about 1960. Also: (1) Any fixed-head disk or, by extension, any swapping device; (2) A Data Cell cylinder around which a tape strip is 550 word essay, wrapped for reading and lsat, writing; (3) The print mechanism used in certain kinds of line printers, such as the DEC LP20: a constantly rotating metal cylinder with all the characters on it -- to print a specific character in a specific column, the corresponding hammer strikes the drum just when the classes online desired character is behind the essays paper and ink ribbon; (4) the electrostatic print-transfer mechanism in Xerographic or laser printers. Electric (or Electronic) Accounting Machine (EAM) EAMs were the workhorses of the 1930s-60s for accounting, payroll, and so on, before there were real stored-program computers. They were mainly mechanical; accumulating sums in gear registers. In fact, they are just late-model tabulating machines with a bit more flexibility and usually a built-in line printer. Mfa Creative Writing Online! CLICK HERE to see examples. Paper Tape A long strip of heavy paper, usually an inch wide, in which holes could be punched, 5 to 9 per essays row. For computer use, usually 8 holes were used: 7 data bits and 1 parity bit.

Paper tape was also used in telecommunications (telex) and in the printing industry as the input medium for hot-metal typesetting machines and is still used for numerical control of milling and drilling machines. Computer applications of 550 word essay paper tape included automated data input and output, as on the ASR33 Teletype or the IBM 1620 computer, object-module output by compilers (on computers that did not have disks -- for example, the output of lsat a Fortran compiler), and printer control loops (see story at the end of of reality essay this page). Lsat! For heavy-duty applications such as the latter, Mylar was used rather than paper. The typical recording density was 10 rows (bytes) per inch. Punching and reading speeds varied from 10 rows per second up to free writing course 2000. Paper tape originally came in rolls (as used in lsat essays the IBM SSEC), but by the 1960s, fan-fold was more common, and in fact many computer companies distributed software in this form (e.g. for 550 word essay the DEC PDP-8). An incorrectly punched row could be deleted by punching all the holes; this is the origin of the essays ASCII RUB (Rubout, Delete) character, 0x7F (all 1's). Editing could also be accomplished by cutting and free writing, splicing. More at the University of Amsterdam Computing History Museum. Plugboard, Patch Board, Patch Panel, Control Panel IBM EAM equipment (accounting machines, sorters, reproducing punches, interpreters, etc) as well as some of its early calculators (computers) were programmed through control panels rectangular boards with an array of holes, which are interconnected by wires to specify the essays desired functions, e.g. which card columns are to be sent to which accumulator, or printed to which printer columns, etc. Photos and more info: [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] and [HERE].

Punched Card A stiff cardboard rectangle in course which holes can be punched and then later read by various devices (see Unit Record Equipment). Punchcards date back to lsat essays the 1700s, and can be found in many formats. Is A Private Affair Research! IBM punchcards (after 1928) were 7 3/8 inches wide and 3 1/4 high, with three rounded corners and the upper left corner cut diagonally, and twelve 80-column rows for small rectangular holes. Large sites like Columbia often had their cards preprinted with corporate logos. Until the early 1970s, virtually all computing jobs at Columbia were submitted on decks of lsat essays cards punched on grant classes key punch machines. Decks of cards could also be output from the computer using high-speed online punches such as the IBM 2540. Essays! Use of cards at Columbia declined until 1986, when the last card readers were removed. As late as 2010, however, voting machines in New York were still based on 550 word essay punched card technology.

Relay An electromechanical device or switch that automatically controls the current in one circuit based on the current in another circuit, used in 1940s-era calculators and computers such as the Aberdeens, the SSEC, and the Bell relay calcalators. Remote Job Entry Or RJE. In the mainframe era, before interactive terminals, jobs were submitted on decks of cards and results obtained on a line printer or other local device. These devices were attached to lsat essays the mainframe by cables that could not be very long, maybe 150 feet max. To access the mainframe from 550 word essay greater distances required a Remote Job Entry station: usually a card reader and line printer connected to lsat essays some kind of controller, connected by (usually synchronous) modem to the central site.

Typically an RJE user would put a deck of cards in the hopper, push Start, and rise of reality essay, wait an unpredictable amount of time for the results to come out lsat essays of the printer. One of many examples of the widespread use of RJE was the New York City public school system in the 1970s, where each school had an RJE station connected to the big mainframe(s) at Board of Education. The IBM RJE interface was fairly well standardized, so it also came to double as a connection for other kinds of computers -- a kind of early networking, in mfa creative online programs which traffic in one direction was in 80-column card images, and traffic in lsat essays the reverse direction was 132-column printer lines. Tabulating Machine A machine capable of reading punched cards and either sorting them into selected bins or adding up the numbers punched into selected columns. Tabulating machines were used from 1890 through the 1950s or 60s for statistical, financial, and even scientific applications. Rubrics Writing! CLICK HERE for examples. Terminal A typewriter-like device by which a person interacts with a computer. It has a keyboard and either paper to print on or else a video screen (certain special kinds of terminals might also have Braille pads or text-to-voice interpreters). The keystrokes are sent to the computer and (in some cases) also echoed locally on the display device (paper or screen).

Characters arriving from the computer are sent to the display device. Video terminals sometimes have an attached printer. Early hardcopy terminals included Teletypes and electric typewriters wired for communication, such as the IBM 2741; later ones include dot-matrix models such as the lsat essays DECwriter. The best-known video terminal is the DEC VT100; video terminals were popular from the mid-1970s until about rise 1990 (and are still used today in certain specialized applications like data entry and transaction processing; until not so long ago, every winter TV news reporters visit the NYC Heat Complaint Bureau, and every year they were still using IBM 3270 green tubes). The best-known graphics terminal is the essays Tektronix 4010.

Although few real terminals are still in operation, terminals are widely emulated by the PC, Macintosh, and other workstation software that allows us to research access our shell accounts. TTY Teletype (see Terminal) . Unit Record Equipment Usually used to refer to any equipment that reads or punches cards, such as a key punch, card reader, sorter, collator, reproducer, or interpreter. Lsat Essays! Strictly speaking, any device for which a record (rather than a character) is the for creative assignments physical unit of input or output, therefore also including line printers. My recollections and notes, 1965-present. The Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter, 1966-1994 (when it ceased publication). Gilchrist, Bruce, Forty Years of lsat Computing , CUCCA Newlsetter V13#16 (4 Nov 1981). Bashe, Charles J.; Lyle R. Johnson; John H. Grant Writing! Palmer; Emerson W. Pugh, IBM's Early Computers , MIT Press (1985). Columbia University Catalogue , 1924-1925. Columbia University Computer Center General Information Manual , Volume I (June 1965). Columbia University Bulletin: Computing Activities (1976). Rogers, William, Think; a biography of the Watsons and IBM , Stein and Day, NY (1969).

Brennan, Jean Ford, The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University: A History , IBM, Armonk NY (1971) (Columbiana CZI B75; Prentis Q183.5 .W3 B7). Columbia Computer Center , 2 Jan 1963 (summary of facilities and procedures). Lsat Essays! Admini-Bits (the Columbia University Administrative Data Processing Newsletter), V2#6 (Sep 1988). For Creative Assignments! Dolkart, Andrew S., Morningside Heights: A History of its Architecture and Development , Columbia University Press, 1998, and correspondence with Prof. Dolkart (Jan 2001). Lsat Essays! McCullers, Carson, and Dews C.L. Free! Barney, Illumination and Night Glare: The Unfinished Autobiography of Carson McCullers , University of Wisconsin Press (1999). Lsat! Asteroff, Janet, CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual (Nov 1982). Writing Online Programs! Bell System Technical Journal , Special issue devoted UNIX 7th Edition, Volume 57, Number 6, Part 2 (August 1978). Lsat! Brader, Mark, A Chronology of Digital Computing, to 1952 (online).

Koenig, Seymour H., Interview (22 Jan 2001). AIS Supervisor Joe Sulsona Retires After 42 Years , Columbia University Record Vol. Marriage Private Research! 26, No 11 (19 Jan 2001). Gilchrist, Bruce, Report to lsat essays the Committee on Instructional Computing (the Collery Committee), Columbia University (21 April 1980). Hallinan, Nuala, A History of Administrative Data Processing , Columbia University, September 1988 (produced for the Computer Center's 25th Anniversary commemoration), with 1991 update. Announcement of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory and a Program of writing online Graduate Studies in lsat essays Applied Mathematics , Columbia University Bulletin, Fifty-eighth Series, No.39, September 27, 1948.

Arctander, Eric, Trig Homework? Consult Watson Labs , Columbia Daily Spectator, 18 October 1948. IBM Establishes Computing Laboratory at 550 word essay Columbia University , News Release, Columbia University Department of Public Information, 6 February 1945. King, Kenneth M., Columbia University Computer Center Report , August 1967 to December 1968. Guide to lsat essays Facilities , Columbia Computer Center, September 1972. Sills, David L., Paul F. Rubrics Writing Assignments! Lazarsfeld, 1901-1976, A Biographical Memoir , National Academy of the Sciences, Washington DC, 1987. Barton, Judith S., ed., Guide to the Bureau of Applied Social Research , Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc, New York City, 1984. The Columbia University Archives and Columbiana Library: Central Files, Indexed in The Administrative Records of Columbia University, 1890-1971 . Halford, Ralph S., Proposal to the National Science Foundation for lsat Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University , May 1961. News Release #10,099, Columbia University News Office, 18 Jul 1963.

Mace, David, and Joyce Alsop, A Simplified System for 550 word essay the Use of an Automatic Calculator , Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Columbia University / IBM, 1957 (COVER). Proposal for IBM 360 Model 92 [sic], to Dr. Kenneth M. King, Columbia Computer Center, IBM, 21 May 1965. University Center for Computing Activities: EDP Review for Columbia University , IBM, May 1974. Strauss, Robert, When Computers Were Born , The Times Mirror Company, 1996. Annual Report of the President and Treasurer to lsat essays the Trustees with Accompanying Documents for the Year Ending June 30, 1925 , Columbia University, New York, 1926.

Letter of Dean Ralph S. Halford to Prof. Maurice Ewing, 19 Aug 1963 (9 pages), Columbiana Archives. Free Course! Pure Scientists of Morningside, Business Machines , General Section, IBM, September 1, 1954. Aspray, William, Was Early Entry a Competitive Advantage? US Universities That Entered Computing in the 1940s, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 22, Number 3, July-September 2000. Lippsett, Laurence, Maurice Ewing and essays, the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia Magazine , Winter 2001. Pugh, Emerson W., Building IBM: Shaping an Industry and its Technology , The MIT Press (1995). Sachnoff, Neil, Secrets of Installing a Telephone System , Telecomm Library Inc, New York (1989). There's a Computer on the Columbia Campus, Columbia Reports , March 1971.

Wilson, Gregory V., The History of the free course Development of Parallel Computing , University of Toronto. Austrian, Geoffrey, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of lsat essays Information Processing , Columbia University Press (1982). Of Reality! Grier, David Alan, When Computers Were Human, Princeton University Press (2005). AND. Grier, David Alan, The First Breach of Computer Security?, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 2, April-June 2001. NOTE: These should be two separate references but evidently the second one was inserted here by lsat essays, mistake when it should have gone at the end, thus throwing off all the subsequent reference numbers. Sorry! Stoll, Clifford, The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy through the Maze of Computer Espionage , Doubleday, New York (1989). Black, Edwin, IBM and the Holocaust , Crown Publishers, New York (2001).

Also search for holocaust at for creative writing the IBM website. Columbia University Alumni Register 1754-1931 , Columbia University Committee on General Catalogue, Frank D. Fackenthal (Chairman), Columbia University Press, New York (1932). Fajman, Roger, and John Borgelt, Stanford University Computation Center, WYLBUR: An Interactive Text Editing and Remote Job Entry System, CACM, V15 #5 (May 1973). Eckert, W.J., Punched Card Methods in Scientific Computation , The Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau, Columbia University, Lancaster Press, Inc., Lancaster PA (January 1940). Reprinted in 1984 by the Charles Babbage Institute, MIT, and Tomash Publishers with a new introduction by J.C. McPherson.

IBM Oral History Project on essays Computer Technology, Interview TC-1, with W.J. Eckert (11 July 1964). Grant Writing Online! Mackenzie, Charles E., Coded Character Sets, History and lsat essays, Development , Addison-Wesley (1980). Trimble, George R., A Brief History of Computing, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 3 (July-September 2001). Applelbaum, Lauren, Student on Quest for Sundial's Lost Ball, Columbia Daily Spectator , Vol.CXXV No.139 (5 Dec 2001). Quarterman, John S., The Matrix: Computer Networks and Conferencing Systems Worldwide Digital Press (1990). Tsividis, Yannis, Edwin Armstrong, Pioneer of the free Airwaves, Columbia Magazine (Spring 2002).

Grosch, Herbert R.J., Computer: Bit Slices from lsat essays a Life , Third Millenium Books, Novato CA (1991), ISBN 0-88733-085 [3rd ed mss)]. They All Came to See the NORC, Business Machines , General Section, IBM (23 December 1954), pp.8-9. Grosch, Herb, private correspondence (May 2003 - 2010). A Conversation with Herb Grosch , ACM Ubiquity , Volume 2, Issue 39 (4-10 December 2001). Schreiner, Ken, private correspondence (May 2003). Berkeley, Edmund, Giant Brains: or, Machines that Think , John Wiley Sons, NY (1949). The first book about computers for a general nontechnical audience. Fact Sheet on Simon , Columbia University Public Information Office (18 May 1950).

Eckert, Wallace J, and Rebecca Jones, Faster, Faster: a simple description of a giant electronic calculator and the problems it solves , McGraw-Hill, New York (1955). King, Kenneth, private correspondence (July-August 2003). Hankam, Eric, interviews (11 July and 4 November 2003). Eckert, Wallace J., Watson Laboratory Summary of Activities -- Quarterly Report: July-September 1955 , Memorandum to IBM's J.C. McPherson (17 November 1955). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Affair! Eckert), The I.B.M. Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator , Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Volume III, Number 23 (June 1948), pp.

149-161. Aspray, William (Ed.), Computing Before Computers , Iowa State University Press, ISBN 0-8138-0047-1 (1990). Ceruzzi, Paul E. Reckoners: The Prehistory of the Digital Computer, from Relays to the Stored Program Concept, 1935-1945 (Contributions to the Study of Computer Science, No.1) , Greenwood Press (1983). Bergin, Thomas J. (Ed.), 50 Years of Army Computing: From ENIAC to essays MSRC , A Record of a Symposium and Celebration November 13 and 14 (1996), Aberdeen Proving Ground. Ceruzzi, Paul E. Writing Course! Crossing the Divide: Architectural Issues and lsat, the Emergence of the writing classes Stored Program Computer, 1935-1955, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. 19 No. Essays! 1 (1997).

Winegrad, Dilys, and Atsushi Akera, A Short History of the Second American Revolution, University of Pennsylvania Almanac , Vol.42 No.18 (30 Jan 1996). Rise Of Reality! On the Web HERE. Lsat Essays! John McPherson, Computer Engineer , an rise essay, oral history conducted in 1992 by William Aspray, IEEE History Center, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA. Grosch, Herbert R.J, Editor, Proceedings, IBM Scientific Computation Forum , IBM: Endicott NY (1948). W.J.E. Lsat! (Wallace J. Eckert), The IBM Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.3, No.23 (Jul 1948), pp.149-161. W.J.E. Course! (Wallace J. Eckert) and Ralph F. Haupt, The Printing of Mathematical Tables, Mathematical Tables and essays, Other Aids to grant classes online Computation , Vol.2, No.17 (Jan 1947), pp.197-202. McPherson, John C., Introduction and lsat, Biographical Note on Wallace Eckert in the 1984 reprint of [50]. Stibitz, G.R., A Note on 'Is' and 'Might Be' in Computers, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.4, No.31 (Jul 1950), pp.168-169. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), Mathematical Tables on Punched Cards, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.1, No.12 (Oct 1945), pp.433-436. Eckert, Wallace J., Calculating Machines, Encyclopedia Americana (1958).

Eckert, Wallace J., Letter to Mr. G.W. Baehne, IBM, 270 Broadway, NYC (9 Jan 1934). Eckert, W.J., Electrons and Computation, The Scientific Monthly , Vol. LXVII, No. 5 (Nov 1948). Eckert, Wallace J., Transcript, Systems Service Class No. Writing! 591 (Aerial Navigation) for the US Army Air Corps; Department of Education, International Business Machines, Endicott NY (8 Sep 1944). Jones, Walter D., Watson and lsat essays, Me: A Life at IBM, edited by Don Black, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol.

25 No. 3 (Jul-Sep 2003), p.15. Eckert, W.J., The Astronomical Hollerith-Computing Bureau, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific , Vol.49, No.291 (Oct 1937), pp.249-253. Writing Programs! Smith, Harry F., interview, 8 Sep 2003. Eckert, Wallace, Correspondence and lsat essays, papers, 1935-1971, archived at the Charles Babbage Institute, University of writing Minnesota. Eckert, W.J., Facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Proceedings of the lsat essays Research Forum , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1946), pp.75-84. Gutzwiller, M.C., Wallace Eckert, Computers, and the Nautical Almanac Office in Fiala, Alan D., and Steven J. Is A Private Essay Research! Dick (editors), Proceedings, Nautical Almanac Office Sesquicentennial Symposium , U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington DC, March 3-4, 1999, pp.147-163. Essays! Baehne, George W. Rise Of Reality Television! (IBM), Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , Columbia University Press (1935); hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Essays! Seidelmann, P. Free Course! Kenneth, Research Professor, University of essays Virginia Astronomy Department, private correspondence, Sept-Oct 2003 and April 2004.

Prof. Seidelmann was at the US Naval Observatory from 1965 to 2000 and is a historian of the Naval Observatory. Of Reality Essay! Interrogation NAV No. 75, USSBS No. 378, Tokyo, 13-14 Nov 1945: Admiral Soemu Toyoda (Chief of Naval General Staff from May 1945), United States Strategic Bombing Survey [Pacific], Naval Analysis Division: Interrogations of Japanese Officials , Volume II, OPNAV-P-03-100 (1946), p.319. The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Japan's Struggle to End the War . Chairman's Office, 1 July 1946, p.13. Stimson, Henry L., and McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in lsat essays Peace and War , Harper, NY (1948), p.618. Programs! Krawitz, Eleanor, The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory: A Center for Scientific Research Using Calculating Machines, Columbia Engineering Quarterly (Nov 1949). IBM Technical Newsletter , No.3, Applied Science Department, International Business Machines Corporation, 590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, N.Y., 22-8823-0-3M-LB-P (Dec 1951). Lsat Essays! IBM Watson Lab Three-Week Course on Computing, Class Lists (1947-56). Buderi, Robert, The Invention That Changed the World (How a small group of Radar pioneers won the for creative Second World War and launched a technological revolution), Simon Schuster, New York (1996).

Grosch, Herbert R.J., Early Women in lsat essays Computing, Communications of the ACM , Vol.38 No.4 (April 1995) (1996). Dick, Steven J., Sky and Ocean Joined: The U.S. Naval Observatory 1830-2000 , Cambridge University Press (2002), ISBN 0-521-81599-1, 609pp. Backus, John, private correspondence, July 2004. Eames, Charles and Ray, A Computer Perspective: Background to mfa creative online programs the Computer Age , Harvard University Press. First Edition 1973; Second Edition 1990. Catalog of a unique computer history exhibit at IBM headquarters in 1971. Knuth, Donald, The Art of Computer Programming , Vol.3 Sorting and Searching, Addison-Wesley (1973); Section 5.5, pp.382-384 [the link is to the 1998 revised edition].

Eckert, W.J., The IBM Department of Pure Science and the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Educational Research Forum Proceedings , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1947), pp.31-36. Bellovin, Steve, personal correspondence, January 2006. Lsat! Now a member of mfa creative writing online Columbia's Computer Science faculty after many years at Bell Labs / ATT Labs, Steve, as a Columbia student in 1968-69, worked at the IBM Watson Lab building on essays 115th Street doing system administration tasks on an IBM 1130. Pugh, Emerson W.; Johnson, Lyle R., Palmer, John H., IBM's 360 and Early 370 Systems , MIT Press (1991). Jeenel, Joachim, Programming For Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill (1959), 517 pages [IBM 650].

Andree, Richard V., Programming the rise of reality television IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Computer and lsat essays, Data-Processing Machine , Henry Holt and Co., New York (1958). Andree, Richard V., Computer programming and television essay, related mathematics for the IBM 1620 computer . Heide, Lars, Punched-Card Systems and the Early Information Explosion, 1880--1945 (Studies in Industry and Society), Johns Hopkins University Press (2009). Grier, David Alan, Too Soon To Tell: Essays for the End of The Computer Revolution (Perspectives), Wiley-IEEE Computer Society (2009) B. Lsat! Gilchrist, J. Pomerence and S.Y. Wong, Fast carry logic for digital computers, IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers , EC-4 (Dec.1955), 133-136. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.10, No.4, October 1958 [PDF]. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.12, No.3, July 1960 [PDF]. 550 Word Essay! Reid-Green, Keith S., The History of Census Tabulation, Scientific American , February 1989, pp.98-103. Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1971 to June 1972. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER).

Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1972 to June 1973. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Essays! Geschichte der IBM in Deutschland (IBM). National Science Foundation, Twelfth Annual Report for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1962: Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Science Facilities: Establishment of a Computing Center , $100,00 [for the first year]. Rise Of Reality Television Essay! Tanenbaum, Andrew S., Lessons Learned from essays 30 Years of MINIX , CACM, Vol.59 No.3, March 2016, pp.70-78. Jones, Steven E, Roberto Busa, S.J., and writing assignments, the Emergence of Humanities Computing: The Priest and the Punched Card , Routledge (2016).

Includes chapter on the SSEC. Sources are listed in the order they were encountered. V nn # n refers to the Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter Volume/Number except where noted.

Write My Essays Today -
Prepare, Write a Winning LSAT Writing Sample | Law Admissions

analitical essay on How to develop and write an analytic essay. Lsat Essays. Argument : Writing an analytic essay requires that you make some sort of argument. The core of this argument is called a thesis. It is your claim, succinctly stated in a single sentence. What do budding literary critics such as yourselves argue about? You make a pervasive, persistent case that a certain thing is true about a piece of literature. This thing should not be readily obvious to the casual reader of the literature in question. It is what you draw out of the free writing course book or essay, how you interpret it.

It is a claim that must be supported by specific evidence from the text. Thesis statement: At least once during the course of writing your essay, isolate what you consider to be your thesis. Is your proposition both arguable and reasonable? If it is obvious (i.e. Mary Rowlandson used the Bible for comfort during her captivity) you don’t have an argument. Argument requires analysis (i.e. taking things apart and explaining them). One test that may help is asking yourself what the opposite side of your argument would be. A good, complicated thesis (which was proposed by one of your classmates) is essays that Although Mary Rowlandson says she often used the Bible as a source of comfort during her captivity, a closer reading of 550 word essay, her narrative suggests her faith may have been more troubled by her experience than she lets on. Lsat. One useful structure for free writing course, writing thesis statements is the although form used above: Although x seems to essays be true about this piece of literature, y is in fact more true (or makes our thinking about x more complex). In this form you present both sides of your argument at 550 word essay once and show which side you’re on.

Your job in the paper is to convince your reader to join you. Another way to essays write an effective thesis statement is to use the form If we look closely at writing x (e.g. how Bradford defines freedom) we discover y (that ). Lsat. In order to find something to argue: Look for images or metaphors that the author uses consistently. What other sort of pattern can you identify in the text? How do you interpret this pattern so that your reader will understand the book, essay, poem, speech, etc. better? What philosophical, moral, ethical, etc. ideas is the rubrics for creative author advocating or opposing? What are the lsat consequences of accepting the author's argument? Explain how the work functions as a piece of for creative writing assignments, rhetoric-- how does the author attempt to convince his or her reader of something?

For instance, what widely held beliefs do they use to essays support their argument? How do they appeal to emotions, logic… Re-examine something that the text or most readers take for granted (that Thoreau’s book Walden represents his attempt to escape from mfa creative writing online programs society). Question this major premise and see where it takes you. Ask yourself if an lsat essays author’s literary argument is inconsistent with itself or is in some way philosophically dangerous, inadequate, unethical, or misleading. Examine how characters are presented in a story.

How do they help the main character to develop? Which characters are trustworthy? Which are not? Why are they presented this way? What counts as evidence: Structure : How the parts of the book or essay follow one another; how the parts are assembled to make a whole? Why does the author start where they start, end where they end? What is the logical progression of rise essay, thought? How might that progression be intended to affect the reader What effect might this progression of ideas have on a generic reader or on lsat a reader from the time period in which the work was written?

Does the piece move from the 550 word essay general to the specific or vice versa? If you could divide the book/essay into sections, units of meaning, what would those sections be? How are they related to essays each other? Note that chapters, while they form obvious sections can themselves be grouped. Referring to the text : In writing analytic papers that address any kind of literature, it is necessary to rise of reality television refer to the text (the specific words on the page of the book) in order to support your argument. This means that you must quote and interpret passages that demonstrate or support your argument. Quotation is usually stronger than paraphrase. Lsat. Remember also that your purpose in writing an 550 word essay essay is not merely to paraphrase or summarize (repeat) what the author has said, but to make an essays argument about grant writing how the make their point, or how they have said what they have said. Language : includes the lsat way an author phrases his or her sentences, the key metaphors used (it’s up to you to rubrics for creative assignments explain how these metaphors are used, why these metaphors are appropriate, effective, ineffective, or ambiguous).

Is the way a sentence is phrased particularly revealing of the author’s meaning? Practical Essay-writing Hints: Please title your paper and make the title apt and enticing--I LOVE a good title. It puts me in lsat a good mood before I start reading. Be clear about whether you’re writing about a book, an essay (non-fiction, short prose), a story (short fiction) a poem, a novel (book-length fiction), an autobiography, a narrative (as in Captivity Narratives) etc.

Walden is a book comprised of rubrics for creative assignments, chapters. Each of lsat essays, these chapters could also be called an essay. Within these essays, Thoreau sometimes tells stories. The book itself is not a story, but closer to a narrative, which is non-fiction. Always go through at writing online programs least two drafts of you paper . Let your paper sit, preferably for lsat, 24 hours between drafts sometime during the process of your writing. 550 Word Essay. Eliminate first person pronoun (I) in your final draft (it’s OK for lsat, rough drafts and may help you write). Affair. If your paragraphs are more a full page or more in length it is more than likely that they are tooooooo long . Probably you have too many ideas in the air at once. Consider breaking the paragraph in half--into two smaller, but related arguments. Your reader needs a break, needs more structure in order to be able to follow your meaning. If several of your paragraphs are exceedingly short (4-5 lines), it is likely that you are not developing your ideas thoroughly enough--that you are writing notes rather than analysis. Short paragraphs are usually used as transitional paragraphs, not as content paragraphs. (Short paragraphs can be used in lsat essays the rhetorical devise of reversal where you lead your reader down a certain path (to show them one side of the argument, the one you are going to course oppose) and then turn away from that argument to state the true argument of lsat essays, your paper.) Employ quotation often.

One quotation per argumentative paragraph is usually necessary. 550 Word Essay. Depending upon the length and complexity of the passage or topic you're dealing with, more quotations may be useful to prevent you from lsat getting too far away from the text. Your quotations combined with your interpretations are your proof. Be sure that you show your reader how they should interpret these quotations in order to follow your argument. (Almost every quotation should be followed by an interpretation, a deeper reading of what is being said and how its being said. This interpretation demonstrates how the quotation supports the for creative claim you're making about it). Pay attention to metaphor, phrasing, tone, alliteration, etc. How is the essays author saying what they are saying--what does that teach us about the text? Remember to write directive (sometimes called topic) sentences for your paragraphs . The first sentence of any paragraph should give your reader an idea of classes online, what the paragraph is essays going to say and how the paragraph will connect to the larger argument.

It should have more to 550 word essay do with what you have to say about the materials than what the author him or herself has said. Transitions between paragraphs : try to get away from using The next, First of all Another thing. to connect your paragraphs. This is the list method of structuring a paper--not an integrated, logical approach. Lsat Essays. A really strong transition makes the logical connection between paragraphs or sections of a paper and writing, gives the essays reader a sense that you’re building an argument. To make sure you are making a well-connected argument, ask yourself how the last sentence of free, each paragraph and the first sentence of the next are connected.

Each of the lsat sentences within your paragraphs should be related somehow (follow from, refer to, etc.) the free writing one that precedes it, and the one which follows it. This will help the reader follow the lsat flow of your ideas. Marriage Is A Private Affair. The order of your paragraphs should reveal a developing argument. On the most basic level, you should be able to consciously justify the presence and placement of every word in every sentence, every sentence in every paragraph, every paragraph in lsat every essay . Television Essay. To repeat: in revising your papers after the first draft (which is always, inevitably to some degree confused because you are involved in the process of working your ideas out), you should be highly conscious of what you are doing and why you are doing it.

How to buy essay cheap with no worries -
The Ultimate Guide to the LSAT Writing Sample

Do I Put My Essay Title In Quotes. Do I Put My Essay Title In Quotes. Do I Put My Essay Title In Quotes. Essay for money first-stage service examination. First and foremost, it’s always better to opt for services recommended by friends. Essays? If no such advice as to where your peers buy essay isn’t given, look for grant feedbacks and reviews regarding writing websites available. Should you stumble on a random service, don’t rush placing an lsat essays order right ahead.

Before everything else, look for a Support hotline’s contacts and writing classes give us a call. At a proper website to pay for lsat essays academic paper online attending managers answer pretty quickly and provide exhaustive information regarding how we works. Given you’re looking to buy an essay and these are your funds to rubrics be spent, you surely want to have some guarantees. That’s why the next thing to do is lsat essays, check out a page with guarantees and see whether they live up to essay your expectations in terms of billing security and content quality. Second-stage examination to essays buy an essay online. To buy essays at any chosen service, you have to be sure the paper will be plagiarism-free and live up to your task instructions. Of Reality Essay? Therefore, take a look at the order page. Are the customization options meet your demands?

Great, but don’t forget to consult Support hotline with a view to: Who my writer will be? Will he or she be a degreed English expert in my field? What if a paper be coming late? How can I contact my writer? Can you revise my paper and lsat amend some parts? As a rule, if answers to these five questions are alright, buy an academic paper at craftanessay.com will deserve paying for. Just make sure that your academic paper will be authentic and delivered on time. Always lay emphasis on the fact a paper has to 550 word essay be done from scratch without any re-writing or copy-pasting from other orders. Genuine writing is essays, key, and if a website can provide it, it’s one hundred percent worth using. Make the classes online right choice!

All rights reserved. should be there! Terms conditions Privacy policy Referral program. Please read these Terms and Conditions (“Terms” and/or “Terms and Conditions”) carefully before using the craftanessay.com website (“Website”). Your access to and use of Website are conditioned on your full acceptance and compliance with these Terms and Conditions and this Website Privacy Policy, which are published at craftanessay.com and which are incorporated herein by reference (“Privacy Policy”). Essays? These Terms and rubrics for creative assignments Conditions and lsat essays Privacy Policy are applied to free course all visitors, users and others who access or use this Website.

By accessing or using this Website, you agree to lsat be bound by these Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy. If you disagree with these Terms and Conditions and/or Privacy Policy or any part of writing programs them, you must not use this Website. Capitalized terms defined in these Terms and Conditions shall have no other meaning but set forward in this section. The following terminology is applied to these Terms and Conditions, Privacy Policy and essays Refund and Revision Policy: “Client”, “You” and “Your” refers to grant online you, the person accessing this Website and lsat accepting these Terms and Conditions. “We”, “Us” and is a “Ourselves” refers to craftanessay.com website. Any use of the above terminology or other words in the singular, plural, capitalization and/or he/she or they, are taken as interchangeable and essays therefore as referring to same. By using our Services, you represent and warrant that (a) all registration information you submit to 550 word essay craftanessay.com is truthful and accurate; (b) you will maintain the accuracy of essays such information; (c) you are 18 years of age or older and/or have full legal capacity to enter into legally binding relations; and (d) your use of the Services does not violate any applicable law, regulation, and/or your college/university/school rules. Your profile may be deleted and 550 word essay Services provided to you may be terminated without warning, if we believe that you are less than 18 years of age and/or do not have full legal capacity to enter into legally binding relations. Subjected to full compliance with these Terms and Conditions, craftanessay.com shall provide academic writing services as described more fully on the Website (“Services”). Services may include, but not be limited to, providing our Clients with dissertations, research papers, book reports, term papers, and other types of assignments written by craftanessay.com team (“Paper”) which are intended for lsat essays research/reference purposes and for writing course your personal use only. Services may include editing, proofreading, paraphrasing, or formatting existing papers of our Clients. Please note that rewriting an existing paper that contains 40% or more plagiarized content may qualify as providing you with a custom Paper and shall be charged for lsat essays accordingly.

Please note that Services may be provided only to the users who submit an appropriate order form at the Website and craftanessay.com may charge fees for writing such Services. Lsat? The Services are provided according to writing the provisions of these Terms and Conditions and lsat essays the specific commercial provisions and policies (including Privacy Policy, Refund Policy, etc.) as detailed on the Website, and these provisions and policies may be amended or changed from time to time. The format of the grant writing classes online Papers we provide: 12 point Times New Roman; Bibliography on a separate page; Approximately 250 words per page; One inch margin top, bottom, left, right; Title and Reference pages are free of charge.

In case Client needs a single-spaced Paper they are to essays pay a double fee. The standard Paper formatting includes a Title page , main content of the Paper, and a Reference page. Note that you pay only for the main content of the for creative assignments Paper, while a Title page and lsat essays a Reference page are provided free of charge. craftanessay.com reserves the right to use any relevant materials available, such as books, journals, newspapers, interviews, online publications, etc., unless the Client indicates some specific sources to private affair research be used. PLACING AN ORDER. When placing your order, you must provide accurate and complete information. You are solely responsible for essays any possible consequences and misunderstandings, in 550 word essay, case you provide us with inaccurate and/or incorrect and/or unfaithful information.

Please be advised that you will be asked to give final confirmation to lsat the instructions you provide in order details. Your Paper instructions should be confirmed in your Order Tracking Area within 3 hours after placing your order (and within 1 hour for orders with urgency less than 24 hours). Orders without instructions will not be worked on and may be delayed and you accept sole responsibility for such delay. craftanessay.com guarantees that the delivered Paper will meet only confirmed requirements. You must not change the instructions once you have confirmed them. Any alterations to confirmed instructions are considered as additional order, thereby requiring additional payment. All payments are due upon rubrics receipt. If the payment is not received or payment method is declined, the Client forfeits of Services. All fees are exclusive of all taxes and/or levies, and/or duties imposed by taxing authorities, and you shall be responsible for payment of all such taxes and/or levies, and/or duties. You agree to pay any such taxes that might be applicable to your use of the Services and essays payments made by you under these Terms. If at any time you contact your bank or credit card company and decline or otherwise reject the charge of any payment, this act will be considered as a breach of your obligation hereunder and your use of the Services will be automatically terminated.

Use of stolen credit card and/or any credit card fraud is considered to be a serious crime. Writing Programs? craftanessay.com closely cooperates with our payment provider to prevent and essays fight online fraud. In case of any online fraud, appropriate state authorities will be contacted immediately. By doing a chargeback, you agree to give up all your rights to the Paper automatically. At the same time, you authorize craftanessay.com to rubrics for creative writing assignments publish the completed Paper and start the authorship procedure that will allow us to determine if you have used any parts of the lsat Paper. The procedure may include contacting your school officials and/or posting your full details along with the completed Paper online. craftanessay.com reserves the right to change its prices at rubrics writing assignments any time in its sole discretion and essays such changes or modifications shall be posted online at essay the Website and become effective immediately without need for further notice to any Client and/or user. We care about our Clients and are always looking for ways to offer them the best value for money. One method we use is lsat essays, a discount system. craftanessay.com, at its sole discretion, shall have the right to marriage private affair essay research provide our Clients with discount programs as described more fully and published on essays, the Website. According to our loyalty program, you earn back 10% of grant online your total bill in Points (1 currency unit (inter alia USD/ EUR/ GBP etc.) = 1 Point) after you make your first order. Lsat Essays? Your Points are accumulated on your Credit Balance. “Credit Balance” is an account for Points of a Client which can be used for future purchases on the Website exclusively. You can use your Points for your next purchases on the Website exclusively.

Your Points cannot be refunded. The discount may be obtained by the use of the promo code. The amount of Points added to the Credit Balance is calculated on the basis of the order price excluding the applied discount (if any). Later, 5% of 550 word essay every next order (not including credits) is essays, added to writing classes your Credit Balance. craftanessay.com will issue a refund to you only according to these Terms. craftanessay.com offers a 14-day money back period for Papers less than 20 pages and a 30-day period for Papers more than 20 pages (”Refund Period”). Refund Period begins on the date of lsat Client`s order deadline and expires on mfa creative, the last day of the Refund Period. In case you are not satisfied with any of the Services, you can submit a refund request according to these Terms within the Refund Period. Once the lsat Refund Period elapses, craftanessay.com will not refund any amounts paid. If the order is not completed and/or the Paper is not downloaded or delivered in its complete form by or to you, the writing full refund is issued at essays any time.

In the event of order cancellation, the rubrics writing funds will be debited back only to the account of the initial payment within 5-7 business days from the lsat time of cancellation request. In other case craftanessay.com assesses refund requests on a case-by-case basis as there are usually unique reasons as to of reality essay why a refund request is lsat, made. Please note that if you request a refund, we may require documented proof that the grant writing classes online quality of your order is low (e.g., scan copy of your instructor’s feedback, plagiarism report, etc.). Should you feel it necessary to make a refund request, we will immediately forward your order to our Quality Assurance Department. After comparing their findings with the reasons for lsat essays dissatisfaction, the necessary corrective actions will be taken. Any refund request must be made within the Refund Period. In case craftanessay.com reimburses the money because of mistakes or some irrelevance to the initial instructions, our Quality Assurance Department, at its sole discretion, evaluates the quality of the Paper and refunds an amount comparable to 550 word essay the percentage of incorrect content in the Paper and mistakes present in it. craftanessay.com provides various methods of lsat essays contact (i.e. email, telephone, message board, and live chat) to writing course facilitate communication between you, us and the writer assigned to complete an order.

Using any of these methods, our Customer Support Center is available to you at any time and will respond to any refund request or other issue promptly. However, if such a request is not received using any of the lsat aforementioned methods within the writing online Refund Period, craftanessay.com will not be obliged to essays honor or consider the above said request. Should the Paper delivery be delayed due to unexpected circumstances, from the side of craftanessay.com, we may provide compensation for the breach of the order deadline in the form of a credit or a discount to be used towards your next order with us. Please be informed that delivery time deviation is not a subject to refund. Any revision request or complaint in regards to a Paper that craftanessay.com has provided must be made within the revision period (“Revision Period”). craftanessay.com offers a 14-day Revision Period for Papers less than 20 pages and a 30-day period for Papers more than 20 pages. Revision Period begins on the date of Client`s order deadline and rubrics assignments expires on the last day of the Revision Period. Essays? After that point, no revision and/or complaint will be accepted. craftanessay.com recognizes that orders vary in 550 word essay, size and complexity; as a result, dissertation, thesis and/or other sufficiently large assignment may be granted 30-day Revision Period. Sufficiency in the size of the lsat Paper will be determined by craftanessay.com in its sole discretion. In case a request for revision is not submitted within the marriage is a private research Revision Period, craftanessay.com tacitly accepts that the Client is satisfied with the Paper and requires no further actions to lsat be taken in regards to 550 word essay the Paper unless extra payment is provided or a new order is placed.

Upon receiving your completed assignment you are entitled to essays a free revision should the Paper fail to mfa creative online programs meet your instructions or defined the requirements in any way. When this is the case, you are entitled to request as many revisions as may be required to make the lsat Paper consistent and compliant with your instructions. During the Revision Period the request for revision may be made at any time. All revisions must be based on the original order instructions. If at assignments the time of the lsat revision request you provide new, additional, or differing instructions, this will be interpreted as an application for new Paper and thus, will require an additional payment. Marriage Is A Private Essay? Furthermore, should you request a revision after the lsat Revision Period, it will also be considered as a new order requiring an additional payment. We may require you to writing classes online supply us with personal identifying information, and we may also legally consult other sources to obtain information about essays, you. By accepting these Terms and is a affair essay Conditions, you authorize us to make any inquiries we consider necessary to validate the information that you provide us with. We may do this directly or by verifying your information against third party databases; or through other sources.

Essentially, verification procedure involves, inter alia, confirming that the order is authentic and lsat essays that the cardholder is aware of charges by placing a phone call to them, and in certain cases by requesting some additional documents to rubrics writing assignments be submitted for essays verification to our Risk Department. Rubrics For Creative Assignments? In order to essays ensure timely delivery of your order, this procedure must be completed quickly and without delay. Therefore, it is vital to provide accurate and valid phone numbers. Failure to verify an order may result in order cancellation or the order being placed on hold. You consent to our processing your personal information for the purposes of providing the Services, including for verification purposes as set out herein. You also consent to for creative writing the use of such data for communicating with you, for statutory and accounting purposes. You acknowledge that you have read and consented to craftanessay.com's Privacy Policy. LIMITATIONS OF LIABILITY.

craftanessay.com will not be liable to you in relation to the contents of, the use of, or otherwise in connection with, this Website: for failure to learn the essays material covered by the Paper; and. for your final grade; and. for the outcome or consequences of submission the Paper to online programs any academic institution; and. excludes all liability for damages arising out of or in connection with your use of this Website. The latter includes, without limitation, damage caused to your computer, computer software, systems and essays programs and the data thereon, or any other direct or indirect, consequential and writing course incidental damages. The Paper provided to you by craftanessay.com remains our property and is the subject to copyright and other intellectual property rights under local and essays international laws conventions. The Paper is intended for your personal use only and marriage affair essay research it may not be used, copied, reproduced, distributed, transmitted, broadcast, displayed, sold, licensed, or otherwise exploited for any other purposes without our prior written consent. You agree not to engage in the use, copying, or distribution of Papers other than expressly permitted herein. We post Clients` testimonials on our Website which may contain personal information (first name or initials). Hereby by accessing or using this Website, you provide us with your consent to lsat essays post your first name/initials along with your testimonial on our Website. Rise Of Reality? We ensure our posting these testimonials does not interfere with your confidentiality.

If you wish to request the removal of your testimonial, you may contact us at [emailprotected] NOTIFICATION OF CHANGES. craftanessay.com reserves the lsat right to change these Terms and Conditions at grant any time and lsat your continued use of the rise television essay Website will signify your acceptance of any adjustment, improvements and/or alterations to these Terms and Conditions. You are, therefore, advised to re-read these Terms and Conditions on a regular basis. This web site is owned and essays operated by Viatta Business Ltd. HEXO+ Self-Flying Camera Drone, with a suggested retail price of $1,249.00 USD («Main prize»).

FreePage (single use) SMS inform (single use) Plagiarism Report (single use) 50$ to your bonus balance which you can use in 365 days 100$ to of reality your bonus balance which you can use in essays, 365 days. 2. Promotional Period. The promotion begins on 7.18.2017, at 9:00 am and ends on writing online, 7.28.2017 at 10:00 pm. This Privacy Policy (“Policy”) describes how information about You is collected, used and disclosed and lsat provides other important privacy information, describes when and how we may change this Policy, and tells You how to 550 word essay contact us with any questions or comments. We collect information about You and computer(s) You use when You use our Services or otherwise interact with us. “Personal Information” means information that we directly associate with a specific person or entity (for example: name; addresses; telephone numbers; email address; payment information; device location etc.). “Client”, “User”, “You” and “Your” refers to you, the person accessing this Website and lsat accepting these Privacy Policy. Any use of the above terminology or other words in the singular, plural, capitalization and/or he/she or they, are taken as interchangeable and therefore as referring to same. HOW INFORMATION ABOUT YOU IS COLLECTED.

We collect information about 550 word essay, You in three primary ways: Information You Provide. We collect information that You provide to us when You apply for and use and/or purchase our Services or otherwise communicate with us. For example, some of the ways You may provide information to us include: When You purchase our Services, the payment system will require your personal, contact, billing and credit information. When You establish or modify Your user account online, We may collect user identification information, passwords, and/or security question responses that You will use for future sign-on. When You interact with our Customer Service representatives, enter information on our Website, submit survey responses, or pay for Services, we may also collect Personal Information and other information. We may monitor and lsat essays record phone calls, e-mails, live chats, or other communications between You and our Customer Service representatives or other employees or representatives. Information We Collect Automatically. We automatically collect a variety of information associated with Your use of 550 word essay our Services.

Each time You visit the Website, Personal Information is automatically gathered. In general, this information does not identify You personally. Examples of automatically collected personal information include, but are not limited to: IP address, Collection Date, Publisher Name, Connection Speed, Day of Week Time of Day (hour), Language settings, Country, City (relating to IP address, if available). For example, some of the ways we may automatically collect information include: Cookies and similar technologies. A “cookie” is a small text file that a web site can place on Your computer's hard drive in order, for lsat example, to free writing collect information about essays, Your activities on marriage is a private affair, the Website.

The cookie transmits this information back to the Website's computer, which, generally speaking, is the only computer that can read it. Lsat? We need to use cookies on the Website to enhance the user experience and avoid multiple logins or password authentication requests. We may use, or we may engage third-parties to use on of reality, our behalf, cookies or similar web tags (small data text files placed on your computer or device) or similar technologies to identify Your computer or device and record Your preferences and lsat essays other data so that our Website can personalize Your visit(s), see which areas and features of our Website are popular, and 550 word essay improve our Website and Your experience. Depending upon lsat essays Your computer, You may be able to set Your browser(s) to reject cookies or delete cookies, but that may result in the loss of some functionality on online, the Website. We may also use web beacons (small graphic images on a web page or an HTML e-mail) to monitor interaction with our websites or e-mails. Lsat? Web beacons are generally invisible because they are very small (only 1-by-1 pixel) and the same color as the background of the web page or e-mail message. Web Browsing Activity. When accessing our Website, We automatically collect certain information about Your computer and Your visit, such as your IP address, browser type, date and time, the for creative writing web page You visited before visiting our Website, Your activities and lsat essays purchases on marriage essay, our Website, and lsat other analytical information associated with the television Website.

Information From Other Sources. We may also obtain information about You from other sources. For example, We may receive credit information from lsat essays third-party sources before initiating Your service. We may also purchase or obtain Personal Information (for example, e-mail lists, postal mail lists, demographic and marketing data) from others. HOW WE USE INFORMATION WE COLLECT ABOUT YOU.

We use the information We collect for a variety of business purposes, such as: To provide and for creative bill for Services You purchase; To deliver and lsat essays confirm Services You obtain from us; To verify Your identity and maintain a record of Your transactions and interactions with us; To provide customer services to You; To create, modify, improve, enhance, remove or fix our Services and their performance; To identify and free writing course suggest products or services that might interest You; To make internal business decisions about current and future Service offerings;

To provide You customized user experiences, including personalized Services offerings; To protect our rights, interests, safety and property and that of our customers, service providers and other third parties; and. To comply with law or as required for lsat legal purposes. We may use Personal Information for investigations or prevention of grant online fraud or network abuse. We may use information we collect to contact You about our and/or third-party products, services, and lsat essays offers that We believe You may find of interest. We may contact You by rise television essay, telephone, postal mail, e-mail, or other methods. You may see advertisements when You visit our Website. We may help advertisers better reach our customers by providing certain customer information, including geographic information, language preferences or demographic information obtained from other companies.

This information is lsat, used by writing online, advertisers to determine which ads may be more relevant to lsat essays You. However, we do not share Personal Information outside of our corporate family for advertising purposes without Your consent. WHEN WE SHARE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. We do not sell, license, rent, or otherwise provide Your Personal Information to unaffiliated third-parties (parties outside our corporate family) without Your consent. We may, however, disclose Your information to writing online programs unaffiliated third-parties as follows: With Your Consent. We may disclose Personal Information about lsat, You to third-parties with Your consent. We may obtain Your consent in course, writing; online, through “click-through” agreements; when You accept the lsat essays terms of disclosures for certain Services; orally, when You interact with our customer service representatives. We encourage You not to rise essay share Your password.

If You provide Your user account password and/or security question responses to third parties they will have access to Your Personal Information when they access Your user account with Your account password. To Our Service Providers. We may disclose information to third-party vendors and partners who complete transactions or perform services on our behalf (for example, credit/debit card processing, billing, customer service, auditing, and marketing). In a Business Transfer. We may sell, disclose, or transfer information about lsat essays, You as part of is a a corporate business transaction, such as a merger or acquisition, joint venture, corporate reorganization, financing, or sale of company assets, or in lsat essays, the unlikely event of free writing insolvency, bankruptcy, or receivership, in which such information could be transferred to essays third-parties as a business asset in the transaction. For Legal Process Protection.

We may disclose Personal Information, and writing other information about lsat, You, or Your communications, where we have a good faith belief that access, use, preservation or disclosure of such information is reasonably necessary: to satisfy any applicable law, regulation, legal process or enforceable governmental request; to enforce or apply agreements, or initiate, render, bill, and collect for services and products (including to marriage private essay research collection agencies in order to obtain payment for our products and services); to protect our rights or interests, or property or safety or that of others; in connection with claims, disputes, or litigation – in court or elsewhere; to facilitate or verify the lsat appropriate calculation of 550 word essay taxes, fees, or other obligations; or. in an emergency situation. We may provide information that does not identify You personally to third-parties for marketing, advertising or other purposes. HOW WE STORE AND PROTECT THE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. Protecting Your Information. We use a variety of physical, electronic, and procedural safeguards to protect Personal Information from unauthorized access, use, or disclosure while it is under our control. Unfortunately, no data transmission over the internet can be guaranteed to be completely secure.

As a result, although we will utilize such measures, we do not guarantee You against lsat essays, the loss, misuse, or alteration of Personal Information under our control, and You provide Personal Information to us at Your own risk. You should always take care with how You handle and disclose your Personal Information and should avoid sending Personal Information through insecure e-mail, social networks or other internet channels. Retention and Disposal. We retain information only for as long as we have a business or tax need or as applicable laws, regulations and/or government orders allow. Essay Research? When we dispose of Personal Information, we use reasonable procedures designed to erase or render it unreadable (for example, shredding documents and wiping electronic media). PRIVACY POLICY UPDATES. How We Communicate Changes to This Policy.

We may update this Policy at any time to provide updates to or clarification of our practices. If we make changes we may provide You with additional notice (such as adding a statement to the homepage of our Website or sending You a notification). You should refer to this Policy often for the latest information and the effective date of essays any changes. This web site is writing assignments, owned and operated by Viatta Business Ltd . A Partner is an individual who refers customers. A Referral is an individual who requests a service via the lsat essays referral link given by 550 word essay, a Partner. With the essays first order, a Referral acquires a 15% discount on the order, while a Partner receives $50 to the Referral Balance. With further purchases, a Partner earns 5% of the affair research Referral’s total order price. All money earned with the Referral Program is stored on your Referral Balance.

A Partner can transfer the essays money to for creative writing assignments the Bonus Balance and use it to purchase a service. It is possible to transfer the sum to the Partner’s PayPal account (no less than $20).