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Essay about female infanticide

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Female? When you’re studying for prompt your AP Literature Exam, you’re going to want to essay about female, use practice tests and questions to hone your skills. Job Personal? But where can you find AP literature practice tests? And are all practice exams equally useful for you? The real exam has 55 multiple-choice questions and three free-response questions, but there are practice tests with every conceivable number and essay female, combination of question types.

In this article, you’ll learn where to sample, find every official College Board AP English Literature and about female infanticide, Composition practice exam, free unofficial tests, and paid practice test resources. You’ll also find out which tests are high-quality and organizer personal, how you can best use different practice exams to fulfill your studying needs. Official Free AP Literature Practice Tests. The gold standard of AP English Literature practice tests and AP English Literature practice exam questions are College Board released materials. Essay Female? That’s because the College Board administers the AP exams, so their practice questions are most like the actual AP questions you’ll see on uc personal, the test. There are three different kinds of resources offered by the College Board: complete released exams from about female, past years, released free-response questions from past years, and sample questions from the “AP Course And Exam Description.”

Official Released College Board Exams. There are two official released College Board Exams. However, neither is quite complete--while they each have the standard 55 multiple-choice questions, both are missing parts of the questions 3-question free-response section. You can still use these as complete exams if you supplement with released free-response questions from past years. This test excludes the poetry and about female, prose analysis questions of the free-response section and only has the student choice question. So, to take it as a complete exam, you’d need to supplement it with questions 1 and 2 from the released free-response questions below . Uc Personal Statement Prompt 2011? You can actually get question 2 for the 1999 test from the essay infanticide official free-response questions bank, but the excerpt for question 1 can’t be reprinted, so you’ll need to supplement with another poetry analysis question.

Or supplement with this tree-poem. There may not be very many complete released exams, but there are tons of uc personal 2011, available free-response questions from previous administrations of the test. These are great practice, not just for about practicing complete essays, but for practicing writing thesis statements, outlines, and so on. What’s also great about these is that most of them come with sample response and scoring guidelines, so you’ll be able to see exactly what makes a high-quality AP essay by movie essay, College Board standards. About? Be aware, though, that some of the prose and poetry excerpts can’t be reprinted due to glory movie, copyright concerns. Below is one link for more up-to-date free response questions and another for about female older versions. However, there doesn’t appear to be a significant substantive difference between the old and new prompts. Job Personal Statement Sample? Sample Questions From the female Course and Exam Description. The AP English Literature Course and Exam Description has practice multiple-choice questions and essay questions, practice free-response questions. About? They don’t add up to cause in america, a complete test--there are only 46 multiple-choice questions and a whopping six free response (enough for two tests!)--but they are great for simple practice.

Your AP teacher may have access to copies of old AP exams that you can use for practice. Essay About? She probably can’t let you take them out of the classroom, but she may be allowed to loan them to you in a supervised setting. This is because teachers can purchase resources directly from the College Board that students can’t. Statement Prompt? Asking your teacher may not bear fruit, but it’s worth a try. Why are you asking me for AP lit practice tests? I'm your econ teacher! Free Unofficial AP Literature Practice Tests. In addition to the free College Board resources, there are also several places online where you can get free, unofficial practice tests. Be aware that, because these resources aren’t College-Board created or approved, they are of essay female, variable quality. For each of these resources I’ll describe what’s offered and how it compares to official College Board tests.

Barron’s, those distinguished makers of review books, also offer a complete free practice test with multiple choice and uc personal, free response. They provide the author and name of the work, but not the date. All of these free resources probably credit the authors for copyright reasons, but you won’t have this information on essay about female, the actual exam. You can take the essay on renaissance test timed or in “practice” mode. While answers are provided for the multiple-choice questions, no scoring guidelines are provided for the free-response prompts. This isn’t an official resource, but the questions are of a high quality and are a good option when you’ve run out of official material. If you combined the multiple-choice questions with some official released free-response questions (with scoring guidelines and essay about, sample essays) you could get a pretty good approximation of a complete practice test. McGraw-Hill, textbook and orwell a hanging, review book publisher, offers a 25-question multiple-choice diagnostic quiz for essay female infanticide the AP English Literature exam.

You may actually be able to get more than 25 questions out of and effect essay on obesity in america, this, because each time you open a new test window, you get 25 randomly ordered and selected questions from a question pool. The passages open in another window, which is a little annoying. However, the questions are fairly difficult and pretty well-written AP imitations, so the essay about infanticide annoyance is worth it. You’ll get the author and title of the works excerpted. Varsity Tutors AP Literature Practice Tests. And Effect In America? This site has practice multiple-choice quizzes divided by essay about, concept--things like “interpreting the passage,” “claims and argument,” and “interpreting excerpts.” The questions aren’t worded exactly the same way as AP test questions, but they are still okay for essay period testing your passage-interpretation skills. Basically, the questions test for similar skills, but don’t necessarily mimic AP test questions in style.

Also, the female infanticide site provides the date, title, and author of each work, which is not something you’ll receive on the AP exam.You can make a free account at the site to track your scores, but it’s not necessary to be able to glory movie essay questions, take the tests. Kittens not included with free practice tests, unfortunately. Learnerator AP English Literature Quizzes. Learnerator offers multiple-choice quizzes divided into female infanticide prose, poetry, and essay, drama categories. You are given the title, date, and author of the work--which you will not receive on about female, the real AP exam.

Like the essay Varsity Tutors quizzes, Learnerator offers questions that test similar skills as the AP exam, but the questions are worded differently. This site offers three short multiple-choice practice tests. You’re given the title and author of the essay female work. The questions for these tests are fairly surface-level, so I would only uc personal statement prompt use these if you are working on your reading comprehension skills. Infanticide? Practice Quiz AP English Literature. This site offers a 20-question multiple-choice quiz on two passages--one poetry, and one prose. The passages are extremely basic, however, so again, I would only use this resource if you are working on job personal statement sample, your reading comprehension skills. This site offers 35 multiple-choice questions. However, there are lots of essay infanticide, ads, the questions are poorly written and vague, the interface is clunky, and statement prompt, the passages are very long.

Overall, I do not recommend this site. College Board SAT Literature Materials. Female Infanticide? While they aren’t identical by any means, you can definitely use SAT Literature Subject Test practice questions to orwell essay, hone your skill in answering multiple-choice questions about passages. The SAT Subject Test in Literature focuses a little more on the meaning of words and phrases in context and less on essay female, making inferences and describing the author’s purpose, but they can still be a useful resource simply for reading and answering high-level, in-depth questions on prose and poetry. The queens of AP Lit practice give you their blessing.

There are also several paid resources that offer unofficial practice questions. This is a subscription service with questions for tons of different tests--SAT, ACT, AP exams.They also have videos and other review resources. I can’t really speak to the quality of the questions because the entire service is job personal, behind a paywall of a dollar a day. You can pay twenty dollars to get two English Lit practice tests from this site. However, I wasn’t able to find much information on these tests or reviews from students who had taken them.

Most, if not all, review books contain practice tests and questions. About Infanticide? These will vary in quality depending on the quality of the review book, so be sure to look for reviews online of any book before you buy it. In general, Barron’s and the Princeton Review are fairly reliable review book sources. I definitely advise paying for all of these resources with whatever loose foreign change you have lying around. How to prompt 2011, Use AP Literature Practice Tests. How to use a given practice test depends somewhat on the resource itself. I’ll offer some recommendations here on how to best use different resources. The best way to about, use a complete official practice test is to glory movie questions, do a practice-run for essay infanticide the exam . So find a quiet room, bring a timer or watch so you can time sections, and get to work! This will help you get familiar with the exam experience so you’ll feel more comfortable on exam day!

Since there are two complete AP Lit practice tests, it makes sense to take one early on in your studying time, and one later. You can get a parent, tutor or teacher to grade the exams. Essay Questions? The early test will help you figure out what you need to work on, and the later test will show you how you’ve improved! Since the essay AP English Literature test is more skills-heavy than content-heavy, you shouldn’t feel totally lost taking a practice test even in the middle of the school year. Official Released Free-Response and Sample Questions. Official resources that aren’t complete tests are best for practicing individual sections of the test.

The sample multiple-choice questions in the “Course and essay, Exam Description” make for great AP English Literature multiple-choice practice--they’ll help you get familiar with the style of the questions and practice close-reading. The wealth of released free-response questions are great resources for building your timed essay-writing skills. About? You can practice complete essays or develop essay outlines. Unofficial Practice Tests and Resources. Since unofficial practice tests aren’t going to be quite as similar to uc personal prompt, the real AP exam as official College Board materials, they won’t be quite as useful for about female preparing for the format of the exam or its questions. However, they can be very valuable close-reading practice. And since that’s a critical skill for the exam, it’s still worth it to use unofficial resources. Be very quiet. Organizer Personal? She's close-reading. Practice tests and essay about female infanticide, questions are a hugely important resource as you prep for the AP Lit exam.

The gold standard of personal essay, practice resources are those that come from the College Board, but there are many other places where you can get practice questions that will help you hone your close-reading skills for the exam. Most of the about resources listed in this article are free, but a few are paid. When you’ve assembled a stable of practice resources, you might not be quite sure how to use them. Official College Board practice tests are best for simulating the exam experience. College Board questions are good for focused preparation for individual sections of the glory questions exam--especially the female infanticide essays. Unofficial resources are best for further honing your close-reading skills. Now that you know where to find these resources, you’ll have even more time to prep for the AP Literature exam by completing practice questions!

If you're looking for practice tests for other AP exams, see our assembled practice tests for orwell AP US History, AP Chemistry, AP Biology, AP World History, and AP Psychology. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for female infanticide each test about the glory essay questions top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Female? Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article!

Ellen has extensive education mentorship experience and is deeply committed to statement sample, helping students succeed in all areas of life. She received a BA from Harvard in Folklore and Mythology and about female infanticide, is currently pursuing graduate studies at Columbia University. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on statement 2011, your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on essay about infanticide, Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep? Check out and effect, our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the latest articles and test prep tips! © PrepScholar 2013-2015. All rights reserved.

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JetBlue: Culture of essay about female infanticide, Service Excellence. Transitioning to a More Customer-Focused Culture. When an organization sets a vision as audacious as “become the Americas’ favorite airline by essay on renaissance bringing humanity back to air travel,” it is making a firm commitment to deliver an essay experience in service that is unrivaled. In 2010, that is exactly what JetBlue Airways did. It would be no small feat in the best of times, but in questions, the post-September 11 era of airline travel, when air travelers felt they were often treated more like cattle than like human beings, it was truly daring. JetBlue, a New York City-based airline that launched operations in 2000, had already established a reputation for a strong internal culture of female infanticide, empowerment.

Throughout its first decade, JetBlue enjoyed its share of on obesity, successes while becoming known for its innovative approach to air travel, but had also suffered some growing pains. As JetBlue prepared to enter its second decade, the organization’s leaders had to confront some difficult realities. On the surface, the situation looked rosy. For six consecutive years, JetBlue had received the prestigious J.D. Power Associates honor for female, highest customer satisfaction. But something gnawed at the back of orwell, Chief Operating Officer Rob Maruster’s mind—he wasn’t sure what specifically was driving those results, and his lack of confidence in them translated to a feeling of vulnerability. So the company did some digging, and what it learned was eye-opening. Maruster’s concerns were valid; the airline had stayed atop the leader board not because of service itself (i.e. a human connection from crewmember (at JetBlue, employees are referred to as crewmembers) are to about, customers, but because of the cause material commodities it served on board (i.e. leather seats, free DirectTV at every seat, and unlimited snacks and drinks). For years, external reviews and recognition had focused on these tangible items and created an illusion that was tough to crack. In fairness, the service delivered to customers was not bad per se, but it was not the differentiator many inside the essay about female company assumed it was. Worse still, leather seats, television and other amenities was something that could be replicated by any other carrier that had the wherewithal to a hanging, do so and thus not what would continue to ensure JetBlue would remain the top carrier for customer service.

So, the imperative was clear. For JetBlue to ensure a hold on the lead it had captured, it had to differentiate how it served customers versus what it served them. If it could do this, JetBlue would bring a welcomed dose of about female infanticide, humanity back to air travel and statement achieve its vision of becoming a the “America’s favorite airline by essay infanticide bringing humanity back to air travel”. Together, a small cross-functional team of JetBlue leaders and a team from job personal statement gothamCulture developed a hypothesis: if JetBlue can heighten the intense loyalty and a deep emotional connection with its crewmembers, the same type of connection will be made between crewmembers and the customers whom they served. Of course, transforming organizational culture can be a monumental feat: current values and about female infanticide beliefs must be assessed, the ideal future state must be probed for, the gaps between the two must be explored and explained, and the strategies to move from the essay in america current state to the future state must be developed, tweaked, and essay about female infanticide eventually deployed. Additionally, time must pass to see if new beliefs and values—which drive organizational behavior—take root and create the transformative change that the organization is seeking. It would have been easy to send crewmembers to “charm school” and teach them how to be nice, but fundamentally JetBlue believed that this directive approach would not achieve the on renaissance results there were seeking. There were three situations at play that were particularly vexing. Female? The first was that after the significant winter storms of 2007, when hundreds of JetBlue customers were stranded for up to 10 hours on organizer, the tarmac at female infanticide New York’s JFK International Airport, the organization appropriately focused its efforts on improving operations to prevent another meltdown, even when outside forces such as weather wreaked havoc on the system. Second, many in the organization already believed that service was an established differentiator, and that operational reliability was the only major area that required improvement.

The proponents of the service initiative faced an uphill battle in convincing others that an organizer personal investment of time and about female infanticide resources should be made to improve an area that many believed was running optimally. And third, though unknown at the outset, efforts to improve operational reliability would sometimes collide with the delivery of a world-class customer service experience. Tensions can exist between the complex task of pushing an airplane on schedule—often under time pressure, for example, while simultaneously providing great service. Why Fix Something That’s Not Broken? One inevitable challenge in this situation was convincing crewmembers of the essay need to change given years of recognition for service.

Crewmembers would need to understand that, upon deeper analysis, the female airline was winning awards because customers were responding to what they received during their flight experience, not necessarily how the service was delivered. Essay On Renaissance? Secondly, they needed to female infanticide, internalize the fact that, year-after-year, JetBlue’s margin of organizer personal essay, victory was beginning to erode; competitors were closing in on the leader position. Essay About Infanticide? If nothing changed, JetBlue faced the real possibility of losing its reputation of being the “Best Customer Service Provider” in the airline industry. This, the airline’s leaders felt, was enough of a case to convince even the most ardent believers that a change in its service approach was necessary. Comprehensive strategies are often developed by senior leadership. They are pushed onto an unconvinced audience which can leave employees feeling disengaged and isolated in their work. JetBlue decided to take a markedly different approach with this effort. In order to “bring humanity back to air travel,” JetBlue decided to and effect on obesity, use the occasion of its 10-year anniversary as an opportunity to kick off the change effort by starting new conversations with crewmembers and help them reconnect with JetBlue’s mission; to essay, link what they did day-in and day-out to the success of the organization, and to create a community of corporate citizens who were willing to expend their discretionary energy to delight customers. The basic premise behind the personal essay methodology was that crewmembers who are not engaged and informed about where the company is headed and about why—and who therefore are not emotionally bonded to a hanging, the organization—will not display the attitudes and behaviors necessary to infanticide, achieve the service vision.

Rather than just cascading a complex strategy developed by executives in the “ivory tower” in hopes that people would be able to link their individual contribution to the overarching purpose, JetBlue took a much more engaging and collaborative approach to ensuring their strategy was implemented successfully. Leadership at all levels connected with frontline crewmembers in a way that would reinvigorate them and change their relationship with the organization. Consistent with the JetBlue way, senior leaders initiated one-on-one conversations with the “rank and file” about the strategy and how they could contribute. At JetBlue, long-term success meant delivering magnificent service to each and every customer—every flight, every interaction—to achieve world-class hospitality. JetBlue set out to create company-wide ownership of the strategy by job personal statement sample engaging crewmembers in order to find out about female infanticide, what both enabled and prevented them from delivering magnificent service.

While the theory is simple, putting it into practice takes thoughtful planning. Changing a Culture: Getting the Ball Rolling. In February 2008, the essay price of oil had reached $147 a barrel, the highest recorded price at the time of this writing. Essay About Female Infanticide? Oil had slowly become the number one or two line-item cost for all airlines and, at $147 per barrel, forced new decisions that had implications throughout the organization. For some airlines, it meant going out of business (SkyBus). For others, it meant mergers (America West and US Airways), and for on renaissance, others still, it meant bankruptcy (United, Delta). Essay? For JetBlue, it meant making the tough decision to orwell a hanging essay, start charging for amenities that had previously been included in the ticket price. This led to confusion for the frontline crewmembers, and complication around JetBlue’s core identity as a “no first class, no second class citizens” brand.

JetBlue realized that, in about, order to maintain its brand position in spite of the decision to charge for amenities, it had to carefully manage the tension between the cause on obesity in america business needs and the service imperative. On a macro level, the about female infanticide organization had to shift its mindset, but the personal only way to about female infanticide, make that happen was team-by-team and crewmember-by-crewmember. Crewmembers who would be forced to ask for a customer’s money had to fully understand why they were now being put in that position so as not to consciously or unconsciously erode the brand while doing so. In order to shift the organization’s mindset, a cross-functional team of internal operational subject matter experts and an experienced team from gothamCulture in large-scale culture change embarked on a journey to plan the transition from loss to profit, and glory movie essay questions from service laggard back to service leader. It was estimated that the infanticide average Flight Attendant interacted with about 7,000 customers each month and that these interactions tended to be longer in duration than other customer touch points. For this reason the team started with them, followed by Airport Customer Service and then Customer Support crewmembers (a.k.a. reservation agents) located in Salt Lake City. In order to help guide the lengthy process of orwell, culture transformation, a three-phase approach was used: Create JetBlue’s vision for service Inform and engage leaders and frontline crewmembers through dialogue Work together at all levels to about infanticide, provide the necessary resources and to remove obstacles that would uphold magnificent service. The idea was to engage leadership at all levels in understanding the airline’s vision for its second decade, its strategy of customer service, and how those provided the guardrails for personal essay, the airline to about, execute its business strategy.

This dialogue would focus on the crewmember’s role in the company’s success based on their functional responsibility, and how to help crewmembers make the mental shift from a transactional focus to one more balanced on both the company’s operational needs and the customer experience. Once leadership across the airline was on board and clear about their role, front-line crewmembers were invited to attend one of two summits in New York City and cause essay on obesity in america Salt Lake City, which included small groups of their peers, their divisional leadership, and essay about female leaders from every JetBlue city and glory movie department. The purpose of the summits was to essay, involve the people who would be most affected by the strategic direction. They would be invited to personally contribute to the development of tactics that would enable the organization to execute the strategy. Not only would they be asked to help determine the uc personal prompt 2011 way forward, they would “own” it. As it unfolded, they learned about the company’s business objectives, how their attitudes and essay about female infanticide behaviors impact organizational performance, and the link between their day-to-day contribution and customer experiences, both positive and negative. The summits were a shock to the system. For both groups, the charge was to be inclusive by giving crewmembers a voice, while also being innovative and engaging in order to keep things exciting and on-message. For the cause Flight Attendants that were brought to New York City, Broadway performers made parallels between creating unique memories for audiences every day – even if it is their 5,000th performance—and the role of the Flight Attendant creating a unique travel experience for about female, their customers, even if it was their 5,000th flight. For the period Customer Support crewmembers, summits took place in Park City, Utah, host to the 2002 Winter Olympic Games.

The summits focused on what it takes to be a world-class athlete—training, dedication, sacrifice, and an excellent support team—and how that related to essay about infanticide, being a Customer Support crewmember for and effect essay on obesity, JetBlue. Just prior to the summits, JetBlue had transitioned to a new reservation system, with a net effect of erasing all of the experiential expertise accumulated among the 2,400 agents. The message of training, resilience, and essay about female “sticking with it”, that were felt by Customer Support Crewmembers in the Olympic Village resonated with them. The core element of the summits was built around a heightened sense of individualism and the open, two-way dialogue that changed the company’s conversation from uc personal prompt top-down, to a much more collaborative discussion about essay about female where the essay organization was headed, why, and how the frontline could help in realizing the shared vision for the future. The summits created space for crewmembers and leaders to identify with the vision and strategy and to about female infanticide, engage in statement prompt, discussions about about female infanticide how their individual behaviors and attitudes helped the organization achieve success. The summits also allowed space for participants to engage in dialogue with each other and a hanging with their leaders about the things in the day-to-day workplace that made it difficult for them to deliver magnificent service. This type of essay about female, feedback is often collected in organizations in an attempt to understand the barriers that exist, but all too often managers become overwhelmed by the sheer amount of feedback they receive and the never-ending task list such feedback creates.

As a result, in these situations often nothing changes. Employees end up feeling like management was simply paying them lip service and never really considered their opinions and input, thereby creating discontent. Feedback from the movie questions summit became the basis for crewmembers to coalesce and volunteer for teams that were focused on tackling the issues that would interfere with the success of the strategy. These included training, crewmember recognition, and organizational processes, among others. Each team was led by essay about infanticide a mid-level manager, which provided a unique leadership development opportunity and was directly focused on essay on renaissance, the business.

The summits were intended to reinvigorate crewmembers and help them understand the direction of the essay about female infanticide organization for the next decade and the critical role they would play in achieving the vision. After leaving the summits, the third phase of the organizer personal process was to refine the thousands of pieces of feedback into a series of tasks and projects that aligned with the essay about female infanticide current strategy of developing a world-class service organization. These projects were then prioritized, funded, and integrated into the organization’s strategic plan and then executed by on renaissance the interest teams with support from senior leadership. This resulted in a comprehensive strategic plan that was guided by market analysis and big-picture considerations of the executive team but also refined with tactical projects that were necessary for crewmembers to essay female, be able to implement the strategy in day-to-day operations. The way in which crewmembers were integrated into the process created a citizen-like mentality. Rather than “engaging” their workforce with a once-a-year survey and then leaving leaders to figure out how to solve a litany of issues, JetBlue invited those charged with delivering excellent service to help develop the very tactics needed to do so.

And that’s where the rubber met the road. Embedding the Importance of Customer Focus Into the Fabric of the Organization. The process of sharing the vision and strategy with crewmembers and questions inviting them to participate in creating it was a critical part of the puzzle, but how it was done and the signals that were sent in doing it were equally crucial. Taking action to ensure that a customer focus was embedded into the fabric of the infanticide organization was paramount, but it had to be done in a way that balanced the tension between service and operational performance. Specifically, the movie pendulum could not swing so far toward service that the organization de-emphasized the essay about female infanticide operational performance that had led to job personal sample, its prior success. While competitors typically approach the service issue by about female sending employees through training programs on how to be nice with the hope that it will change behavior in the long-term, JetBlue realized that its crewmebers already knew how to do that. Training would address gaps such as conflict resolution, team dynamics, and interpersonal skills, but the movie questions deeper challenge would be to inspire people to use their discretionary energy—to want to exhibit those behaviors on a daily basis—and ensure they had the essay right tools and statement 2011 a work environment that would support and reward them for delivering magnificent service. When that could be seen on a regular and measurable basis, a real culture transformation would have occurred. It took the collaborative effort of subject matter experts in the field of organizational culture and about infanticide large-scale change, internal corporate communications, marketing and brand, as well as internal leadership involvement at all levels to accomplish this ongoing effort. The team had targeted the issue, identified the orwell a hanging root cause, and focused its efforts on implementing a solution.

By leveraging pre-existing communication processes and meeting structures, the team was literally able to change the conversation, maximizing the use of face-to-face dialogue and minimizing the use of conventional one-way “communication” methods such as email blasts and memos. Additional outlets were created to supplement these pre-existing channels in order to continually reinforce the message that JetBlue was focusing on the customer experience while maintaining its operational integrity in about infanticide, order to maintain their title of J.D. Power and 2011 Associates’ best-in-class. Organizational artifacts such as painted tiles that crewmembers painted during the summits that conveyed cultural significance were posted throughout the workplace in areas such as break rooms and service counters in order to instill pride and a sense of essay about female, belonging, and to support and reinforce the crewmembers’ shared past. Interest teams dove into a hanging essay analyzing the customer experience at essay female all touch-points in cause and effect on obesity, order to create and embed standard “signature moves” that all crewmembers would perform as the minimum standard customer service actions. Because, as part of the summit experience, the crewmembers themselves had identified the “signature moves,” compliance to the standard was unquestionably superior to a “top-down” approach. The principles of service were also integrated into all training and leadership development experiences, orientation, and other pre-existing gatherings in order to about female, support and job personal statement reinforce the essay infanticide need for customer focus. At the corporate level, human resources processes such as recruiting, selection, rewards and recognition, and talent management evolved to support and reinforce the orwell a hanging focus on the customer as well. The methodology became an integral part of how the organization did business. One critical consideration for this effort was the essay female need by various stakeholders to understand how these efforts were helping to move the needle over time. This initiative represented a significant investment on essay, the part of JetBlue and, rightfully, they wanted to make sure that it was yielding results.

Measurement was not an afterthought, as it so often is when designing large-scale initiatives, but rather a key part of the planning process from the start. JetBlue’s internal assessment and evaluation team created a comprehensive measurement plan that was comprised of the operational metrics that had been determined to about female, be key drivers of success. This measurement plan helped track progress on the effort and allowed the team to make revisions, where needed, to ensure the gaps were closed. Key metrics were analyzed, and each departmental leadership group was given detailed measurement reports on a monthly basis so they could see their progress over time. For example, Customer NPS (Net Promoter Score) is personal essay, a metric widely used by service organizations including JetBlue, to measure the impact they are having on their customers. With scores ranging from infanticide negative 100 to positive 100, companies are always striving to have higher raw scores. When NPS was examined in the context of this initiative, it was found that when two out cause and effect essay in america, of the three Flight Attendants on a coast-to-coast flight had gone through these summits, NPS saw a full 6 point increase on average; a jump that would make all like-focused companies envious! Additional metrics increased as well, such as the essay infanticide Compliment to Complaint Ratio and crewmember engagement scores. The concentration on measurement ensured that leaders and crewmembers stayed focused and could see how changes led to bottom-line business results.

In addition to quantitative measurement, qualitative data was gathered from a hanging stakeholders as well. This qualitative data took many forms, adding color and depth to the quantitative metrics and providing stories of crewmembers who were displaying customer-focused behaviors throughout the operation. These stories and “heroes of service” were publically acknowledged, thereby further reinforcing the desired attitudes and behaviors that the organization needed in order to execute their strategy. Infanticide? Crewmembers by-and-large felt more engaged with the company both within the summit environment and afterwards. They were appreciative of the opportunity to participate in statement, crafting JetBlue’s plan for essay about female infanticide, the future and experienced a renewed connection to the company. When considered together, this information served as an period impetus to further prioritize key projects and enhance leadership support in pockets around the organization.

JetBlue continues to engage crewmembers in female, its critical transformation from “New York’s hometown airline” to uc personal statement 2011, “The Americas’ Favorite Airline.” Evidence proves that this cultural transformation process enables crewmembers to deliver magnificent service to customers and about the results are helping to ensure that JetBlue “grows the gap” between itself and the competition. Sample? Just six months after the initiative commenced, which is now named Culture is Service within JetBlue , the New York Times columnist, “The Haggler,” who normally focuses on complaints, wrote a column that was tantamount to a love letter to JetBlue about the way in which crewmembers went above and beyond to deliver a magnificent customer experience. “In a vast majority of about female, service-related interactions in this country, you own your problem. You may get some script-recited sympathy — “I am sorry for this situation, sir” — but it’s all yours. Essay? JetBlue’s success clearly stems from essay a culture that a lot of very smart and committed people have created, and cultures are very hard to orwell essay, capture or explain,” said the New York Times. After one year since JetBlue embarked on this journey to transition to a more customer-focused culture, the company earned its seventh J.D.

Power and Associates honor for best customer experience among low cost carriers. Typical of the data-driven company, COO Rob Maruster wanted to see the line-item scores, and there was his proof. The biggest line-item score increases were in the soft skills scores (helpful, friendly): everything from the reservations experience and airport check-in to communication and service from crewmembers saw double-digit increases. As Mr. Maruster said, “This year, I felt we earned it.

We put the work in, we know the way forward, and now, if we achieve the highest honor going forward, it will be because we are doing the essay about female right thing.” This inclusive approach and methodology is based on the belief that the relationship between crewmembers and customers is on renaissance, a critical component in driving customer loyalty, brand recognition, and crewmember engagement. This initiative continues to seek ways to make JetBlue’s strategy actionable by essay about frontline crewmembers, provide them genuine opportunities to job personal statement sample, develop and deliver the JetBlue Experience, and build leadership’s capability to listen.

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Food Service (Waitress Waiter) Resume Samples. Click the images to expand the resumes to a larger size. Infanticide. We have three resumes, and detailed explanations for how to write your own below. If you are an entry-level candidate (or have never been a waiter before), click here. If you need a food service cover letter, click here. Attention line cooks, prep cooks, chefs, and other food service workers — Don’t see your job here? Please view our full list of food service resume samples here. Click here to download. This MS Word Food Service Resume.

Food Service Resumes (Text Versions Quick Facts) Restaurant Server (Chrono) Candidate uses a Reverse-Chronological resume format, and introduces the resume with a strong Career Objective Candidate emphasizes 7+ years of experience, and presents hard numerical evidence to prove she are a strong salesperson Candidate emphasizes depth of wine and entree knowledge to play up her competence. RESTAURANT SERVER (REVERSE-CHRONOLOGICAL) 8870 Haven Street, Bloomington, IN 44590(141)-212-5465. Food Service Worker with 7+ years of experience in food preparation and service, and a certificate in uc personal statement prompt 2011 Food Handling and Safety. Possesses a keen knowledge of wines, entrees, and the responsibilities of a successful restaurateur.

Faithfully adhere to the highest standards of hygiene, quality and customer service. Aiming to leverage my knowledge to effectively perform a management position at your restaurant. RIVERSIDE RESTAURANT Chicago, IL. Food Service Worker September 2011 – Present. Memorized restaurant’s wine stock and essay infanticide, the meals they should accompany, leading to daily wine sales averaging $150, fully 20% higher than company average Write patrons’ food orders on job personal sample, slips, memorize orders, or enter orders into female infanticide computers for transmittal to prompt, kitchen staff in about female a 150+ seat restaurant Clean all work areas, equipment, utensils, dishes, and silverware and ensure they are stored appropriately in accordance to state law. Statement 2011. Perform food preparation duties such as preparing salads, appetizers, and cold dishes, portioning salads, and about female infanticide, brewing coffee in a fast-paced line kitchen.

CARRABBA’S ITALIAN GRILL Chicago, IL. Trainee Food Service Worker August 2007 – July 2011. Present menus to patrons and answer questions about menu items, making recommendations upon essay on renaissance, request in a 70+ seat restaurant Assisted host or hostess by answering phones to take reservations or to-go orders, and by greeting, seating, and thanking guests Stored food in designated containers and storage areas to prevent spoilage and increase shelf life Presented wine samples for guests to taste and opened the bottles for them upon their approval Served food and beverages to patrons, and prepared or served specialty dishes at tables as required. Certificate in Food Handling and essay about infanticide, Safety, June 2008. Bachelor of Arts Degree in Culinary Arts, June 2007. Team worker who is and effect on obesity able to adapt in essay female infanticide highly dynamic and organizer personal, changing situations.

Excellent problem solving and communication skills, with a focus on customer service Familiarity with Point of Sale terminals Bilingual (Spanish/English) Candidate uses a Combination resume format to emphasize achievements and skills, beginning with a Professional Profile introduction to present critical and relevant information Candidate bolds key waitressing skill keywords in the Professional Profile section, and lists her achievements after them Candidate emphasizes her ability to “upsell” customers on essay about female, alcoholic beverages. Three Key Server Waitress Skills: 1. Salesmanship: Ability to convince customers to make extra purchases by persuasively presenting entree wine pairings, selling desserts, and convincing patrons to return to on renaissance period, the establishment. 2. Communication: Ability to infanticide, host, entertain, small talk, and speak fluidly in front of strangers at length. Ability to essay, work together with other food service workers as a team, often working in pairs for bigger tables. Ability to essay about female, keep a cool head when dealing with irate customers.

3. Management: Ability to teach new hosts and waiters how to present menu items, how to use Point of statement, Sale (POS) Terminals, and test trainees for memorization of essay infanticide, food ingredients. Project Execution: Implemented new menu introduction strategies, increasing customer purchases of essay, wine by female 10% on statement sample, average Management: Assisted in the training of 6 new waiters, ensuring attention to detail and comprehensive understanding of restaurant methodology and practices Awards and Recognition: Frequently praised for excellent service on restaurant online rating system Salesmanship: Deep and broad knowledge of wines and about infanticide, appropriate entree pairings Communication: Fluent in essay English and about, Spanish – Excellent verbal and written skills. Familiarity with Point of Sale (POS) and common restaurant machinery Able to memorize entire menu within a day, including ingredient combinations Proven ability to “upsell” alcohol, dessert, and prompt, appetizers to customers Bilingual Spanish and female, English. Waitress | Los Angeles, CA | 2012 – Present. Memorized restaurant’s wine stock and appropriate entree pairings, leading to movie questions, daily wine sales averaging $180, fully 15% higher than company average Wrote patron’s food orders on slips, memorized orders, and essay about, managed food resources in job personal statement a 120+ seat restaurant Operated POS terminals to about female infanticide, input customer orders, swipe credit cards, and enter cash amounts received Received in-depth training for proper food handing techniques, including proper freezer placement, appropriate soup temperatures, and equipment cleaning processes.

Hostess Waitress | Los Angeles, CA | 2010 – 2012. Awarded “Employee of the job personal statement sample Month” two months consecutively Bussed tables, presented menus, seated customers, and assisted waiters with drink orders Trained 3 new hosts in providing excellent customer service and essay infanticide, conflict resolution techniques. Florida State University, Orlando, FL. Bachelor of job personal sample, Arts in English, May 2008. Three Transferable Skills for Food Service: 1. Customer Interactivity: If you have ever had any experience dealing with customers (whether you were scooping ice cream, greeting people at essay female a front desk, operating a ticket booth, etc.), this type of experience is transferable into any other customer service job. 2. Technical: Have you ever swiped a credit card, operated a Point of Sale (POS) Terminal, or re-stocked receipt paper? All of these skills are transferable into food service. 3. Communication: Bilingual ability, especially Spanish, will help your food service career chances significantly. If you’ve ever had a job where you’ve had to speak in glory movie essay front of other people, that kind of communication ability is considered transferable. 534 Shelby Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 24542 * (433) 623-6234 * [emailprotected]

Superior salesmanship skills, consistently outperforming company peers Friendly, outgoing, and charismatic personality well suited for a fast paced, customer service oriented restaurant Experience with Point of Sale (POS) Terminals, with excellent basic math skills Working knowledge of wines, cocktail mixes, and other bartending skills Conversational in Spanish. Awarded “Employee of the about female Month” for statement, consistently making achieving 15% above target sales Perfected menu presentation skills, providing customers a holistic understanding of the restaurant offerings, leading to more sales Trained 4 underperforming waiters in salesmanship methodology, increasing their sales to meet company average. Experience with 3 types of POS Terminals, receipt roll replacement, and coffee machine cleaning Familiarity with common restaurant bread cutting machines, dishwashers, and essay infanticide, knowledge of glory movie, equipment cleaning processes Excellent basic math skills, able to calculate and split bills in the event of POS Terminal downtime. Consistently scored over 90% satisfaction rating on customer feedback surveys Conversational in Spanish (able to take orders from Spanish speaking customers.) Possess excellent conflict resolution skills in the event of customer dissatisfaction. University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC. Bachelor of about infanticide, Science in Marketing, May 2005.

4 Steps to prompt, Writing the Ultimate Server Resume. “Food service” encompasses many different roles within a restaurant, cafeteria, or other food service establishment, such as waiters and servers, line cooks, bartenders, hosts and hostesses, and essay about infanticide, busboys. A waiter takes orders from a happy couple. These roles fall into what are called the “front end” (customer service) and the “back end” (food preparation) of the statement establishments. This resume is relevant to those of you with “front end” server experience. We will teach you why this is an excellent resume, and essay infanticide, how you can write your own in orwell a hanging a similar fashion. As a professional food service worker, you may currently be writing your resume in about female order to:

Find a new working environment Earn more money Attain a managerial role. Read this resume writing guide to ensure you achieve your goals. By the way be sure to read our Resume Writing 10 Commandments to understand the major rules that all resumes need to follow, including server resumes. Glory Movie Questions. If this seems difficult, you can always create a food service resume in minutes with our widely praised resume maker. 1. Include These Key Server, Waitress, and Waiter Skills. For some quick help, here are the essay about infanticide key aspects you need to include on a server resume. Restaurant hiring managers will be looking for questions, these specific traits to decide if you’re a worthwhile candidate. Be sure to include these key server skills on your resume. Keep in mind that if you have any food service certifications, such as a Certification in Food Handling and Safety, you should place it at the top of female, your resume. If you don’t have any, you can land more interviews and uc personal statement 2011, potentially increase your salary by earning one. The National Restaurant Association offers certifications here.

2. Infanticide. Write a Convincing Career Objective. The first major section of and effect essay in america, your resume is called the Career Objective. This applicant’s Career Objective IMMEDIATELY puts her on the short list for about, an interview because she included relevant information throughout the objective. There are four reasons this example has a strong Career Objective. Pay particular attention to the bolded parts: 1st: It immediately states years of experience:

7+ years of experience in food preparation and service… 2nd: It indicates earned titles or certificates: Certificate in Food Handling and statement, Safety. 3rd: It emphasizes deep knowledge of the business: Keen knowledge of wines, entrees , and the responsibilities of a successful restauranteur. 4th: It states the position she wants to fill:

“Aiming to…effectively perform a management position at your restaurant. Essay Infanticide. “ In the eyes of a hiring manager, this applicant’s Career Objective IMMEDIATELY puts her on the short list for an interview because she included great resume builders throughout the glory movie objective. Female. It is also well written, and essay period, targeted at the managerial role she wants to fill. Good news! Food service manager roles are projected to increase by female 11% through 2022. It’s very important to remember that the Career Objective does not relate to what YOU want from the job, but rather what you can do for the company . In this way, the applicant makes a convincing argument that she’d be an movie essay questions, asset to the company in a managerial role. Our step by step Career Objective writing guide can give you concrete ideas about about female, how to write your own. 3. Describe your Server Experience with Numbers. Adding numbers to your job description bullet points will help the hiring manager grasp the size and scope of your responsibilities, and give them a clearer mental picture of your experience. By quantifying your resume, it will immediately become better than the glory movie essay vast majority of your competition. The easiest way to female infanticide, do this is to simply write how big your food establishment is, and how many seats it has. Statement Sample. The applicant does this twice for the two establishments she worked in, as you can see from the bolded text below:

Write patrons’ food orders on slips, memorize orders, or enter orders into computers for essay infanticide, transmittal to organizer personal, kitchen staff in a 150+ seat restaurant Present menus to patrons and answer questions about menu items, making recommendations upon essay about, request in a 70+ seat restaurant. Even by making this simple addition, your resume will immediately be better than the vast majority of your competition. If you really want to blow away the sample hiring manager, you’ll need to do more complex research, like this example: Memorized restaurant’s wine stock and the meals they should accompany, leading to daily wine sales averaging $150, fully 20% higher than company average. Do you know how much you make in sales daily or monthly? You can expect to make an average of $47,960 per years as a Food Service Manager. Most restaurants — especially big chains — will track their servers’ sales statistics for the purposes of essay about female, budgeting (and, of course, to cajole low performers).

You can ask your manager to see these statistics, and include them on your resume. Even if you didn’t perform spectacularly (like the applicant), simply including this information in your resume will indicate to the hiring manager that you are self-motivated and hard working. This is called writing an cause essay on obesity, “achievement oriented” resume — and about female infanticide, these tend to land the most interviews. Bonus: Action Verbs for Your Server Resume. 4. Include Relevant Additional Skills. Your Additional Skills section should not list your hobbies and interests, unless they are relevant to the job. Being bilingual in essay period Spanish and essay female infanticide, English is a valuable asset to period, have, especially for female, a managerial position. (For instance, a wine connoisseur would be a valuable asset to statement 2011, a restaurant that sells wine.)

Since you are a professional food service worker, regardless if you are crafting a server resume or one seeking a more supervisory role, you should definitely include these bullet points in your Additional Skills section to build a stronger resume: Familiarity with Point of essay infanticide, Sale terminals Problem solving and communication skills. If you also happen to and effect in america, be bilingual in Spanish and about female infanticide, English, that also tends to glory movie essay questions, be a valuable asset to female, have in uc personal statement a US based restaurant — especially for a managerial position. Candidate emphasizes having a Certification in Food Handling and about female, Safety Candidate places Education Section first due to job personal statement sample, having recent school experience Candidate mentions her high customer satisfaction rating. Getting the Education Section Right. All entry-level candidate resume must begin with the education section.

Although this candidate has had prior work experience, it was as a trainee, or as a part-time worker. About Female Infanticide. The most important reason the applicant is considered entry-level is because she just recently graduated from community college . This applicant has educational experience related to food service (Certificate in glory movie questions Food Handling and Safety, BA in Food Science). Understandably, you may not — and that’s fine. If you have no experience whatsoever, you’ll need to about female, write a very convincing cover letter that the statement prompt employer should take a chance on female infanticide, you. The education section on an entry-level resume can be more detailed and whimsical than a professional resume , because it’s likely that you don’t have prior work experience. The hiring manager will be interested to know if you are generally an active person or not. Therefore, you can include information about: Clubs you’ve joined Greek life you participate in Relevant coursework GPA (if above 3.5/4.0) Other Good Food Service Industry Samples.

Waiter – (Note: One of the few decent resume samples in orwell a hanging this industry on the net. The Professional Experience section introductory paragraphs are a bit overdone, and could instead use more bullet points. Otherwise, this is a great sample.) Waiter- (Note: A simple, but effective resume. Has a well done “Professional Profile”.) Cook – (Note: Overall an excellent resume, although the Work Experience section is essay female not formatted very well.) Share Food Service (Waitress #038; Waiter) Resume Samples Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in job personal statement today’s competitive job market. Infanticide. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and sample, PDF.

Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game That’ll Show You How to Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to the test, and essay about infanticide, learn how to essay, make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Brady’s resume is a couple yards short of a touchdown. Essay Female. There are tons of errors throughout.

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9 Resume Mistakes to essay female infanticide Avoid if You Want the Job. A solid resume is what gets you in the door and in front of hiring managers when you're applying for essay jobs. That's why it's so important to make sure your application is free of mistakes, and female infanticide that means more than just typos. Business News Daily spoke with hiring and on renaissance period HR experts to essay about female infanticide help you clean up some common resume errors so you can land that interview. An objective at the top of your resume is outdated and should be eliminated. This section tells an employer or recruiter what you want, rather than what you can do for them, said Marissa Letendre, senior recruiter at on renaissance Zimmerman Associates recruiting firm.

It should be replaced with a paragraph-style summary which communicates what [the candidate] can do for the employer and female infanticide achievements relevant to the position they are applying for, Letendre added. Uc Personal 2011? I constantly see candidates listing obvious duties in essay about female infanticide, bullet points under a job title, said Yahya Mokhtarzada CEO of Truebill, which provides a tool for organizing subscription services. If an statement, applicant was a host at TGI Fridays for three years, I can assume they undertook common host/hostess duties such as greeting guests and seating them at essay tables. Uc Personal Statement Prompt? Mokhtarzada suggested using the female infanticide bullet-point space to list things you've done that an employer wouldn't guess or to essay questions illustrate instances when you went above and beyond. Providing outdated contact information. Justine Miller, HR consultant at The Stir Group, reminded job seekers not to overlook the contact information listed on their resumes. Essay About Female Infanticide? When looking for a new job, it's easy to use a saved copy of your resume, Miller said. On Renaissance? You might have a new cellphone number or [might] have changed your email address since you last used your resume. Female? Submitting a resume in a format other than PDF could hurt your chances of getting seen. You can spend hours formatting a resume, but if you submit a Word document, the glory resume will [often] be reformatted by whatever applicant-tracking system the essay about infanticide company uses, said Joshua Goldstein, co-founder at

It doesn't sound like a big deal, but imagine submitting a one-page resume that was properly formatted, only to have a company receive three pages with paragraph-sized blank chunks, and sentences that start in and effect essay on obesity in america, the middle of the page. If you do choose to send a Word document, be sure to infanticide double-check everything, especially if you've tracked your edits. Believe it or not, candidates leave 'track changes' on, Samantha Lambert, director of cause on obesity in america human resources at Blue Fountain Media, said. Always do one last double check before sending along. This seemingly trivial mistake can make it quite difficult for about hiring managers to take you seriously. A white lie on glory movie essay questions your resume may seem innocent, and you might even think you need to fib in order to get in front of a hiring manager, said Candice Trebus, marketing manager at Akraya, an IT staffing firm. However, she noted that background and about reference checks will always uncover skeletons in the closet. Outdated experience that is essay questions, no longer relevant may not be an female infanticide, outright lie, but it does detract from essay, your credibility.

Dana Case, director of operations at about female, said that outdated skills make a candidate appear not to be genuine. Irrelevant work experience only shows that the candidate had a job in job personal, the past while showing nothing about what they can offer to a company, Case said. If [your resume] states you are fluent in a language and you are asked about it, then admitting it has been quite some time since you spoke fluently never looks good. Although the norm in the U.S. is not to include a photo of yourself on your resume (since you typically include your LinkedIn profile), there are some countries and specific industries where a resume head-shot is standard. If you do decide to include a photo, make sure it's an appropriate, professional one. Jason Roberts, a senior HR and marketing expert at My Handyman Services, noted that his company often receives photos of candidates in essay about female infanticide, which the subjects present themselves in a less-than-professional light.

This makes it difficult to take these applicants seriously, he said. Organizer Personal Essay? We don't have any issues with [photos, but] we keep receiving photos of guys with party hats, wearing shades, holding beers and even cigarettes, Roberts said. Duncan Murtagh, co-founder of Vetter, a virtual employee-suggestion box, said job seekers often write their resumes in about female infanticide, a passive rather than active voice. They treat their resumes like applications you'd fill out at an entry-level position for high schoolers and simply list previous experience duties, Murtagh said. Instead of a bland, bulleted list of duties, show results: Hiring managers like to see concrete, quantifiable data of glory essay your accomplishments. Infanticide? Although you may be fed up with your current employer, your job application is not the place to disparage the company, said Barry Maher, a speaker and consultant. Never even hint of having a bad attitude about [a previous employer], Maher said. Essay On Obesity In America? If necessary, and only when it is necessary, the place to explain a potential negative employer reference is in about infanticide, the interview. Your resume should never be longer than necessary. A multipage resume works if you're at the senior level and statement sample have a long, varied work history, but if you apply for a lower-level role and have only had a couple of jobs in the same industry, there's no reason it shouldn't all fit on one page, said Sasha Surman, hiring manager at LiftForward, Inc.

Working with formatting can bring it down to essay about female infanticide one page, as well, Shannon Plush, coordinator of strategic HR projects for Pittsburgh Public Schools, told Business News Daily. Tighten up your language and adjust your formatting so that your resume content can fit on one page, Plush added. Otherwise, it looks sloppy and highlights for the employer that you don't have enough to offer to fill up two pages. Shannon Gausepohl graduated from Rowan University in 2012 with a degree in journalism. She has worked at job personal statement a newspaper and in the public relations field, and is currently a staff writer at about Business News Daily.

Shannon is a zealous bookworm, has her blue belt in Brazilian jiu jitsu, and loves her Blue Heeler mix, Tucker.

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essay on opennesss The Openness of God: A Biblical Challenge to the Traditional Understanding of God. Full description of book: Clark Pinnock et. al., The Openness of God: A Biblical Challenge to the Traditional Understanding of God (Downers Grove, Il, USA: InterVarsity Press, 1994). ISBN: 0830818529. Information content: 7/10. Spiritual content: 2/10.

Overall rating: 3/10. This book is an interesting book written as a de facto manifesto of Clark Pinnock and others like Richard Rice, John Sanders, William Hasker and David Basinger who have embraced this new teaching of theirs called Open Theism. Basically, Open theism is a logical outgrowth of female, Arminianism and denies that God has absolute foreknowledge of the future. Statement 2011. Instead God is said to 'grow' in knowledge as time passes, though he somehow does not change ontologically, as opposed to Process theology. Of course, such a system seems to deny the Scriptures when it talks about the fact that God does not change his mind (Num.

23:19) and that God knows, even declares, the end from the beginning (Is. 46:10). Even more strongly, Scriptures seem to say that God does whatever he pleases and that NO ONE can stay His hand (Dan. 4:35). About. The onus, therefore, is on Pinnock et. Orwell A Hanging. al. to about, explain from Scriptures why their view is correct and the traditional view is cause and effect essay in america, wrong. Reading through the book, it is my contention that Pinnock et. al have failed miserably to demonstrate that Open theism is even a valid system of truth. About Female. As it will be shown later, their position is supported by large amounts of eisegesis, faulty logical reasoning, strawman argumentation, and above all, philosophical sophism. Since that is the case, this book is given a scholarship rating of 4 and an information content of statement, 7. As what they are promoting is contrary to Scripture, the book is given a spiritual rating of 2 and infanticide, the book an statement sample overall rating of female infanticide, 3. In order to analyze this complex issue, an overall analysis would be done, followed by a detailed chapter by chapter analysis.

This book is uc personal statement, split into female infanticide 5 chapters, with each chapter written by one author each. The book is therefore more of a compilation of 5 essays on various pre-assigned topics given to the authors, and thus certain overlap may be present. The book starts off with a preface written by Clark Pinnock, followed by the first chapter written by and effect on obesity, Richard Rice on essay about female infanticide, Biblical Support for a New Perspective . Chapter 2 is on Historical Considerations by John Sanders. Sample. Chapter 3 is on Systematic Theology by Clark H. Pinnock, with chapter 4 on A Philosophical Perspective by William Hasker, and essay about, David Basinger finishes the series in chapter 5 on Practical Implications . Thus, the authors attempt to cover various fields of theology, philosophy and and effect in america, Christian living in order to show why their position is essay about female infanticide, biblical and superior to uc personal 2011, other views. In the Preface, Clark Pinnock tried to showcase that this model of theirs is one that is most consistent biblically and philosophically, as well as practically, and female infanticide, is a viable alternative to that of classical theism on in america, the one hand and process theology on the other (p. 9). However, right at the onstart, Pinnock made an error in enacting a strawman, in the area of petitionary prayer. OK, it is about female infanticide, not so much a strawman as in Pinnock putting forward a view of orwell a hanging, petitionary prayer which is found within Evangelicalism but which is not embraced by biblical theism. About Female. Specifically, Pinnock seems to think that petitionary prayer is made with a view that 'would require God to [change His mind'] (p.

8), and that the job personal sample, reason why we pray is that the 'future is not settled' (p. 7). This is of course erroneous. We pray because we want to be used by God in the implementation of His will, and we will pray that 'Your Will be done' (Mt. 6:10b). Essay Female Infanticide. That some people do think that prayer changes God's mind or in ways that would require God to change His mind does not mean anything. Glory Questions. Pinnock may choose to interact with the inconsistent Christian who do so pray, but in order to prove that His position is better practically, he would need to about infanticide, interact with the biblical rationale for glory movie questions, prayer and not the popular misconception that is here presented.

We will look later in the book whether the traditional biblical position on prayer has been interacted with. As we read the book, a major strain of thought can be seen to emerge. Open theism as a system develops primarily from philosophical considerations rather than from essay about infanticide biblical exegesis , notwithstanding the protests to on renaissance period, the contrary. This can be seen especially in essay about the first chapter of the book, or rather the first essay, in which RIchard Rice has the honor and privilege of defining the orwell a hanging essay, Open Theism system and then attempting to muster support for his position from the Scriptures, while refuting criticisms from essay about traditional Christian views, which we shall look at now. Analysis of Chapter 1. Richard Rice starts by defining both the traditional view of God and then the open view of God, followed by trying to muster support for the open view from Scripture. We would look at the definitions of the open view of God first before examining the cause and effect essay on obesity, passages Rice uses in an attempt to support his position. Humanistic pre-occupation with love.

When one looks at the open view as set forth by Rice, it could be seen that the love of God is the central characteristic that is being focused on in this system. According to Rice, 'love is the first and essay female infanticide, last word in the biblical portrait of God' (p. 18), quoting 1 Jn. 4:8 to that effect. He further states that the 'statement that God is love is as close as the Bible comes to giving us a definition of the divine reality' and job personal, that 'Christian theology has always given this expression pride of place among the many descriptions of essay, God' (p. 18). Cause Essay On Obesity. He claims also that 'there is widespread theological support for the idea that love is central to essay about female infanticide, both the revelation and the reality of God' (p. 19). Rice then quotes neo-orthodox theologian Karl Barth in his Church Dogmatics who states that 'God love because . this act is His being, His essence and His nature' (p. 20).

Rice further quotes the neo-orthodox theologian Emil Brunner who says that 'love is not a mere quality or attribute that God happens to have in common with other beings; it is the very nature of essay, God Himself' (p. Essay Female Infanticide. 20). Rice also quotes Walter Kasper and Wolfhart Pannenberg who both emphasized the importance of God's attribute of love. Pannenberg is also quoted as saying that 'Only in the love of God does the prompt, concrete form of his (God) essence come to expression.' (p. 20). With all this stated, Rice made the following statements, that 'Consequently, when we enumerate God's qualities, we must put love at essay female, the head of the list' and that 'Love is the concrete reality that unifies all of the attributes of God. Statement Sample. A doctrine of God that is about infanticide, faithful to the Bible must show that all of God's characteristics derive from job personal love' (p. About Female. 21). From what has been seen so far, Rice has decided to place God's love as being of primary importance and thus the lens upon which all Scripture is to be interpreted, and this is the lens whereby he reads all of essay, Scripture in order to support his open theism. However, does the Bible warrants such an emphasis placed upon the love of God, or is that something Rice has just decided to embrace without any biblical support?

Now, when looking at this topic, it must be said that Scripture definitely emphasizes God's love. What is being discussed is not whether God's love is important, but whether it is essay infanticide, of primary significance, or more significantly, whether it only is of primary significance. My contention is that the uc personal 2011, attribute of God as love is essay about female, not the a hanging, only attribute of primary significance and therefore Rice has already erred in the first instance. What does it mean for an attribute of God to be of primary significance? This means that that is definitional of God and essay about female, is not derived from some other attribute of God. Uc Personal Statement Prompt. For example, God's mercy cannot be said to be of primary significance, as mercy is an attribute that is derived from God's sovereignty and female infanticide, God's love. The verse used to proof-text Rice's contention that God's love is THE only primary attribute of orwell a hanging essay, God, 1 Jn. Essay About Female. 4:8, does not supports this thesis of his. Granted, it does say that God is love and therefore shows that this attribute of God is of primary significance. However, it is one thing to say that the love of God is of primary significance and another thing to say that ONLY the love of God is job personal, of primary significance.

Nowhere does Rice show why we should accept this leap of logic, except that he quotes various theologians to that effect. However, in the absence of Scriptural support, this constitutes a false appeal to authority. Furthermore, of the theologians he quoted, of least two (Karl Barth and Emil Brunner) are neo-orthodox theologians who are unorthodox at best. Therefore, Rice's hermeneutical grid has been shown to be unscriptural at best. However, even if we accept Rice's hermeneutical matrix, the question is to be asked as to what God being love means. As it has been said, the fact that God is love is actually bad news for us sinners. Because God is essay about female, love, He must hate us sinners, since He is good while we are evil.

Therefore, the only way that Rice's hermeneutical matrix can make sense is that the organizer, love of God is being redefined to a modern humanistic understanding of love. Female. The verse Ps. 50:21 comes to mind: These things you have done, and I have been silent; you thought that I was one like yourself . But now I rebuke you and lay the charge before you. (Ps. 50:21) With that stated, let us look at the biblical evidence. The biblical evidence: Old Testament. Under Old Testament evidences for the Openness of God, Rice uses the narrative portion of Scripture to show forth God's feelings, as the 'inner life of God' (p. 24). He also quotes the Jewish theologian Abraham Joshua Heschel as saying that 'Hosea . Personal. came to see that the anguish his troubled marriage brought him was a mirror of the divine pathos, that his sorrow echoed the sorrow of God ' (p.

26), and about infanticide, that 'Whatever man does affects not only personal essay his own life, but also the life of God . He is about infanticide, a consort, a partner, a factor in the life of God' (p. 26). Rice also used the narrative portions of the Old Testament to organizer, show that God changes His mind; His intentions, which we shall hereby look into detail now. First of all, with regards to the 'feelings of infanticide, God', Rice has made a valid point that God does have feelings. However, the period, fact is about female infanticide, that traditional theism does not dispute that God has feelings. What traditional theism has always believe regarding the attribute of God being impassable is that God's emotions are not involuntary and are controlled by God. In other words, God does not have mood swings [1] . From this article, it can be seen that Rice has created a strawman caricature of the traditional theist position as saying that we are saying that God is 'untouched by the disappointment, sorrow or suffering of his creatures' (p. 12), or that 'the real God of the Bible is made of sterner stuff. . Cause And Effect On Obesity. so the tender feelings we read of in the prophets are merely examples of poetic license' (p. 25).

This is not true of the traditional theist position at all, and to caricature our position as saying that God is a metaphysical iceberg which have no true feelings is plainly wrong. With regards as to how we can reconcile the facts that God has feelings without compromising his impassibility, we will say that His feelings are fixed reactions to circumstances that happen in about female infanticide time. Therefore, God will always have that feeling towards a particular circumstance and that feeling would be manifested when the circumstance presents itself. God therefore has control over personal, His emotions which are an expressions of His many attributes. As an essay about female example, God would show anger over orwell a hanging, rebellion against Him because of essay female infanticide, His attribute of holiness which manifests in on renaissance a hatred of sin. Therefore, it never be said that God changes in His feelings, just that they are manifested depending on about female, what the situation is, which changes over time. To put it simply, God's feelings are eternally demarcated, but they are manifested ad extra only movie when the scenario demands it. With regards to God's intention, the essay female infanticide, easiest response to Rice is to point out statement that the fact that he is gleaning theology from narrative rather than didactic accounts. This is definitely an illegitimate tactic in biblical interpretation, especially since the didactic account (i.e.

Num. 23:19 where it is stated that God does not change his mind) contradicts his position. Essay Female. In opposition to Stephan Charnock's position that when the Bible says that 'when God turns from love to wrath, or from wrath to love, this describes a change in the way people relate to God, not in the way he relates to them', Rice points out the fact that in the case of Moses' intercession, God relents in direct response to Moses' plea, not as a consequence of the and effect essay in america, people's repentance of essay about female, their apostasy (p. 28). Rice goes further in saying that all these incidents whereby God seems to movie, change his plans indicates that human intercession can influence God's actions (p. 29). In response to this assertion by about infanticide, Rice, we would say that just because a narrative seems to say that God relents and changes his mind doesn't mean that God ever intended to do that action anyway. As Rice has noticed, Moses' appeal in his intercession before God presupposes that God's ultimate purposes must be carried out, which would not be able to be carried out if God had destroyed the Israelites as He has threatened to do (Ex. 32:10). Rice, however, uses this episode to period, say that God's ultimate objectives requires Him to change His intermediate intentions (p.

28). To this, however, we respond and essay female, ask Rice where is it stated in Scripture that God has such an statement prompt immediate intention to wipe out the female infanticide, Israelites. Essay On Renaissance Period. Of course, none can be found, for although God threatened to female infanticide, wipe them out, this does not imply that it is God's intention to do so. Prompt 2011. Rice has here confused between command/preference and intention [2] , as if God expressing a hypothetical wish to wipe out the Israelites means that He will in essay about female actuality wants to job personal sample, do so. This is similarly the female, case with Jonah and Nineveh (p. Job Personal Sample. 31) and the sayings of Jeremiah in Jer. About Infanticide. 18:7-10 (p. 31-32). Rice next attempts to organizer personal, utilize God's promises to David, as they seemed to about, be an unconditional one as opposed to that made to Saul (2 Sam.

7:15-16) and make a case that they are actually conditional as in the end, the physical Kingdom also ended. He then states that evidently God attached conditions to His promise, even they were not spelled out at first (p. 30). Job Personal. However, this only goes to show Rice's either ignorance or purposely ignoring the true nature of the Davidic Covenant, which is fulfilled in Jesus, who is an eternal King over His people. Next, Rice got down to addressing the passages in Num.

23:19 and 1 Sam. 15:29 which state that God does not change His mind. To get around these verses, he states that 'the word repent in both instance is used synonymously with the word lie . . Infanticide. not that God never changes, but that God never says one thing while fully intending to do something else. Only in this limited sense of the word does God not repent ' (p. 33). However, is that the correct way to on renaissance, interpret the verses? Is the word repent really the same as the word lie ? Yes, there seems to be some sort of parallelism in Num. 23:19 between the phrases 'man, that He should lie' and 'son of man, that He should change His mind', but parallelism does not necessarily mean that the terms are synonymous; they only mean that there is essay about, some close relations between the terms. In this case, the close relation could be that both are things which are characteristic of Man. In any case, even if I were to grant the case for Num.

23:19, this would not hold true for 1 Sam. 15:29, where a different word for lie was used compared to that used in Num. 23:19 ( Shaqar in movie questions 1 Sam. 15:29 instead of infanticide, kazab in on obesity Num. Essay About Female. 23:19). Therefore, Rice's contention that the verses actually mean that God does not 'repent' in the sense of saying one thing while fully intending to do another thing is wrong. Anyway, this is indeed a novel (re)definition of the word 'repent', which makes it definitely unlikely that the verses actually mean. Rice next make a logical fallacy by saying that the sentence that 'God will not repent presupposes the general possibility that God can repent when he chooses' (p. 33). Uc Personal Prompt. Using basic Aristotelian logic, it can be seen that just because there are elements from a set G (God) having elements outside the set R (those who can repent) does not mean that there are elements from essay female infanticide G in the set R [ G ⊃

R does not imply that G ⊃R ]. The final part in 2011 this argument (which had been more philosophical than exegetical so far) is female, with regards to God's actions.Rice correctly stated that in glory movie a passage supposed to discuss biblical evidences, this was not the place to develop a philosophy of action (p. 36). However, he states that in order for God to acts, he must first make a decision before He acts. This has no bearing in the discussion, however, as God could be said to make all the decisions before the essay about, foundation of the world.

Only if you postulate a God who changes His intentions could such a thing be a problem for the traditional position. The biblical evidence: New Testament. Rice's main evidences for open theism in 2011 the New Testament centeres on the life, ministry and death of infanticide, Jesus. From what he has written, it seems that his main thought is that: if he establishes the essay, fact that Jesus has emotions and essay, that he changes his emotions while on earth, then Open Theism is established. On Renaissance. This can be seen in the statement he made towards the end of this segment where he states that Identifying God with Jesus leads us ultimately to the conclusion that what Jesus experienced in the depths of his anguish was experienced by essay infanticide, God Himself' (p. 46).

However, is that a valid argument? Now, it is irrefutable that Jesus experienced change while he was on earth. Organizer. That is a given, as well as the fact that Jesus experience a wide range of emotions. However, to say that because Jesus experienced change means that God experience change is about female, questionable. Jesus is indeed God, but God is not Jesus, as Rice insisted (p. 39). God is a Trinity; 3 persons in 1 God, and therefore the statement that God is Jesus is erroneous [3] . Furthermore, in historic orthodox Christology, we do know that Jesus 'picked up' a human nature at the Incarnation, thus He who was formerly only God as the Second Person of the Trinity is now 100% God and essay, 100% Man. Essay Female. Picking up from there, it can be said that Jesus experienced change as part of His human nature. If such were the case, which it is, then Rice's entire argument would be rendered invalid. As a side note, it would be interesting to note that Rice's beliefs regarding the doctrine of the Atonement seems rather strange.

First, he misinterprets Jn. Essay. 12:32-33 cf. 3:14 as stating that the Cross is 'the place where Jesus' identity is fully known' (p. 44), which is wrong as a look at the context would show. Jesus is saying that the female, Cross is where He would draw people to Himself, in other words He would save His people from their sins by dying on the Cross, using an analogy to uc personal statement 2011, the status of the serpent which Moses made and raised up during his time. Further down, it could be seen that Rice regarded the Atonement as a place whereby God suffered to provide an offer of female, salvation to all. Of course, we can immediately discount the 'God suffered' bit, as we have already shown that Jesus suffered does not necessarily means that God suffers in the same way. From the organizer essay, statement, we can also see Rice believes in female the theory of Universal Atonement and glory, seems to play down the propitiatory portion of the Atonement of essay about female infanticide, our Lord Jesus Christ. Problem passages: Interactions. In this section, Rice attempts to interact with the main passages that would pose a problem for the Open view.

The first group of Num. 23:19 and 1 Sam. 15:29 has already been addressed above, so we would look at how Rice continues on from there. Rice hereby acknowledges that God in job personal statement sample some respects does not change as what Num. 23:19 and 1 Sam.

15:29 has said and in which he has limited to essay about female, the expression to. Therefore, he states that 'both change and changelessness [can be attributed] to God if we apply them to different aspects of His being' (p. Essay In America. 48). He then states that aspects of divinity are completely unaffected by anything else whereas God's concrete relation to the world is essay about infanticide, where God is dynamic with respect to his experience of it (p. 48). This sounds all very nice, until you start questioning who determines which aspect of God get placed into glory movie essay questions which category. Which aspect of female infanticide, God are aspects of divinity? The list made by Rice seems rather arbitrary.

After all, why must God's character be a 'divine attribute' since God would be affected by the things which would happen while on glory essay questions, earth? It can be seen therefore that Rice has opened a Pandora's Box which has the potential to lead one back to Process Theology and Liberal Theology. The next text which Rice interacts with is that in Ex. 3:14a, where God reveals Himself as the great I AM . Female. Rice falsely appeals to authority of 'biblical and systematic theologians today' (p. 49), to say that our traditional interpretation of cause in america, this text as being a statement revealing the ontological being of God is false, favorably quoting the essay about infanticide, neo-orthodox theologian Emil Brunner to statement prompt 2011, that effect [4] . However, besides making appeals to authority, Rice has never tell us why the traditional view is wrong, and therefore the traditional view stands. Rice next take on the topic of prophecy, primarily focusing on the genre of conditional prophecies, or those whose fulfillment depended on certain human responses coming true. As an essay infanticide example, Jonah and the city of Nineveh was used. However, the fact of the matter is that God did not tell Jonah whether Nineveh was to be destroyed or saved in the end, only to statement, warn and speak against them (Jon.

1:2; 3:2), thus the about, point is invalid. Rice next focuses on a hanging essay, promises of blessings and destructions as stated in Jer. 18, conveniently forgetting they were never prophecies but only warnings that the Lord was communicating to the Israelites. Next, Rice made the astonishing claim that God intended Saul to permanently be the female, king of Israel (in other words David was an afterthought). This is of course not found in Scripture, unless you claim that when God expressed regret over job personal, choosing Saul, God is truly surprised by the events that have unfolded.

Of course, since the about female, kings and the ultimate King of Kings were to have come from the tribe of statement sample, Judah (Gen. 49:10) and about, not Benjamin anyway, it could be seen that God's intentions have always been for David to be the orwell a hanging essay, king of Israel. not Saul (Saul was just an object lesson). Rice's preoccupation with conditional prophecies, however, blinds him to the more important fact of most prophecies which are not conditional at all, like the prophecies regarding the coming of Christ, or that of the end times, or even something as simple as the destruction of female, Jerusalem (Mk. 13:1-2). If the open view was truly correct, how could it allow for the possibility of the fulfillment of prophecies, especially those that are next to glory movie essay, impossible to fulfil (like those of the life of Christ).

Prophecy is thus a very problematic topic for about, the Open theists, unless they were to embrace at least a form of Molinism at this point. Foreknowledge and predestination. The last major biblical theme which Rice addresses is that of foreknowledge and predestination. Organizer Personal. Consistent with his Arminianism, Rice attempts to use the Arminian prooftexts 2 Pet. 3:9 and 1 Tim. 2:4 cf. Tit.

2:11 to say that God desires the about, salvation of organizer essay, all man, with 'all' here referring to every single person head for head, in order to make the point that not everything that God desires will be accomplished. Putting it broadly, the 'fact that God foreknows or predestines something does not guarantee that it will happen, the fact that God determines part of history does not mean that he determines all of history, . Essay. ' (p. 56). Rice also uses the usual Arminian explanation of predestination in for essay, example Rom. 9 as being a 'corporate call to about female infanticide, service' (p. 56). In this area, Rice does not interact with the on renaissance, biblical texts unlike his opponents on essay female, this very topic and therefore his 'explanation' seems to be more along the lines of how open theism can fit into the Arminian system rather than engaging the Calvinist position. 2011. In fact, Rice calls Arminians to task on their interpretation of 2 Pet.

3:9 and 1 Tim. 2:4 as being inconsistent with the classic Arminian doctrine of foreknowledge and more in line with open theism. I would leave the Arminians to attempt to defend their position from open theists like Rice, while agreeing with Rice that Arminianism is inconsistent at this point. From a biblical Calvinist perspective, we deny the interpretation of the Arminian prooftexts 2 Peter 3:9, 1 Tim. 2:4 etc, and female, also the Arminian understanding of predestination.

A look at job personal, Rom. 9 for example in context would demonstrate the error of the Arminian position, as they can for example never account for the analogy of the vessels of mercy and the vessels of wrath which are clearly referring to individuals in Rom. 9: 21-23. After analyzing the Scriptures, it can be seen that Rice's contention falls short of what he sets out to female infanticide, do. The Scriptures can be seen not to support Open Theism, and in in america fact actually pose a lot of problems for essay about female, it, especially on and effect on obesity in america, the topics of prophecy and essay, God's foreknowledge and predestination. Analysis of chapter 2. This chapter is written by John Sanders on and effect essay on obesity in america, historical considerations attempts to 'document the manner in which I [Sanders] believe the Greek metaphysical system boxed up the God described in the Bible and the tremendous impact this has had in shaping the Christian understandings . ' (p. 60). It thus traces the beliefs of essay about infanticide, various philosophers and orwell, theologians throughout Western history. Sander's main point of contention is that the traditional understanding of God as being immutable and impassable is derived from Greek philosophy rather than the Scriptures. We have already seen that in the review of the previous chapter that Open Theism is not tenable in the light of Scripture.

It would thus be interesting to interact with Sanders' thesis to see whether what he postulates is really true. Sanders first starts off by suggesting that 'many of us do read the Bible initially as saying that God responds to us and may change His mind' (p. Essay About. 59). However, I find such a claim questionable. Is he really so sure of that as being normative for most Christians, or only among the Christians he interacts with? As for job personal statement, this reviewer, I disagree with Sanders on this. Certainly, as a young Christian, our knowledge of God is very shallow.

However, I have never thought of my prayer changing God's mind. About. God responding to a hanging essay, my prayer, yes, but my prayer does not change His mind. When I pray, I believe that God would respond by giving me the best, which I secretly hope is about infanticide, what I want of essay, course. However, I never once believed that God changes His mind on any matter at all. Sanders in this statement thus attempt to drive a wedge against the doctrine of foreknowledge using the perspicuity of Scripture, but it is infanticide, invalid as his statement is not true at least for me and organizer personal essay, can never be proven to essay about, be true of uc personal prompt 2011, Christians in general. One major problem with Sanders' thesis is that to postulate that the concept (not just the language) of immutability and impassibility as applied to God as being Greek concepts and not Christian concepts, it must be the case that in Greek thought there must be only one concept of essay female, God in these aspects. In other words, there cannot exist in Greek thought concurrently the orwell essay, concept of God being immutable and that of being mutable, or being passable and impassable. If that were to be the essay, case, then either way Christianity can be said to movie questions, imbibe on Greek thought either way, since both logically contradictory positions are covered by Greek thought. And this is what we will see to the case in Greek culture. The gods present in the popular Greek religion are mutable and infanticide, passable, whereas the philosopher's Ideal or idea of God is immutable and impassable. Since this is the case, how then can Sanders prove his position?

We could say that the Open Theists view is actually the on renaissance, Christianization of about, Greek popular religion , and that would be even more accurate, since the worldviews of both the modern age and during the times of the Greeks are very similar. The second major problem in Sanders' argument lies in the fact that he commits the essay on renaissance period, fallacy of essay about female, post hoc ergo propter hoc (or reading causality from sequential turn of events). For example, when talking the Jewish philosopher Philo of Alexandria, Sanders entitled the section ' Philo the Bridge from the Greeks to the Christians '. Sanders said that for Philo, 'the Greek metaphysical understanding of divinity ruled his interpretation of the biblical texts that describe God as genuinely responsive' (p. 71). Sanders then carried on walking down the corridors of time to the early church fathers like Ignatius and Justin Martyr (p. 73), Tertullian, Origen (p.

74-75), Athanasius and the Cappodocian fathers (p. 77-80), and of course through Augustine (p. 80-85), the Reformers (p. 87-91), and down through the modern age (p. 91-98). However, by and effect in america, so doing, Sanders has only proven that the Hellenic thought of God being immutable and impassable was similar to that of the early Christians, and that the early church fathers struggled with the topic, all of essay about infanticide, which does not prove causality at period, all. As it has been said in essay about female the previous paragraph, that one aspect of Greek thought seems to win out over the other in being preserved in Christianity means nothing, for there are no other options between A and. A (the law of the uc personal prompt 2011, excluded middle). Sanders' essay, while interesting, does not prove his case at all. From Sander's essay, it can be seen that Sanders is either not above enacting strawman or is ignorant of what the other position actually teaches. In numerous places, he states that classic theism teaches that 'we are like donkeys who go where the rider bids but cannot choose the rider' (p.

88), which is an expression of hard determinism or fatalism, that we conjoin the 'loving, interactive God of the Bible' with 'the static, independent God of Greek metaphysics' (p. About Female Infanticide. 95-96). However, classic theism has never depicted humans as robots, nor that we do not have free agency. Sanders furthermore states that in classical theism, 'it became commonplace to deny any real suffering of the Son and it was difficult to speak of relationally within the Godhead' (p. 100), an 2011 assertion blatantly false within evangelicalism. Sanders has also used the underhand tactic of poisoning the well, as he said that the Reformers 'did not turn their backs on the entire Christian tradition to go directly to the Bible for their theologies' (p. 87), and that John Calvin denied 'the obvious meaning of the text' (p. 90), as if Sanders could very well read the motives of the Reformers, and of course of the early church fathers whom he accused of synthesizing 'biblical and philosophical God concepts' (p. 72). As we survey the historical landscape, Sanders seems to distrust the providence of God in preserving true doctrine. Since the nature of essay female, God and of God's activity is so vital to Christianity, why it is that God cannot preserve His Truth from influence by Hellenic thought, as Sander insinuates?

Why is it that such a vital topic has been corrupted so early in church history ( 100AD) according to Sanders, and only rediscovered by theologians and philosophers in the late 20th century who have been influenced by liberal theologians and neo-orthodox theologians? In conclusion, Sanders' thesis is flawed and thus does not establish what he sets out to do. Analysis of Chapter 3. In this chapter, Clark Pinnock attempts to job personal statement, build up on the efforts of Richard Rice in about chapter 1 and John Sanders in chapter 2 by looking at how various doctrines in systematic theology is to essay period, relate in an open theist view. Thus, Pinnock covers various doctrines such as the Trinity, the Creation, God's Transcendence and Immanence, the Power of God, the immutability and impassibility of God, God's eternity and divine knowledge. We would just look at a few of them here, skipping the immutability and impassibility of God section since they have been thoroughly discussed before. First of all, we can observe that Pinnock, as with other open theists, places unbiblical emphasis on love and also misrepresent the classical theist position as being that of an aloof monarch. It seems also that he equates having a God who interacts with His people = experiencing the openness of God, which goes to essay, show he doesn't understand traditional theism.

Nevertheless, let's move on to the doctrines in relation to Open Theism. The first doctrine to be discussed is the doctrine of the Trinity. Pinnock made the statement that the 'Trinity points to a relational ontology in which God is more like a dynamic event than a simple substance' (p. 108). This is indeed a strange statement, unless of course you define relationship as of necessity being susceptible to orwell essay, changes. The orthodox position is that the three person in the Godhead are bound in a relation of perfect love towards each other, which is not 'dynamic'. In other words, we deny that having a relation necessitates the about, relation being dynamic and subject to changes. I doubt that Pinnock is saying that God the Father can suddenly have a 'mood swing' and decided not to love God the Son, but this is what being dynamic mean; possessing a capacity to uc personal 2011, change in about your feelings.

Pinnock confounds matters by saying that God as a social Trinity is 'the perfection of love and communion, the very antithesis of self-sufficiency' (p. 108), and that God would invite us creatures to 'share the richness of the divine fellowship as His friends' (p. 108). From this, it can be seen that Pinnock has erred in his doctrine of the Trinity. First of all, it is true that each person in the Trinity is not self-sufficient as there is no communion in one person. A Hanging. However, what orthodox theism has always proclaimed is that God consists of three persons who is self-sufficient in and of Himself, having perfect and essay about, unchanging love and personal, communion within the three different persons in the Trinity. Therefore, just because love and communion exist within the Trinity does not imply that God is not self-sufficient in and of Himself, since God is three persons in one God. Pinnock's second statement above is also wrong, in fact very wrong. Essay About Female. First of all, he confuses between Jesus as the essay, Son of God Son of Man and Jesus as the Second person of the Trinity. Jesus as the essay about female infanticide, Son of God has taken up a human nature at organizer personal essay, his incarnation, and it is this human nature which invites us to be his friends and enable us to have fellowship with God.

Thus, it is about female infanticide, not true that God invite us to share the job personal statement sample, riches of the divine fellowship, as we can never as finite time-bound creatures participate in the eternal relationship between the essay about, members of the Godhead. What Jesus offers is that through him as the mediator, we have fellowship with God, but never to intrude into what we cannot enter into in the first place (the intra-Trinity relationship). By confusing between Jesus as the Son of organizer personal essay, God and Jesus as the second person of the female, Trinity, Pinnock has made a serious error. Without this confusion on his part, traditional theism has no problems with the doctrine of the Trinity and the loving relationship within the Trinity. Pinnock's next take on organizer personal essay, Creation is consistent with his semi-Pelagianism. If one were to reject semi-Pelagianism and Arminianism, then Pinnock's point regarding the Creation is of no consequence, as we deny that there is about female, such a thing as 'free will', especially as defined by philosophers as 'libertarian free will'. Closely related to this is Pinnock's take on God's transcendence and immanence. A Hanging. The Open theist view emphasizes more on the Immanence portion and in fact have a strange definition of immanence. Essay Female. As opposed to God's immanence being defined as God is everywhere is all creation, as in there is no place whereby God is not around, Pinnock offers a definition of prompt 2011, God's immanence that is panentheistic ! According to Pinnock's words, 'The world and God are not radically separated realities God is present within every created being' (p. 111), citing Acts 17:28 to the effect.

Of course, Acts 17:28 is meant to prove God's immanence, but not Pinnock's definition of 'immanence', but that God sustains all things and thus every action we take is essay about, sustain by sample, Him. Pinnock next tells us that we need to recover the 'immanence' of God, which 'helps us to relate to the new creation story being supplied by modern science' (p. 113). Of course, Pinnock's suggestion is noting short of blasphemy! The world is not somehow part of God, as panentheism teaches! If that is what open theism leads to, we are to avoid it like the plague. With regards to science, Pinnock seems too enamored by it, but for those who know the truth, we do not have to kowtow to the idol of what is falsely called science, which is just pure secular humanistic naturalism in disguise. Science can never be used to prove truth, especially when it concerns events whereby no one could confirm the exact circumstances surrounding it [5] . Pinnock next talks about the power of God.

In his system, of course, God cannot be omnipotent, as he himself admits [6] . He uses the about infanticide, 'love' of orwell essay, God as the 'primary perfection of God' to de-emphasize the almighty power of God (p. Essay. 114). Other places, Pinnock seems to just impose his emotions to statement prompt 2011, dismiss a view, calling the about infanticide, idea of total control 'an alarming concept and contrary to the Scriptures' (p. 114), of course without showing why this is so, unless we admit his definition of God's love which we reject as being humanistic. When discussing the cause and effect essay on obesity, system known as biblical compatibilism, which reconciles freedom and determinism at the same time, Pinnock calls it 'sleight of hand and does not work' (p. 114-115), again without showing why this is so. Essay About Infanticide. What Pinnock does is to cause and effect essay, pull out the infanticide, 'problem' of the Fall and of the fact of evil, as these somehow discounts compatibilism. Pinnock then pulls out a few example of apparent contradictions from 2011 compatibilism and then denounce them as nonsense, without showing why this is so. Probably this is so alien to his thought process.

Anyway, Pinnock then postulates a god who has a 'paradox of essay, strength and uc personal statement prompt 2011, vulnerability' (p. 115). It is somehow interesting that for about female infanticide, Pinnock, his god can have paradoxes, while other groups' paradoxes are nonsense. I think his double standardness speaks for itself. With regards to God's eternity, Pinnock raises the philosophical question of personal essay, whether God is temporally everlasting or timelessly eternal, and then argue against the theory that God is timeless. Essay About. Regardless of glory movie questions, which is correct, God is controller of time, as He is the Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end.(Rev.

1:8; 22:13), therefore Pinnock's contention that God 'enters into the experience of time' (p. 121), with the exception of Jesus during His Incarnation,. is unscriptural. When talking about God's divine knowledge, the term omniscience is redefined by Pinnock as he rampages through systematic theology. According to essay about female, Pinnock, 'omniscience need not mean exhaustive foreknowledge of all fixed events' (p. 121), which is a radical redefinition of the term. Uc Personal Statement Prompt. Of course, to support his stand on omniscience, Pinnock tell us that if the essay female infanticide, future is fixed, then we are not held responsible.

However, this is a philosophical concept and organizer, is contradicted by Scripture, which tell us that we are responsible even if we cannot do otherwise, with the simplest example being that all Man would go to essay female, hell unless they repent, but no one can do so of their own accord, not to mention about those who did not even have an opportunity to hear the Gospel [7] . Pinnock supports his limited knowledge theory with evidence from the narrative accounts of Scripture, conveniently dismissing the didactic ones. Statement Prompt 2011. In an attempt to essay female infanticide, put down the biblical position of orwell a hanging, God being omniscience, Pinnock post the question to us as to whether God ' could create a world where He would not be total control of essay about female, everything, where He would experience risk and where He would not foreknow all decisions of His creature in advance', as God is all-powerful (p. 123). However, this question is just as stupid as the orwell a hanging essay, question as to whether God could make Himself don't exist. God cannot do anything that will compromise any of female infanticide, His attributes, and thus Pinnock's question is utterly nonsensical, on cause essay on obesity, the same level as to whether God can make a round square.

Pinnock then make the remarkable statement that under the open theist system, 'more power and wisdom are required for God to bring His will to pass in a world that He does not control than in one that He did control' (p. 124). Problems of how to define which is harder for God to make aside (I personally think that it is harder for God to make a world whereby He can exercise total control and yet people operate as if there is essay about female infanticide, little control over their lives), the question is not which is glory questions, harder, but which is consistent with God's character and attributes, and on essay infanticide, this Open Theism fails as shown in the analysis of chapter 1 above. And with this, it is time to enter the lion's den of philosophy, the basis upon which Open Theism originates, with William Hasker, Analysis of chapter 4. As this is purely philosophical in argumentation, I would touch on the points stated here rather briefly, as with regards to the errors of logical reasoning committed by Hasker, and any issues which conflict with biblical reasoning. Early on, we can start to see something very pertinent in Hasker's thinking.

Hasker was remarking that if God were to be imperfect in some significant way, then we might still worship Him but our worship would be thus tinged with disappointment, 'with regret for what might have been had God not suffered from this particular imperfection' (p. 132). He then mentions that we should reject such possibilities and to see in God the cause and effect essay on obesity in america, sum of all perfections. However, the entire reasoning exercise he undertook reveals something, that Hasker seems to think there is such a thing as perfection apart from God. However, apart from God, how can anyone define what 'perfect' means?

If it is done according to philosophical arguments, then that shows the anthropocentricity of Hasker's thought. The first error made by Hasker is with regards to perfect being theology, or rather the argument advanced by essay about, Plato to essay, argue for God being a perfect being. Plato regards change as either for the better or for the worse, so therefore a perfect being, being perfect cannot change, for if he change, it can only be for the worse, and thus he cease to be perfect. Therefore, according to Plato, the perfect being must not be subject to change and essay about female, is changeless. Hasker objects to Plato's argumentation and provides a counter-example of an extremely accurate watch, which definitely have different readings over time and whose perfection rely on it changing in reflection to the change in time. However, what Hasker has provided is not a good analogy, as a watch is essay on renaissance period, build to reflect a change in a changing quality, i.e. time. However, God is not meant to female, reflect anything, much less qualities which vary over time, thus Hasker's analogy is erroneous.

On the topic of divine omniscience, Hasker uses a philosophical argument to prove that God's knowledge is somehow limited. He comes up with the following proposition: Susan was married last Saturday and states categorically that God knows the proposition for exactly one week: before that, He does not know it because it is not yet true, and afterward He does not know it because it is no longer true (p. 136). However, this can be seen to be a matter of semantics and has nothing to do with divine omniscience. In Hasker's case, divine omniscience means that God knows that on week (i.e. X) , the statement Susan was married last Saturday is true, and he know this fact [that the statement would be true on week X] before, during and after the essay in america, week. About Female. To use temporally true statements to disprove that God knows the truth of a particular statement is wrong, as such statements by their very nature have a limited time span. Hasker continues the rest of his chapter in on renaissance looking at the various systems of about female, theology concerned with God's knowledge and Man's free will. In all, he covers 5 systems: Process Theology, Calvinism, Molinism, Simple Foreknowledge and Open Theism.

I would comment only on the Calvinism and Open Theism sections, since I agree with Hasker on the main criticism he has of Process Theology, Molinism and Simple Foreknowledge. In particular, Hasker does a masterful job of destroying Simple Foreknowledge as being absurd and leading either to determinism or a denial of foreknowledge, thus showing the on renaissance, inconsistency of Arminianism. Thus, it is true that 'If there are actions that are free in the libertarian sense, it is about infanticide, logically impossible for God to job personal statement sample, know in advance how such actions will turn out' (p. 148). The first major objection that Hasker puts forward against Calvinism is that Calvinism undermines the notion of believers enjoying a relationship with God (p. 142). About Female Infanticide. As with several people, Hasker puts the strawman objection that Calvinism makes humans into puppets who are controlled by a puppet-master, or a ventriloquist having a conversation with his dummy (p.

142). Hasker acknowledges that the analogies are inadequate and thus came up with the analogy of a robot whose program is designed by essay questions, a computer wizard who thus can anticipate the robot's responses to an indefinitely large variety of situations (p. 143). As an essay about female infanticide analogy, this analogy sounds much better. On Renaissance. However, it would do for essay, us to look into Scripture rather than think whether we like the analogy being presented.

Hasker however does not interact with the Calvinist view except to say that it is unappealing as an account of our personal relationship with God, and he does not go further into why this is so. Unfortunately (for Hasker), I do not see any problem with this account of our personal relationship with God. The main objection that Hasker puts forward to Calvinism is the 'phenomena of sin and moral evil' He rightly says that it is inconsistent to say that God desires for all to be saved, when he has eternally decreed that some would be lost (p. 143), and I agree with him. Essay On Renaissance. That's why I have always denied that God desires that all should be saved; God only desires the essay female, salvation of the elect, but God has commanded and 'wants' the repentance of uc personal statement prompt, all Man. With regards to moral evil, Rom. 8:28 could be used to show that God is using all these moral evil, in fact all types of evil, for the good of His elect. Essay About Female. All evil will in the end function to bring maximum glory to God, and that is our response to cause and effect essay, Hasker. It must be said that we deny that God creates evil, as Hasker thinks that we do (p.

143). Evil is not something that has to be created. Evil is the absence of good, and thus it is not created as much as darkness is created. Just as darkness is created by removing light, so evil is 'created' by removing goodness. Therefore, God does not need to create evil, by not giving goodness, evil will result. Furthermore, we would like to take note that Hasker's objection to Calvinism is about female infanticide, purely philosophical at this point, without interaction with the texts of e.g.

Rom.9, which is a pity, since Calvinism's strength is seen through the exegesis of Scripture. Openness of uc personal statement, God. As we look at Hasker's defense of his chosen system, we would first note Hasker's first shot at essay about female infanticide, Calvinism, as questioning whether we Calvinists are unable to conceive of an open theist world, and why do we think that God would prefer a world whereby he controls everything (p. 151). However, the question is not whether we can or cannot conceive of a world in which such a thing happened. The question has always been whether that is what the job personal, Scriptures say of essay female infanticide, how God relates to the world, not whether that is 'restrictive' of and effect, God. Hasker, in his attack of Calvinism, states that God deliberately chosen to cause all the horrible evils that afflict our world. This is about infanticide, not exactly true, as it equivocates on the word 'deliberately' to smear Calvinism as saying that God is the 'author of evil', whereas God, though sovereignly allowing evil, does not Himself create evil, as God being good cannot do evil.

However, if we embrace the god of Open theism instead, what do we have but a god who is perpetually distressed due to all the glory essay, evil on the earth, and who will do little to stop it, because otherwise it would 'violate' someone's freedom. Would you call someone who has the power to stop Hitler's Holocaust but didn't do so good? But that is what Open Theism would lead to, all done in the name of 'not violating someone's free will'. The Open theists can try to essay female infanticide, say that we Calvinists believe that God allowed Hitler to come and create the Holocaust, and that was His will. However, for movie, the Open Theists, their god would see Hitler come into power, got surprised by the atrocities he committed, and yet did not stop him but wait for essay about, other people to do so. Glory Essay. Therefore, the open theists have not themselves escape the problem they have posed to essay infanticide, us.

I would submit, of course, that only when we realize that God is using all these evils, no matter how bad they are, for a much greater good and His greater glory can we then resolve this problem. I would close off with Hasker's interesting and heretical take on conversion. Hasker seems to think that believing in Christ is analogous to a quantum event. Thus, he says that 'even if it is possible, on the open view of essay, God, for all human beings without exception to reject salvation, still this might be overwhelming improbable so impossible that the essay female, risk of such an outcome is negligible' (p. Glory. 153). He likens such a scenario to that of all the oxygen in a room concentrating in a small volume, leaving the rest of the room devoid of oxygen and unable to essay about female, sustain life, which is impossible. In this, Hasker errs as in job personal denying Total Depravity as taught in Rom. 3:12-18 . In conclusion of this section, Hasker has been shown not to able to prove the superiority of the Open Theism position from a philosophical perspective, only to show that is is possible within a certain paradigm. About Female. Also, Hasker's attempted attack on Calvinism has been shown to be not well-founded. Analysis of chapter 5. In this final chapter, David Basinger decides to look at the implications the glory movie essay, open view of God would have on 5 major areas of Christian living and essay about infanticide, theology, namely Petitionary prayer, discernment of God's will, appropriate Christian explanation(s) for evil, appropriate Christian response to social problems and the Christian's evangelistic obligations (p.

156). We would tag along and see how Basinger works all of this out in his system. Basinger first tackles the topic of petitionary prayers, or prayers offered to ask something of God. Period. Basinger acknowledges that proponents of infanticide, specific sovereignty, which includes most who call themselves Calvinists, do believe that there are certain things God would not do if prayer was not offered, but that if it is God's will that such things be carried out, then such a prayer would definitely be offered (p. 158). In Basinger's view, such a theory would make such prayer not efficacious in orwell a hanging essay the sense that petitionary prayers 'initiates unilateral divine activity that would not have occurred if we had not utilize our God-given power of choice to request divine assistance' (p.

160). In other words, without the exercise of genuine libertarian free will, petitionary prayer cannot be said to efficacious in Basinger's view. Of course, first of all, we deny that being efficacious must necessitate the actualities of counterfactuals, and therefore we dismiss Basinger's point as being anthropocentric and based more on philosophy than theology. Let us then look then into essay female Basinger's own view of petitionary prayer. As can be expected, since God is supposed to respect the free will of the creature, the problem the open theist view faces concerns petitionary prayers being offered on behalf of another person. As Basinger states, 'most of us affirm the open view of God doubt that He would override the questions, freedom of one individual primarily because He was asked to do so by another' (p. 161).

As a result, Basinger's position is that we should not petition God on behalf of others, since God should not be asked to interfere with the free will of others. To allow for essay female, more variety of views, Basinger, quoting his compatriots William Hasker and John Sanders, says that some of his fellow Open Theists believe that such prayers offered on behalf of another could result in God using all the noncoercive influence that He can justifiably exert on the person being prayed for (p. 161). Therefore, in other words, even if we allow for Hasker's and Sanders' position, God may still fail in uc personal statement prompt accomplishing what He sets out to do. Such a position, or worse still, Basinger's position, would make a mockery of intercessory prayer.

It is a fact that Christian worldwide pray that God will bring their loved ones to essay about infanticide, salvation, but according to Basinger, that is folly, while Hasker's and Sanders' position make God powerless to ensure an answer to such a prayer, except 'I tried'. From this, it could be seen that Open Theism actually guts petitionary prayer of its usefulness and scriptural power. With regards to essay, the next topic of God's guidance, Basinger frankly acknowledges the troubles his system would face with regards to this topic, but insists that other systems also have faults and thus The Open Theist system is more liveable, stating that at least Open Theists do not need to continually wonder whether they are following God's will for their lives. Essay Female. However, that is only applicable to those who do not understand how God's will is worked through their lives, and glory movie essay questions, therefore want visible if not audible guidance. Infanticide. For those who are more interested in essay questions following the essay infanticide, commands and essay on renaissance period, decrees of God, this is a non-issue. When discussing human suffering, Basinger dismisses the Calvinist belief of evil being nongratuitous that evil must be viewed as a necessary means to about infanticide, a greater good in the sense that it is on obesity in america, something that God causes or allows because it is a necessary component in His preordained plan. Basinger, unlike Hasker, merely denies that evil is nongratuitous and is honest enough to essay infanticide, state that for him, he rejects such reasoning because of the psychological benefits it gives him. Basinger then takes on the topic of uc personal statement 2011, Social Responsibility. On this topic, he critiques the specific sovereignty system as saying that since God is the primary reason why something is so, then there is less impetus for us to essay about infanticide, correct social ills, as opposed to the Open theist position whereby whatever we do would make a 'real impact' on the world (p. Essay. 172).

This is the same argument he advanced against Calvinism with regards to Evangelistic Responsibility, in about female infanticide saying that in uc personal statement prompt 2011 Calvinism, it can never be said that 'we [humans] bear direct responsibility for the status of any other person's relationship with God' (p. 174), whereas in the Open Theist system, such a statement could be said. In both of these criticisms, Basinger makes the same error as almost all non-Calvinists in assuming that somehow ability or inability implies responsibility. Essay About Infanticide. Just because God has dictated that such be so does not mean that we are absolved from the responsibility to do otherwise. Cause. Our responsibility is tied to about, what God demands of us, and has nothing whatsoever to do with what God has caused to happen.

Furthermore, it could be the case whereby God would be using us to essay period, correct some social ill or to share the Gospel with someone, and who are we to essay female, suggest otherwise? No one knows the secret things of God (Deut. 29:29) and thus we should not try to second-guess whether such a social ill is indeed God's will or whether his will is for us to do something about organizer personal, it. Similarly, in evangelism, we should not EVEN attempt to second-guess God in deciding whether this person or that person is predestined to heaven or hell but to obey God in proclaiming the female, Gospel and leaving the results to glory essay, Him. Basinger thus make the female infanticide, same fallacy of confusing ability and responsibility, and thus his arguments are invalid. After analyzing the various essays written in this book, a few commonalities can be seen. All of them have a humanistic view of the love of God and make all other attributes of God subservient to what they think is the love of God. Their system is supported more by philosophy than with sound exegesis of Scripture, as even the so-called biblical support by Richard Rice has shown.

They have also erected strawman of the statement, classical theist position, making our God seem like a metaphysical iceberg. Essay Female. After analyzing all their arguments, it could be safely said that their position is a hanging, found wanting scripturally, historically, theologically and practically, and essay, philosophically not superior to other systems especially the traditional biblical view. Essay. As such, since the topic is of such vital importance and they have been found to be wrong, Open theism is declared to be heresy, and female infanticide, their proponents called to repentance in Christ Jesus our Lord. Essay Questions. Amen. [1] God without Mood Swings ( phil/articles/impassib.htm) by Phil R. Johnson. [2] This is the same confusion made by many of the 'common grace'/ 'well-meant offer of the Gospel' crowd. Essay Female. Just because God expresses a preference and movie essay, even pleads for sinner to about female, repent does not mean that he desire their [actual] repentance. [3] Oneness Pentecostals are a group which do make that claim, but they are not orthodox in their Christology. [4] According to movie essay, Emil Brunner, it is a disastrous misunderstanding to treat this expression as an ontological definition of God ( Christian Doctrine of God , pp. Essay Female. 120, 128-129). As quoted in cause on obesity in america Pinnock et. al, The Openness of female, God , Chapter 1 endnote 71.

[5] This is especially in the field called historical sciences, which evolution is part of. A major presupposition for the theory of evolution is the philosophy of orwell essay, uniformitarianism, which is itself not provable. If this philosophy is wrong, then the about infanticide, entire evolution 'story' falls apart. [6] In a world reflecting a triune community, God does not monopolize the power. (p. 113) [7] It is fact that some open theists, because of their embrace of Open Theism, consistently reject the exclusivity of Christ's gospel and thus grow deeper into heresy.