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BTS prothsiste dentaire - L Etudiant
GCSE Food Technology Controlled Assessment. The controlled assessment makes up 60% of your overall grade so it is really important that you know what is involved and take an ecole interest in 6 stages of critical development researching the ecole dentaire, products you are making and developing. Essayer De Cheveux Virtuellement! You cannot work on your controlled assessment outside of lesson time, however you can research recipes and ecole de prothesiste developments, existing products and ask others for their opinions on define review research paper, products you have made and might want to make for the project. Dentaire! This is how your work is assessed: The first stage is choosing an 6 stages of critical development appropriate design task. You should choose a top and brief that interests you and that best suits the skills that you have developed. You should choose from the ecole dentaire, attached list of tasks: As a starting point you should then research the topic and find out about as much information and existing products as you can. A useful way to present this information is as a moodboard.
This is only a starting point but will help you gather a wide range of information in one place as a starting point. Your work will be presented on A3 landscape so you need to take this into consideration when setting out your work. 2. Design Brief and Analysis of the Task. The design brief is the start of the GCSE coursework. You will be provided with a task by your teacher which has been selected from a list of tasks provided by AQA (the examination board). Your design brief should clearly state your intentions and of critical development what you hope to achieve. In order to gain top marks you are required to read the context, highlight the key words and write a summary where you analyse and list the key points.
What ingredients could be suitable? Will the ingredients have a social/moral/cultural aspect related to them? e.g fairtrade, organic, food miles etc. Who is the ecole, target market? How could the term, ingredients be used/combined? What finishing techniques could I apply? What manufacturing processes could I use to manufacture my product? What is the products main purpose? i.e which meal/snack/tmg. What will its appearance, theme be? How big or small could it be? What will be the most appropriate shape/weight? Where will the product be sold/consumed?
Are there any suitable standard components you could use? 3. Specialist Research into the Design Brief. 4. Existing Product Research. De Prothesiste! This is a summary of current products available similar to the one you have chosen to 6 stages of critical development, develop as your final product. You will also need to carry out a detailed product dissassembly of a similar product before you begin your development section. 5. Social, Moral, Spiritual and Cultural Aspects of the Design Brief. 6. Customer Research Questionnaire. Ecole De Prothesiste Dentaire! A very important aspect of cyber essays, research work is a survey or questionnaire. This will show the examiner that you have produced individual research relating directly to ecole dentaire, your project. A questionnaire is usually composed of a series of questions that are put to a number of research paper questions about cancer, people.
The results can be collected as a table of de prothesiste, results and/or a graph or pictogram. Questionnaire#8217;s) can help you design your product because they may tell you what the market wants. –A number of possible options is given e.g. What’s your favourite vegetable? –This type restricts the answer to 6 stages of critical thinking development, a Yes or No e.g. Do you like broccoli? –This type of question allows to interviewee to ecole, answer in more detail. These type of questions can be useful but can make it difficult for the results to be displayed graphically e.g. David Letterman! What do you think the benefits of eating wholemeal pasta are?
–This allows the answer to be given according to de prothesiste, how strongly someone feels e.g.: Do you think that pasta is research paper questions about cancer a good source of energy? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8. Present your results in dentaire graphical form where possible. This is a good opportunity to use your ICT skills. Newspaper! On your results page make some conclusions. What do your results tell you? How will it help you in your design? Use the #8220;findings from#8221; box for a final summary of what you#8217;ve learned. De Prothesiste! e.g. From the question below we can infer that the most popular fruit is raspberry, this helps with my design as I now know that this would be a popular flavour to of critical thinking, incorporate into my product . Ecole De Prothesiste! 7. Research Paper Questions! Analysis of Research and Design Specification.
Research Analysis needs to de prothesiste dentaire, summarise all the things you have learned from your research section. Essentially putting all your #8220;findings from#8221; together. The analysis of your research should lead you on research paper cancer, to your design specification as follows: A design specification list of requirements that your designs should aim to fulfill. This will be used to measure the ecole de prothesiste, success of your final design so you must always design towards these limitations. All the criteria must come from the results of your research (otherwise your results have no value and you will have wasted a big number of marks). Write your specification points in preventing cyber bullying full sentences, not in note form. Explain them if necessary, say how they’ve been decided and why (relate to your research).
For example: The price of the meal should be between ?1.50 and ?2.75 as this was the range of prices I found when I did my supermarket research. Ecole De Prothesiste! To avoid having too many restrictions in define literature research paper your specification give a range so that your designs can meet the specification more easily. For example: The results of my consumer survey show that the type of ecole de prothesiste dentaire, dish should be continental. David Clippings! This can include Indian, Chinese, Mexican, etc. De Prothesiste! Your initial design ideas are an opportunity to explore possible solutions that meet the design brief that has been set and the specification.
You should produce 12 initial ideas. Annotation should be added to explain your ideas in detail and depth. Annotations should include: name of product description of product weight size (h,w,d) appearance (colour) ingredients (inc. functions and nutrition) sensory vocabulary (i.e. sweet, chewy, crunchy, soft, hot, spicy etc.) comment on positive/negative health benefits allergies/special diets notes on decoration or finishing techniques (e.g. piping, glazing, grilling) standard components used preparation skills/techniques involved in manufacture special equipment required to manufacture (i.e. pasta machine) When producing your design ideas you should be as imaginative as possible, use your research carefully and design new and innovative solutions to the problem set, linking them to the target market identified. 9. Essayer! Design Ideas/Recipe Trials. quantities of de prothesiste dentaire, ingredients (inc. Cyber Bullying! functions) skills used equipment used specification points product meets photo cost evaluation development ideas sensory evaluation (star profile) Peeling Slicing Dicing Grating Marinating Coating Glazing Bread Making Sauces Pastry Making Pasta Making Grilling. Frying Baking Stirfrying Roasting Microwaving Boiling Simmering Poaching Steaming Rubbing in Method Melting Method Creaming Whisking. This is a more detailed specification, usually written when the final product has been decided upon. It may be given to a chef in a test kitchen and then will undergo sensory testing before the ecole dentaire, decision is made to produce it on 6 stages, a large scale. #8220;The pastry will be rolled out to 15cm squares.#8221; #8220;It will contain mushrooms, sweetcorn, cheese sauce and chicken.#8221;
#8220;It will cost between ?1 and ?1.50p.#8221; Here are some ideas of what to include to produce a successful specification#8230; Describe colour, texture, flavour, aroma etc#8230; Specific dimensions (with a sketch) for de prothesiste instance, weight, size, shape. Specific qualities of ingredients for example, percentage of fat in meat, size of cherries. Names of ingredients with weights and bullying essays proportions to use for example, #8220;200g butter, 450g flaked haddock.#8221; Specific tolerances for ecole de prothesiste example, thickness of pastry, viscosity (runniness) of sauce. The size to which ingredients must be cut for example, the exact shape and size of pieces of fruit and vegetables, the nozzle size for mincing meat, the slicing grade for carrots, the grating size for cheese. Types of cooking methods and de cheveux cooking temperatures with critical control points. Cooling times and methods. Finishing techniques for example, #8220;Brush with whole egg glaze before baking#8221;, #8220;Fill centre of cake with fresh whipped cream to a thickness of 2cm#8221;, #8220;Decorate with six slices of ecole, tomato and one teaspoonful of mixed herbs before cooking#8221;, #8220;Cover surface of biscuit with white rolled icing to paper, a thickness of 0.5cm.#8221; Specific details of packaging requirements for example, microwavable dish with sealed film covering in crushproof sleeve.#8221; Wording for the label, which will provide information for ecole de prothesiste dentaire the consumer about ingredients, nutrition, the name of the 6 stages of critical thinking development, product, storage and cooking/reheating instructions, shelf life, etc.
Sometimes a photograph is used to help a manufacturer to meet that specification. This would normally still need additional written information, but is useful in large-scale catering where a meal is being assembled on a plate from bought components. Identifiey potential allergy risks. Ecole De Prothesiste Dentaire! Once you have analysed your trial products and have a good idea of what could be developed into research questions cancer, a final design you can begin to experiment and ecole develop your ideas further. To gain higher marks you should look to develop your idea by looking at:
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BTS prothsiste dentaire - L Etudiant
Georges Bernanos, Monsieur Ouine (1943) C’ est le dernier « roman » de Bernanos, mais aussi celui qu’il a porte le plus longtemps (de decembre 1930 a mai 1940). Ecole De Prothesiste Dentaire. Cette ?uvre est deconcertante car elle semble relever de plusieurs genres differents : roman d’investigation psychologique comme pourrait le laisser penser son titre, recit sociologique, roman policier, conte pour adultes en raison de ses invraisemblances et de ses personnages symboliques… De fait Bernanos y fourvoie son lecteur en le lancant sur des pistes qu’il abandonne en cours de route. Letterman. Tout semble fonctionner selon le principe de l’enigme comme si Bernanos cherchait a inventer une forme de narration nouvelle dans la litterature occidentale : une gigantesque parabole labyrinthique dans laquelle le lecteur perseverant est invite a trouver un sens cache. De Prothesiste. A la maniere du prologue de Sous le soleil de Satan , Bernanos depeint a plat un village possede par le Mal. Virtuellement. Pourtant, a la difference de ce roman, le point de vue surnaturel n’apparait quasiment plus, le versant de la saintete est gomme. Dentaire. Ainsi le lecteur est-il entraine vers les terres froides du desespoir dans une lente descente vers l’inanite et l’enfermement infernal. Research Paper About Cancer. Monsieur Ouine devient une espece de recit contemplatif glacial sur le vide terrifiant de la civilisation moderne.
Le recit commence dans la maison de Steeny, un jeune adolescent, en butte a la tyrannie equivoque de Miss sa gouvernante et au detachement de sa mere. « Maman est une femme sensible, c’est-a-dire admirablement defendue contre les fortes deceptions de la vie, impenetrable. De Prothesiste Dentaire. » Michelle Dorsel a fait de sa douceur un rempart contre la durete de la vie. Research Term. Elle a decide de ne plus souffrir en se refugiant dans sa villa et en ne donnant plus prise aux assauts du mal. Ecole De Prothesiste. Sa douceur est tres proche de l’indifference egoiste, une capacite etonnante qui considere seulement « sa vie, sa petite vie, sa vie a couvrir, a defendre ! ». Steeny est un cousin de Mouchette : a l’oree de sa vie adulte, il recherche une existence autrement exaltante que l’education anglaise etouffante que lui dispensent sa mere et sa gouvernante. Une Couleur. Il ne pense qu’a s’enfuir. Steeny est en fait le surnom de Philippe qui porte le prenom de son pere tot disparu a la guerre peu apres son mariage.
Ce sobriquet trahit a la fois l’anglomanie de sa mere et surtout sa repulsion pour les hommes dont les passions menacent sa tranquillite. Ecole Dentaire. En rebaptisant son fils, elle a implicitement essaye de conjurer les forces contraires et d’eloigner a jamais le souvenir d’un mari encombrant, « l’ennemi de tout repos, le tyran, un autre Philippe ». Apparait alors un autre personnage important, Ginette de Nereis, chatelaine de Wambescourt, surnommee « Jambe-de-Laine ». Define Review. C’est une femme mure, outrageusement fardee, habillee de noir a l’ancienne mode. Dentaire. Elle parait folle. 6 Stages Of Critical Thinking. Elle partage avec la mere de Steeny d’avoir ete bannie de la bonne societe de Fenouille. Ecole De Prothesiste. Fille d’un pauvre pharmacien, elle a jete son devolu sur Anthelme de Nereis, un joyeux vivant transforme en intellectuel artiste au contact de M. David Letterman Clippings. Ouine. Ecole De Prothesiste Dentaire. En effet Anthelme a adopte un parasite, M. 6 Stages Of Critical Thinking. Ouine, un ancien professeur de langues vivantes tuberculeux.
Depuis Anthelme est tombe malade, « Ginette court les routes derriere sa grande jument normande, on ecole de prothesiste, la croirait poursuivie par des spectres. 6 Stages Development. » C’est justement cette Jambe-de-Laine que Steeny a suivie. Ecole De Prothesiste Dentaire. Il a feint de se croire enleve par elle, mais en fait il a choisi de rompre avec la solitude de son milieu familial, il est « sorti de l’enfance ». C’est donc chez Ginette de Nereis que Steeny va faire la connaissance de M. De Cheveux. Ouine, tandis qu’Anthelme est entre en agonie dans la puanteur effroyable d’une gangrene diabetique. Ecole. N’ayant pas vu le temps passer, mais surtout pris dans les filets du professeur, Steeny choisit en fait l’aventure d’une nuit hors de chez lui. De Cheveux. Il abuse du madere du professeur jusqu’a entrer en etat d’ebriete. Nous retrouvons Steeny avec le petit-fils Devandomme, jeune boiteux hypersensible. De Prothesiste. C’est l’occasion pour Bernanos de nous presenter une famille rustre.
Au cours de son entrevue avec son ami, Steeny relate sa repugnante rencontre avec Anthelme. Preventing Essays. Le moribond lui confie sous le sceau du secret que son pere n’est pas mort. Ecole De Prothesiste. Est-ce l’elucubration d’un alcoolique ou la denonciation du mensonge qui pourrit la bonne societe ? Philippe en est ebranle au point de manquer tout de suite a la parole donnee en partageant la revelation avec son ami. Surgit a l’improviste Jambe-de-Laine qui demande avec autorite un service a Steeny. Define Literature. La grande jument laissee sans surveillance bouscule sa maitresse et menace de la blesser. De Prothesiste. Vivement, Steeny se precipite a la tete de l’attelage et contraint le puissant animal a reculer. Essayer Une Couleur De Cheveux Virtuellement. Le jeune homme prouve ainsi son courage et sa presence d’esprit. Ecole De Prothesiste. Au cours du domptage, Ginette laisse echapper un colis qu’elle voulait cacher : un petit paletot de velours brun. Sans transition, le recit passe dans une salle de la mairie transformee en morgue pour accueillir le cadavre devetu du jeune valet des Malicorne.
Le paletot dissimule par Ginette a appartenu a l’adolescent. Development. La chatelaine vient a la mairie deposer contre son pensionnaire, M. Ecole De Prothesiste. Ouine, affirmant qu’elle a trouve les vetements chez lui et qu’elle l’a vu sortir au cours de la nuit du meurtre. About Cancer. Le medecin est peu porte a croire ce temoignage car il connait les preventions de Jambe-de-Laine a l’encontre du professeur : elle adresse regulierement au procureur des lettres anonymes qui mettent en cause son locataire. De Prothesiste. Cependant Mme Malicorne, l’employeur du vacher, refute la valeur de preuve des vetements en affirmant que le jeune homme ne les portait pas le soir du crime. Alors que Steeny reve d’une vie extraordinaire sur la route qui sollicite son imagination, il est heurte par l’attelage de Jambe-de-Laine.
Un bucheron qui a tout vu pretend que la chatelaine a deliberement conduit sa voiture sur l’adolescent. Essayer Une Couleur Virtuellement. La voiture s’est brisee en allant percuter le talus. Ecole De Prothesiste. L’adolescent, apres avoir recupere de cet attentat, dit son fait a la vieille folle blessee, puis accepte de la raccompagner chez elle. Letterman. Au cours de la soiree, Ginette brosse un portrait ambigu de son pensionnaire, confirme que M. Dentaire. Ouine est sorti au cours de la nuit du meurtre et demande a Steeny de garder le secret sur cette revelation. Eugene Demenou est rentre chez lui, la nuit du meurtre, trempe jusqu’aux os apres avoir patauge plusieurs heures dans la riviere. Literature Review. A la suite d’un temoignage a charge, il est soupconne par la police d’etre le meurtrier du petit vacher. Revenu chez lui, Steeny affronte Daisy, sa gouvernante anglaise.
Dans un etat proche de l’ivresse, Philippe ne peut supporter que cette femme s’interpose pour proteger le confort egoiste de sa mere. Ecole De Prothesiste. Le jeune adolescent qui vient de s’emanciper se voit bafoue dans sa nouvelle liberte virile. David Letterman Clippings. Ayant garde de son enfance toute proche une intuition tres sure, il perce les motivations de la jeune femme. Dentaire. Il percoit confusement qu’une enfance malheureuse ou elle a ete victime d’abus lui fait hair les hommes. Cyber Essays. Il sent que Daisy entretient une relation equivoque avec sa mere. Ecole De Prothesiste Dentaire. Il sait donc qu’il est un dangereux rival pour elle. Essayer Une Couleur De Cheveux. La scene brutale qui suit revele toute l’ambivalence du comportement de Steeny partage entre un secret desir sensuel et une revolte contre la mechancete sournoise de la gouvernante.
Il la defie, la bouscule. Ecole De Prothesiste Dentaire. Son adversaire, qui joue son va-tout pour garder sa confortable situation, lui revele que son pere n’est pas mort et qu’on l’a retrouve dans un asile. Bullying Essays. Elle espere ainsi ec?urer l’adolescent en lui montrant que sa confiance a ete abusee, et ainsi le pousser a s’eloigner du domicile maternel. Ecole De Prothesiste. Possede par la colere, il tente de l’etrangler. Term Paper. Mobiles secrets, pulsions inavouables, mensonge deletere apparaissent au grand jour. Le vieux Devandomme rencontre son gendre, mais ne peut aller au bout de sa demande : lui conseiller de laver l’affront en se donnant la mort. De Prothesiste. De retour chez lui, desillusionne par son petit-fils infirme, il abandonne pour un moment orgueil et durete de c?ur. M. Research Paper About Cancer. Ouine est alle rendre visite au nouveau cure desservant le village.
En le plaignant et en le desesperant tour a tour, il cherche a obtenir les lettres anonymes que le pretre a recues. Ecole Dentaire. Cette clairvoyance et le succes de la demarche en disent long sur le pouvoir occulte du professeur. Helene Devandomme a accepte de suivre son mari dans une des huttes ou il se repose de ses activites de braconnier. Essayer De Cheveux Virtuellement. Elle se donne la mort et tue en meme temps Eugene. Le village s’est reuni pour enterrer le petit vacher. Ecole. Tous esperent secretement mettre aussi en terre le mal qui est brutalement apparu au grand jour. Term Paper. Au cours de la ceremonie d’absoute, le pretre surprend son auditoire en declarant la paroisse morte et en refusant de benir le cadavre, symbole du peche collectif du village. Ecole De Prothesiste. Il reproche aux villageois la double mort qui a suivi le meurtre et dont l’origine se situe dans la mechancete fonciere du groupe. 6 Stages Of Critical. Les haines accumulees par les villageois se cristallisent desormais sur le cure. Dentaire. La glissade du pretre, puis le discours incoherent et pleurnichard du maire font tourner la ceremonie a une joyeuse confusion.
L’apparition de Jambe-de-Laine qui excite la foule par des propos et des attitudes inadaptes provoque le transfert de haine rancuniere sur la chatelaine. Term. Dans le desordre qui s’ensuit, Ginette est blessee par la jacquerie, puis se laissera mourir a l’hopital ou elle a ete conduite. Pendant une passe d’armes entre le cure et le medecin venus rendre visite au maire, Arsene s’est esquive en pyjama et en pantoufles malgre le temps froid et pluvieux. De Prothesiste Dentaire. Il est alle se refugier a la cure pour rencontrer le pretre. Paper. Apres lui avoir confie la nostalgie desesperee de sa purete perdue, il s’enfuit et se donne la mort. La fin du roman rapporte la longue agonie de M. Ecole De Prothesiste. Ouine. Paper. Steeny vient tous les jours tenir compagnie a son maitre. Ecole Dentaire. La mechancete du village est toujours a l’?uvre meme en ce lieu abandonne : la vieille sage-femme, Mme Marchal, qui sert de garde-malade au tuberculeux hydropique, etablit la chronique du village, rapporte au jeune homme tous les ragots qui courent sur le compte du professeur, maintenant que l’approche de sa mort le rend inoffensif. La fin se produit alors que Steeny s’est enivre avec le porto de son maitre. Research Paper. L’ultime lecon est un face-a-face, melange d’ironie et de pitie, de defi et de supplication. De Prothesiste Dentaire. Il y est question non de jardin secret, mais de « petite armoire a poisons » interieure.
Helas tout est desormais desesperement vide, insipide et d’une neutralite inhumaine. Define Literature Research Paper. Ces divagations sur le rien, sur le retournement de l’enveloppe corporelle s’accompagnent d’un rire « limoneux » qui serait la marque de la derision demoniaque si Satan etait reconnu par ses affides. Ecole. M. Research Paper Cancer. Ouine trepasse seul tandis que Steeny cuve son porto. De Prothesiste. Le jeune homme reprend ses esprits en presence de la sage-femme et du medecin tandis que M. Newspaper Clippings. Ouine s’efface progressivement dans les plis de son suaire. Ce roman brosse en premier lieu l’incapacite des elites a gerer une crise locale qu’elles n’ont pas vu venir et a laquelle elles ont peu ou prou contribue. Jambe-de-Laine est le pendant feminin du marquis de Cadignan du Soleil de Satan . Dentaire. La chatelaine est accusee par la rumeur publique de poursuivre les jeunes gens de ses assiduites deplacees. Of Critical Thinking. Medisance ou calomnie ? Il apparait neanmoins que Ginette s’interesse de pres a Steeny sans que l’on puisse en connaitre le mobile veritable. Ecole De Prothesiste Dentaire. En outre, elle partage avec Cadignan l’inutilite de son existence. Virtuellement. Sa passion a elle est la conduite effrenee de son attelage emmene par sa monstrueuse jument comme sortie de l’Apocalypse . Un maire inefficace abime dans sa culpabilite.
Le maire de Fenouille, l’ancien brasseur Arsene, est un bon vivant a l’appendice nasal hypertrophie dans sa forme comme dans les sensations qu’il lui procure. Ecole Dentaire. Le medecin a identifie que ce nez difforme etait chez lui « un des organes du plaisir ». Research Paper Cancer. De fait le premier magistrat est un amateur invetere de jeunes filles. Ecole. Se voyant dans sa vieillesse comme un cochon, il est pris d’une frenesie pour etriller sa vieille peau. Essayer Virtuellement. Finalement, le maire est prisonnier du scientisme medical qui le felicite de ses cures naturelles mais lui interdit ainsi la liberation par l’aveu. Ecole Dentaire. La sollicitude du docteur ne fait que reveiller le doute fondamental qui taraude le magistrat municipal : « meme ceint de l’echarpe tricolore, toujours le gros garcon avide et craintif, pareil a un marmot geant ». Cyber Bullying Essays. Le maire est en recherche permanente d’honorabilite. Ecole. Sa magistrature lui donne l’impression d’etre protege des critiques de ses concitoyens, c’est pourquoi il en veut tant au petit vacher mort qui menace cet edifice de respectabilite. Cyber. Il est vrai que le pauvre homme est depasse par les evenements. Apres le meurtre du vacher, son incompetence se combine au regret de sa luxure passee.
Le malheureux se recure la peau et raconte ses aventures abjectes a son epouse qui voudrait bien lui pardonner mais se trouve ec?uree par l’etalage de ces obscenites. Ecole Dentaire. Ce sentiment de culpabilite se confond avec son hyperesthesie olfactive : « D’ailleurs, tout le monde pue, les hommes, les femmes, les betes, la terre, l’eau, l’air que je respire, tout, – la vie entiere pue ». Bullying. Cette pestilence universelle a son origine au c?ur de l’homme, voila ce qu’a compris indistinctement le maire : « A mon age, on ecole de prothesiste, devrait pouvoir curer sa memoire ; juste comme tu cures ton puits, tout pareil. Bullying Essays. La vase qui seche au soleil, plus de secrets. De Prothesiste. Mes secrets, j’en veux plus de mes secrets, ma fille ! » Sa recherche d’un salut possible dans une confession publique echoue lamentablement lors des obseques sous les quolibets de ses concitoyens. 6 Stages Thinking Development. Le malheur du maire est de croire que ses fautes sont impardonnables et d’etre considere comme un malade par son entourage. De Prothesiste Dentaire. Lorsque le cure lui propose de l’absoudre apres l’avoir entendu en confession, il decline la proposition par fatalisme, mefiance et incapacite a assumer sa vie passee.
C’est a « l’incurie du medecin de Fenouille » que le petit-fils Devandomme, boiteux hypersensible doit son infirmite comme Hippolyte devait la sienne a Charles Bovary. Cyber Essays. Ce docteur Malepine, scientiste obtus, ne reussit pas mieux avec le maire dont il cherche a soigner la culpabilite diffuse par des explications physiologiques et des traitements superficiels. Dentaire. Il est vrai que pour ce pseudo-savant l’ame n’existe pas. 6 Stages Of Critical Development. Il provoque ainsi une mutilation irreversible de la nature humaine chez le malheureux edile qu’il conduit au desespoir. Ecole Dentaire. « Vous faites du scrupule, mon cher, comme beaucoup de vieux pecheurs, au tournant de la soixantaine. Essays. Bref, il y a quelque chose qui ne va pas, la, au creux de l’epigastre, pas vrai ? Enfin, un peu plus bas, si vous voulez, au plexus, quoi, au siege de l’ame… Un gros reliquat d’images polissonnes pas trop faciles a eliminer desormais, du moins comme autrefois, hein ! sacre farceur ! Alors, on ecole de prothesiste dentaire, reve d’innocence, de purete, de rachat – que sais-je ? des betises. Essayer Virtuellement. Un vicieux est toujours idealiste, retenez ca, mon bonhomme… » Tout est affaire d’humeurs, de chimie, de physiologie. Ecole Dentaire. Ce qu’on appelle l’ame n’est qu’une emanation de la matiere. Au cours d’une ultime rencontre chez le maire, le pretre accuse la medecine et son psychologisme d’etre la cause des maux actuels. Paper. En niant le surnaturel, le scientisme va faire naitre des monstres inconnus dont le maire est un signe avant-coureur : « J’aurais voulu seulement expliquer que le pauvre n’a desormais plus de mots pour nommer ce qui lui manque, et si ces mots lui font defaut, c’est que vous les lui avez voles ».
Avec M. Ecole. Ouine, Bernanos nous trace le portrait de l’intellectuel irresponsable. Define Review. Nous y reviendrons en detail plus loin. Le clerge n’echappe pas a la critique bernanosienne. Ecole De Prothesiste Dentaire. La premiere derobade est enregistree lors de l’agonie d’Anthelme, quand, sollicite pour extremiser le mourant, « M. David. l’abbe Doucedame n’a pas cru devoir en courir le risque… ». Ecole De Prothesiste Dentaire. Ensuite le pretre commet une autre faute en remettant a M. Research Paper About. Ouine les lettres anonymes qui denoncent sa vie personnelle dans son ministere. De Prothesiste Dentaire. Bien que ces courriers ne concernent que lui, il trahit symboliquement le secret de la confession ou la confiance absolue qu’un fidele, meme calomniateur, est en droit d’attendre d’un pretre. Au cours de ses etudes au seminaire, il a ete si peu prepare a affronter le monde secularise et defigure par le peche que lui aussi renonce au surnaturel comme a une illusion. Define Literature Review Research. Ce clerc souffre de sa solitude et peche contre l’Esprit dans son manquement a la vertu d’esperance : il ne croit plus que ce monde defigure par le peche est sauve par le sacrifice christique, que Dieu a deja vaincu le Mal et la mort. De Prothesiste. Il est desespere par l’abandon de sa paroisse. 6 Stages Of Critical Thinking Development. Bernanos, le poilu chretien anticlerical, le fait deserter. De Prothesiste. Le pauvre pretre refuse le combat, abandonne le service des ames. Cyber Bullying Essays. A sa maniere, par son non serviam , il rejoint Satan. Ecole. Son refus demobilisateur non seulement ne cree pas le choc salutaire dans sa paroisse, mais la conduit a un dechainement de forces malefiques.
Aucun notable ou responsable n’est donc exempt de critiques. Preventing Essays. Pis, ils portent solidairement la responsabilite du pourrissement souterrain du village. Bernanos utilise plusieurs thematiques pour decrire la contree de Fenouille liee par son malefice. Le mal est d’abord symbolise par ces eaux mortes et impures. Ce coin de terre est arrose par des pluies froides et abondantes. De Prothesiste Dentaire. On ne peut s’empecher d’y voir une allusion au Deluge de la Genese , lorsque la Terre pecheresse est punie par la montee des flots. Research Paper. Les sols et les murs sont gorges d’eau. Ecole De Prothesiste. Le chateau de Ginette qui abrite M. Define Literature Review Paper. Ouine, mais aussi l’eglise, suintent un liquide glacial et mortuaire.
Cette humidite entretient une atmosphere putride, favorisant moisissures et salpetre 1 . Ecole De Prothesiste. Le pouvoir de nuisance de ces eaux cachees est immense. Term. Elles corrompent et delitent les batiments, elles sont sans doute a l’origine de la tuberculose de M. De Prothesiste Dentaire. Ouine. Paper About Cancer. Notons que le corps du professeur est envahi et ballonne par ces liquides impurs. Le mal est ensuite evoque par la boue resultant de ces eaux qui se melangent a la terre. Cette glaise imbibee presente tous les attributs du peche : la succion ou l’attirance irrepressible, la glissade ou l’abandon a la tentation, la maculation ou l’impurete morale. C’est au moment ou le cure refuse d’exercer son service pastoral qu’il glisse au cimetiere et souille son surplis. Bernanos puise largement dans la symbolique de la Genese . Ecole. Dans ce livre, Dieu cree l’homme a partir d’un peu de poussiere. Literature Review Research Paper. A aucun moment, cette terre n’est melangee a de l’eau. Ecole. L’homme originel n’est que terre et souffle divin 2 . Preventing Cyber Bullying Essays. La boue est donc une image de l’homme defigure par le peche, de l’homme qui a laisse entrer en lui le Mal. Ecole De Prothesiste Dentaire. Mais on cyber bullying essays, peut aussi avancer une autre explication.
Dans la Genese , Dieu separe les eaux de la terre. Ecole Dentaire. Il opere une ?uvre de differenciation pour aboutir au chef-d’?uvre de la creation, l’homme. Paper. Quand Bernanos insiste sur la boue, il pense au chaos qui precede la constitution de l’univers. De Prothesiste Dentaire. La boue est ainsi un retour a l’avant indistinct. Essayer Une Couleur. Le Mal est le chemin inverse de l’acte createur, il est inversion des valeurs, melange, confusion . Avec la boue, Bernanos nous invite a regarder cette terre qui devient menacante, ces sols qui dissimulent un danger sournois et omnipresent. Ecole Dentaire. Cette eau glaciale qui remonte est qualifiee de funebre ou mortuaire. Research Paper About. Ces exfiltrations ont ete en contact avec les morts. De Prothesiste Dentaire. Bernanos n’evoque pas l’au-dela chretien rempli d’esperance, mais plutot les fantomes paiens qui viennent inquieter les vivants. Preventing Bullying. Ces morts appartiennent plus a un univers primitif magique qu’au monde surnaturel. De Prothesiste. Il est curieux de noter que cette terre du Nord n’engendre ni vie ni recolte, mais pourriture et mort.
La boue est ainsi le signe de cette fermentation souterraine que Bernanos note a plusieurs reprises. D’ailleurs le romancier livre explicitement cette reference comme une des causes de la desesperante situation qui pese sur Fenouille. Thinking. Le petit prophete Guillaume evoque ces esprits fantomatiques de la Grande Guerre qui agissent aux frontieres du monde visible, ces disparus inapaises auxquels on ecole dentaire, n’a pas rendu les derniers hommages. Questions. Il est d’abord question d’un heritage qui n’a pas ete legue, d’une solution de continuite dans la transmission des valeurs. De Prothesiste Dentaire. Mais aussi d’un refus de reconnaitre le sacrifice des Poilus si bien que cette injustice criante faite a leur memoire pourrait bien appeler un chatiment : « Le desordre universel, s’ils en etaient cause ? […] Moi, je les vois tres bien a la frontiere qu’ils ont franchie trop tot, malgre eux, […] les coups qu’ils portent ebranlent le monde ». Preventing Cyber Essays. Guillaume percoit clairement la consequence du deni de memoire adresse aux heros de la grande boucherie dans la deviance de Steeny, dans son « idee d’un heroisme a rebours … », dans son admiration pour M. Dentaire. Ouine, dans cette inversion des valeurs propre a l’univers satanique. Le peche omnipresent, les sept peches capitaux. Ce petit monde de Fenouille barbotte dans son mal comme dans un bouillon de culture ou vibrionnent tous les peches. Eugene Demenou, le braconnier est un paresseux, non parce qu’il est un faineant, mais parce qu’il vit selon ses impulsions. Newspaper. Il n’exerce aucune activite reconnue par la societe, s’active seulement en cas de besoin, vend ses prises pour se procurer alcool et tabac ou pour se livrer a ses ribotes. Ecole De Prothesiste Dentaire. Eugene vit en homme qui ne supporte aucune contrainte. Essayer Virtuellement. C’est un asocial que le groupe a rejete.
Ce peche est illustre par le vieux Martial Devandomme. De Prothesiste Dentaire. Ce « paysan orgueilleux » se considere comme le meilleur veterinaire du pays, se tient a l’ecart du village, ne veut rien devoir a personne, cache soigneusement deux hontes secretes : le declin de ses forces et surtout le mariage de sa fille avec le « manant » Eugene Demenou. David Letterman Clippings. Cette attitude hautaine et solitaire prend ses racines dans une vieille anecdote familiale batie autour d’hasardeuses similitudes et d’allegations jamais elucidees, fournies par un etrange voyageur. Dentaire. Les honorables paysans, bons vivants, auraient ete la branche spoliee d’un aleatoire marquisat. Term. Depuis la fievre nobiliaire a genereusement accole la particule au patronyme tandis que s’en est allee l’insouciance des aieux. De Prothesiste. Marque par son pere, joyeux luron debauche, mais soucieux de sa dignite et serviable avec son entourage, Martial ne peut supporter l’idee d’avoir un gendre meurtrier. Paper Questions About. Aussi a-t-il imagine de le rencontrer pour lui demander de laver l’affront en mettant fin a ses jours. De Prothesiste. Il entend ainsi assumer la honte faite a son nom et defier le village qu’il meprise, esperant obliger chacun a marquer, lors de ses obseques, le respect posthume qu’il s’estime du. Paper. L’orgueil est ainsi homicide.
Au meme moment, le vieillard ne peut admettre le declin de ses forces, il est tout entier dans une image dechue, insoutenable. Ecole De Prothesiste. Cependant son echec dans sa demarche aupres de son gendre, puis la desillusion que lui assene son petit-fils infirme lui permettent d’oublier un moment son orgueil en pleurant. Term Paper. Sous le regard de l’ange, le vieil homme a accepte d’etre ce qu’il est, un vieillard demuni. De Prothesiste. Mais il va affronter la huee muette du village en se rendant aux obseques du petit vacher : « L’orgueil entretenu tant d’annees au plus secret de son ame, cet orgueil si parfaitement incorpore a sa vie, a sa substance, a la substance de sa vie, qu’il n’eut su peut-etre encore lui donner son vrai nom, l’orgueil venait de consommer en lui jusqu’au remords. Research Paper Questions Cancer. L’assurance de sa parfaite solitude, de l’espece de damnation ou il etait tombe, ebranle a cette minute si fortement ses nerfs qu’il essaie gauchement d’exprimer pour lui seul, par quelque image, un sentiment presque inconcevable. Ecole. Il ressemble a un vieil arbre pourri, plein de sciure, pense-t-il le temps d’un eclair. Term Paper. Puis il hausse les epaules et s’avance hardiment vers son destin. Dentaire. » Au cours de la ceremonie des obseques du vacher, son orgueil lui donne le courage d’affirmer l’innocence de son gendre.
Steeny aussi est habite par l’orgueil. Research Term. Il ne peut supporter que le bucheron ait pu etre temoin de sa peur apres avoir ete bouscule par l’attelage de Mme de Nereis. Ecole Dentaire. De meme Ginette « blesse sauvagement son orgueil » en etant temoin de sa faiblesse dans les instants qui suivent sa chute. Research Paper. C’est ce meme orgueil juvenile que va manipuler Daisy pour eloigner Steeny de sa mere. Meme le pretre s’accuse de l’orgueil solitaire. Cette avidite et ces exces de l’appetit paraissent surtout sous la forme de l’ivrognerie.
Tous les villageois boivent plus que de coutume jusqu’a perdre le controle d’eux-memes. De Prothesiste Dentaire. Biere, bistouille et genievre enfievrent les esprits lors des obseques du petit vacher. Research. Dans la bonne societe on de prothesiste dentaire, recourt au vin de Madere ou au porto. Paper. Steeny, desireux de se montrer homme, s’enivre a deux reprises sous le regard goguenard de son maitre. Ce peche de la chair, ce desir erratique des corps habite plusieurs personnages qui, bien que maries, se laissent aller a une concupiscence animale.
On le releve chez le maire comme chez le gendre du vieux Devandomme, Eugene Demenou. De Prothesiste. Ginette de Nereis est connue pour sa traque des jeunes adolescents. Research Term. Elle reconnait devant Steeny, a demi-mots, qu’elle a desire beaucoup d’hommes. De Prothesiste. Cet appetit desordonne l’a conduite a eprouver repugnance et honte. Preventing Bullying. Elle se punit par la haine de son propre corps qui se confond avec celle qu’elle eprouve pour M. De Prothesiste Dentaire. Ouine. Essayer Une Couleur De Cheveux. La luxure chez Ginette et Arsene debouche sur l’autopunition. De Prothesiste. Au lieu d’ouvrir sur la plenitude d’un desir satisfait, elle conduit a un masochisme destructeur. Le cure constate combien le peche de luxure attriste l’individu qui s’y livre. Research Term Paper. « Plus que l’obsession de l’impur, craignez donc la nostalgie de la purete.
Il vous plait de reconnaitre dans la sourde revolte contre le desir, la crainte entretenue depuis tant de siecles par les religions, servantes sournoises du legislateur et du juge. Ecole. Mais l’amour de la purete, voila le mystere ! L’amour chez les plus nobles, et chez les autres la tristesse, le regret, l’indefinissable et poignante amertume plus chere au debauche que la souillure elle-meme. Review Paper. » Cette culpabilite que voudrait gommer l’immoralisme agnostique debouche sur la punition autodestructrice. On peut penser que Ginette s’est donne la mort en provoquant deliberement la foule hostile. De Prothesiste. Quant au maire, son ADIEU trace sur le mur ne laisse guere de doute sur ses intentions de se suicider. L’avarice apparait d’abord comme le pouvoir inconsidere de l’argent. Essayer Une Couleur Virtuellement. Arsene, le maire, confie au docteur sa jouissance extreme d’avoir porte sur lui, a meme la peau, « un portefeuille tout plein, tout rond, plein a faire peter la couture ». Dentaire. L’argent n’est plus un moyen de se procurer necessites et plaisirs futiles. Preventing Cyber. Il est devenu lui-meme necessite et plaisir. Dentaire. « Voila qui vous chauffe le c?ur d’un homme. Preventing Bullying Essays. […] Il avait pris ma chaleur, il etait a moi comme ma peau. Dentaire. » Cet argent est devenu une assurance secrete contre la peur et le doute qui menacent l’eternel grand enfant. Plusieurs personnages agissent sous l’emprise de la colere. Of Critical Thinking Development. L’une des manifestations les plus caracteristiques est celle qui saisit Steeny lorsque, rentre chez lui, il doit affronter sa vieille et sournoise ennemie, sa gouvernante anglaise. Ecole. Dans un etat second proche de l’ivresse, il dechaine sa violence meurtriere, se rue, cogne et etrangle.
Puis il n’a plus de souvenir de sa furie sauf une « tache noire » qui flotte au fond de sa conscience. Preventing. La colere est bestiale, fait surgir un vieux fond instinctif mauvais et brutal. Dentaire. Elle aussi est homicide. L’envie est le vice le plus couramment partage, il prend la forme du desir mimetique. Une Couleur. Ainsi le maire affuble de son nez hypertrophie voudrait etre un anonyme : « Faut-il decouvrir a soixante ans passes qu’on n’est pas comme les autres, scandale des scandales, effroyable damnation des imbeciles ! » Steeny incarne a l’inverse l’autre forme de l’envie : ce desir d’originalite a tout prix qui est la forme d’une jouissance effrenee de la vie. Ecole. Au sortir de l’enfance, il a rejete son idealisme et ses heros livresques, aide dans ce travail de destruction par le mercantilisme et la trivialite de ceux qui ont exploite le premier conflit mondial. Research Term. Il est devenu un jeune fauve pret a tout devorer, pret a se renier pour vivre, comme Mouchette, une existence hors du commun. De Prothesiste Dentaire. Son programme de vie, qui est celui d’un chasseur, revolte son jeune ami Guillaume qui percoit l’?uvre malefique de l’inquietant Ouine. « La vie pour nous, ca ne doit pas etre un but, c’est une proie. Research. Et pas une seule, des milliers et des milliers de proies, autant que d’heures. Ecole De Prothesiste. Il s’agit de n’en rater aucune, avant la derniere, la derniere des dernieres, celle qui nous echappe toujours ». Cyber Bullying Essays. Steeny n’est pas tres regardant sur ce desir d’emancipation « puisque l’attend quelque part une aventure faite pour lui, et un maitre ».
Steeny a vu en effet dans Ouine le heros moderne : « Tu sais, parmi tant de gens qui se ressemblent, dont la ressemblance est ridicule, odieuse, obscene, – tous pareils, quelle ignominie ! – on ecole, rencontre parfois des types, on define review paper, pense : « Celui-la, c’est Rastignac, ou Marsay, ou Julien Sorel », – mais on de prothesiste, sent presque aussitot que ce n’est pas vrai, qu’on est en train de jouer avec soi-meme, avec son reve comme un chaton avec sa queue. Paper. Tandis que M. De Prothesiste Dentaire. Ouine… Tiens, ce mot de heros, – quand il fixe sur toi son regard dormant, son regard qui a l’air de flotter au ras d’une eau grise – tu ne pourrais pas le prononcer sans rire. Research. Et pourtant… Car nos heros, eux aussi, que veux-tu, ils se ressemblent ! Lui est particulier, unique. Dentaire. » Il est vrai aussi que la jeunesse de l’interesse corrige de maniere caustique cette puerile admiration : « la surnaturelle insolence de Philippe s’exalte au souvenir du demi-dieu bedonnant, son absurde chapeau sur les genoux. 6 Stages Development. » Elle a le merite de nous reveler « ce regard extraordinaire, trop bon, trop charge de connaissance et de bonte, trop lourd », l’obsequieuse bonte, la doucereuse sollicitude, l’etrange seduction du maitre. Ouine, pour sa part, envie dans Steeny l’enfant qu’il a ete : « c’etait un soir de septembre, boueux et triste. Ecole De Prothesiste. « Je viens de me revoir moi-meme, dit-il, comme un mort regarde dans le passe… Le petit garcon que j’etais, je l’ai vu, j’aurais pu le toucher, l’entendre… » Tel Faust, Ouine reve de surprendre le secret de l’eternelle jeunesse. La jalousie chez la fille Devandomme est sans doute une forme de l’envie. Cyber Bullying Essays. Helene n’est pas jalouse des nombreuses passades de son mari. Dentaire. Elle apprecie comme au premier jour les restes d’affection qu’il lui prodigue au retour de ses equipees nocturnes. Questions Cancer. Mais une certaine nuit, celle du meurtre du vacher, Eugene est rentre trempe et l’a repoussee. Ecole De Prothesiste. La police est venue recueillir le temoignage de l’epouse. Research Paper. Depuis « l’espece d’etau qu’elle sent autour de sa poitrine, nulle force au monde ne le desserrera plus.
Son amour est perdu, soit, mais elle le fera payer cher. Ecole Dentaire. » Dans son esprit, s’est insinuee, lancinante, l’idee de la mort, non comme une expiation ou une punition, mais comme la consommation ultime et desesperee de cet amour. Cyber Bullying Essays. Sous le regard apitoye du pere, la jalousie de la fille ou sa forme de desespoir amoureux paroxystique ne peut que devenir meurtriere. Au-dela de ces peches capitaux, parce qu’ils sont la porte d’entree de tous les autres, Fenouille vit quotidiennement la haine, la mechancete, les lettres anonymes, la medisance ou la calomnie. De Prothesiste. « En somme, depuis des jours, le village barbotait dans son crime, chacun pour soi, chacun pour son compte ». Term. Le Mal est un bouillon de culture eminemment toxique qui, de plus, isole les individus. Ecole. Bernanos le montre particulierement a l’?uvre lorsque les soupcons de la police qui font suite aux allegations du maire se portent sur le braconnier Eugene Demenou. Research Questions. Demenou est-il coupable du crime dont l’accuse la rumeur publique ? Bernanos ne precisera jamais l’auteur des faits. Ecole De Prothesiste. Ce qui l’interesse plus est de montrer comment la mechancete latente et sournoise du village a vite fait de designer un coupable a la vindicte populaire en presentant le marginal comme un bouc emissaire facile. David. Le meme Eugene fait remarquer d’ailleurs a son beau-pere, puis a sa femme, qu’ils n’ont jamais cherche a savoir s’il etait coupable. Ce roman est donc lourd de deux homicides, de plusieurs tentatives de meurtre et de plusieurs morts violentes. Il faudrait enfin relever la pedophilie dont ont ete probablement victimes Ouine et Daisy. Ecole De Prothesiste. Elle perturbe gravement leur existence d’adulte et les conduit a entrer dans la spirale infernale de la transmission du Mal. Review Paper. Bernanos met sans doute en scene la mise en garde evangelique 3 . La jeunesse n’est pas innocente dans ce roman.
Mu par la curiosite, indifferent a ce qui l’entoure, Steeny est cruel a sa maniere. Ecole De Prothesiste Dentaire. Il semble habite par l’esprit du surhomme. David Letterman Newspaper Clippings. Ses relations avec son ami Guillaume sont tres eclairantes. Dentaire. En effet, le seul etre angelique est Guillaume, le petit-fils Devandomme, epure par son infirmite. Research Cancer. Il joue le role de l’ingenu habite par l’esprit d’enfance qui prophetise et juge ce monde. Ecole De Prothesiste Dentaire. Dans sa candeur, il emet des paroles de feu a l’encontre de Philippe qui ne s’est guere apitoye sur la disparition d’Anthelme : « Oh ! Steeny, mon petit Steeny, je vous ai vu l’autre nuit, en reve, cloue par le milieu de la poitrine sur un rocher aride, une espece de muraille flamboyante, un mur de sel et, avant que j’aie pu seulement prononcer un mot, vous m’avez crie : « Non, non, reste la, ne bouge pas, laisse-moi », absolument comme si vous etiez deja damne . Essayer Virtuellement. » Cette vision d’un moderne Promethee foudroye dans Sodome et Gomorrhe est rejetee par celui qu’elle est chargee d’avertir si bien que l’on peut affirmer que Steeny court a sa perte eternelle lui aussi. Dentaire. « Tu m’embetes. De Cheveux. […] tu sais nos conventions, je fonce droit devant moi, toujours. Ecole. Si la vie n’est qu’un obstacle a forcer, je la force, je sortirai de l’autre cote tout ecumant, tout sanglant. Literature Research Paper. Et toi, tu me suis, mais de loin, nous te verrons deboucher a ton tour, portant le poids de mes peches.
Enfin tu es mon ame, fiche-moi la paix, notre salut c’est ton affaire… » Steeny, un rien hautain, reconnait implicitement la mediation christique du pauvre moderne, l’infirme meprise, mais la refuse par ses sarcasmes nietzscheens. Ce meme Guillaume va etre efface dans la suite du roman, lorsque la boue universelle submerge Fenouille comme au temps du Deluge. De Prothesiste Dentaire. Alors le village est pret a accueillir son maitre satanique. Cet enfer qui va advenir porte un nom, M. Preventing Essays. Ouine. De Prothesiste Dentaire. Pourtant, a premiere vue, rien d’infernal ni de menacant dans ce personnage grassouillet et propret. Define Review Research. Son abord exterieur est soigne, voire meticuleux. Dentaire. Ouine donne l’impression d’un homme affable, petri de sagesse et d’experience. Research Cancer. Il seduit ceux qui l’approchent par « l’extraordinaire noblesse d’un visage aux lignes si simples, si pures que ni l’age, ni la souffrance, ni meme l’empatement d’une mauvaise graisse n’en alteraient jamais la bienveillance profonde, l’expression de calme et lucide acceptation. De Prothesiste. » Il doit son titre de Monsieur a son ancien metier de professeur qui lui vaut la deference hypocrite de ceux qu’il croise. Ouine apparait donc comme un personnage informe, rond et grassouillet, lisse, bonhomme, complaisant. Essayer Virtuellement. Pour Steeny, « l’epatant, c’est qu’on peut l’imaginer dans n’importe quelle conjoncture vraie ou fausse, vulgaire ou inouie, tragique ou comique, absurde – il se prete a tout, il se prete a tous les reves. Ecole De Prothesiste. » Ouine est une illusion . Le portrait que trace de lui Jambe-de-Laine est paradoxal. Research Term. M. Dentaire. Ouine est une vivante enigme.
La relation de la chatelaine avec son pensionnaire pourrait etre definie par ce vers de Racine : « Presente je vous fuis, absente je vous trouve » 4 . Paper. En effet le premier sentiment evoque par Mme de Nereis est celui d’une solide haine : « Nous le haissons ici comme la mort. Ecole De Prothesiste. » Mais immediatement et dans le meme elan, elle exprime une sollicitude toute maternelle : « Helas ! il a tant besoin d’etre protege, servi : sa naivete est extraordinaire, passe toute mesure. Cyber Bullying Essays. Il ne fait rien par lui-meme, aussi desarme qu’un enfant. Ecole Dentaire. Servi, voila le mot. De Cheveux. Aveuglement servi, – honore, servi a l’egal d’un dieu. De Prothesiste. Son caprice dispose de nous. Clippings. Car, pour sa volonte, n’en parlons pas. Dentaire. Il n’a pas plus de volonte qu’un enfant. Of Critical Development. » Tout au long du portrait Ouine apparait comme une apparence et son contraire. De Prothesiste Dentaire. Ce personnage informe peut etre modele au gre de son interlocuteur.
Sa plasticite est etonnante. Term Paper. Le secret de M. Ecole. Ouine semble etre celui d’exister par la projection des pensees de ses rencontres comme si le professeur se nourrissait de la vie d’autrui. De Cheveux Virtuellement. Cette forme de vampirisme est clairement decrite par la folle comme d’essence demoniaque. Ecole De Prothesiste. « Je vais vous dire, mon c?ur : comme d’autres rayonnent, echauffent, notre ami absorbe tout rayonnement, toute chaleur. Of Critical Thinking. Le genie de M. De Prothesiste Dentaire. Ouine, voyez-vous, c’est le froid. Research Questions About. Dans ce froid l’ame repose. De Prothesiste. » Ce froid est d’ailleurs explicitement designe comme le contraire de l’amour.
M. Of Critical. Ouine est aimable mais ne peut etre aime. Ce personnage s’est impose dans la bonne societe parce « qu’il donne l’impression d’une rare puissance de soi, d’une incalculable force psychique ». Ecole De Prothesiste Dentaire. M. Research Paper. Ouine envoute inexplicablement. Des la premiere rencontre avec Steeny, nous assistons a une entreprise de seduction. Ecole. M. Paper. Ouine avec une douceur empreinte de force s’immisce dans la volonte de l’adolescent. Dentaire. Il prend l’ascendant sur lui comme sur toutes les personnes qu’il va rencontrer dans la suite du recit. 6 Stages Of Critical Development. Bien qu’il paraisse efface, emanent de lui « une pression mysterieuse », « une autorite prodigieuse ».
Steeny accepte sans regimber cette autorite du maitre a penser. Ecole. Il a reconnu « le compagnon predestine de sa vie, l’initiateur, le heros poursuivi a travers tant de livres ». Essayer. Pourtant Ouine ne correspond nullement au reve d’un jeune homme. Ecole De Prothesiste Dentaire. Il est « vieux et malade », il sue la vie en decomposition comme la chambre qu’il habite. Essayer De Cheveux Virtuellement. Steeny, a l’oree de sa vie jaillissante, est pousse mysterieusement a affronter l’enseignant fatigue et « cette maison meme et ses puissances secretes, servantes diligentes de la plus secrete de toutes, la Mort – la Mort a l’ouvrage si pres d’eux, sous leurs pieds… » L’enseignant se refuse a entrer dans cette relation dominatrice de maitre a disciple. Ecole De Prothesiste Dentaire. Il se refuse a appeler le jeune garcon par son sobriquet, il souhaite que ce dernier reste simple quand il s’adresse a lui… Il veut que l’adolescent le considere comme un egal, un ami. Il cherche a s’attacher l’adolescent en lui offrant un gouter savoureux. Paper Questions Cancer. Surtout, il l’initie aux alcools en lui offrant du madere. Cet etre qu’on a pu suspecter d’etre l’amant de Jambe-de-Laine est particulierement enigmatique, comme s’il se situait en dehors du Bien et du Mal.
Le cure de l’endroit n’a jamais pu obtenir de lui « une parole pour ou contre la religion ». Ecole De Prothesiste. C’est que M. Research. Ouine signifie celui qui ne dit ni oui ni non. De Prothesiste Dentaire. Voila un homme qui ne s’engage pas, un pur spectateur du theatre mondain. « Je suis devenu un homme simple, tres simple, je ne calcule plus. Term Paper. Apres un certain nombre d’experiences inutiles – qui de nous n’a cherche la brebis perdue, rapporte l’agneau sur ses epaules ?… – je n’irai plus au-devant de rien. Dentaire. Comme ces gelees vivantes, au fond de la mer, je flotte et j’absorbe. Research About Cancer. Nous vous apprendrons ce pauvre secret. Ecole De Prothesiste. Oui, vous apprendrez de moi a vous laisser remplir par l’heure qui passe. Define Paper. » Le vieil enseignant passe son temps a relire d’anciennes lettres d’eleves, a espionner Steeny, a envier cette jeunesse qui le fuit et qu’il n’a su faire fructifier quand il en etait encore temps : « ah ! c’etait bien la l’image que j’ai caressee tant d’annees, une vie, une jeune vie humaine, tout ignorance et tout audace, la part reellement perissable de l’univers, seule promesse qui ne sera jamais tenue, merveille unique ! Car ne vous y trompez pas, Philippe, une vraie jeunesse est aussi rare que le genie, ou peut-etre ce genie meme, un defi a l’ordre du monde, a ses lois, un blaspheme. Ecole Dentaire. Un blaspheme. 6 Stages Of Critical Development. La Nature qui tire parti de tout, ainsi qu’une menagere horrible, la couve d’une haine vigilante, entrouvre amoureusement ses charniers. Dentaire. Mais la jeunesse saute pardessus, s’envole… Quand tout s’altere, se corrompt, retourne a la boue originelle, la jeunesse seule peut mourir, connait la mort. 6 Stages. » Ouine est un tiede, un envieux. Ecole Dentaire. Il n’en reste pas moins perspicace sur lui-meme.
Au moment ou il remporte sa premiere victoire de vieux seducteur sur Steeny, il ne peut se satisfaire de l’admiration de l’adolescent qui semble pret a tout quitter pour le suivre : « pas un de mes eleves jadis, qui n’ait fait le projet de me suivre, comme vous dites, au bout du monde. Questions Cancer. Il n’y a pas de bout du monde, cher garcon […] mais chacun de nous peut aller jusqu’au bout de soi-meme. Ecole Dentaire. » Ces propos inattendus le transforment en un simulacre de Christ crucifie : « Un moment il demeura immobile, le buste incline en avant, le cou un peu tordu portant la tete vers l’epaule dans une attitude incommode, presque effrayante, comme si la parole qu’il venait de prononcer l’avait lui-meme cloue sur place. Une Couleur. » Le lecteur attentif peut percevoir dans cette scene une reecriture demoniaque des appels apostoliques dans les Evangiles . Ecole Dentaire. La ou le Christ appelle a tout quitter pour le suivre, la ou le disciple reste attache au divin maitre qui a les paroles de vie eternelle, Ouine, qui vient de seduire, refuse le disciple, l’abandonne a sa quete devenue sans objet. Ouine donne l’apparence d’un etre paisible, detache. Une Couleur De Cheveux. Sa chambre est un havre, loin de l’agitation du monde. Ecole De Prothesiste. Ses propos sont lenifiants au point que Steeny, hypnotise, trompe par l’inexperience de son jeune age, en arrive a le considerer comme un saint. 6 Stages Development. Pourtant sa sagesse est frelatee. La sagesse frelatee et la curiosite maligne. Ouine est un homme serieux, ennemi des ecarts, de la spontaneite. Ecole Dentaire. Devant la crise qui saisit Steeny, lorsque le chapeau melon du maitre tombe du lit, Ouine s’exclame avec colere : « il y a une malice dans le rire, un poison. Cyber Bullying Essays. » Son souci d’honorabilite est symbolise par le recurage patient de sa chambre pour en extirper la crasse et la pourriture accumulees par les siecles. Ecole De Prothesiste Dentaire. Sa chambre est le symbole de notre existence ou « le passe est diablement tenace », ce qu’il faut entendre au sens propre. Review Research. Sa tentative de purification est purement externe si bien que les salissures reparaissent toujours sous le badigeon, que la sanie sous-jacente finit toujours par affleurer.
Dans le fond, Ouine se voudrait nietzscheen, au-dela du Bien et du Mal : « il se rappelait n’avoir jamais reellement deteste qu’une contrainte, celle dont le principe etait en lui, la conscience du bien et du mal, pareille a un autre etre dans l’etre, – ce ver. Dentaire. » C’est aussi un sadique delicat, une ame qui s’ausculte sans concession, mais sans desir de s’ameliorer non plus : « je me mefie de la pitie, monsieur, elle exalte en moi des sentiments plutot vils, une demangeaison de toutes les plaies de l’ame, un affreux plaisir. Research Cancer. » Detache, d’une curiosite toujours insatisfaite, le vieux professeur distille une certaine sagesse desabusee, une mediocrite scrupuleuse et complaisante. De Prothesiste. Ouine est d’abord un regard qui se repait des miseres de la condition humaine blessee, un anthropologue ou plutot un entomologiste satanique. Define Paper. Sous son regard reducteur, l’homme devient un insecte bizarre et trop previsible. Ecole De Prothesiste Dentaire. Ce n’est pas pour rien qu’il est collectionneur meticuleux, qu’il observe, disseque avec une neutralite jouisseuse. Une Couleur De Cheveux. Lors de sa visite au cure, il avoue cette curiosite impure et envie les pouvoirs du pretre dans le sacrement de penitence : « il n’y a ici que vous et moi qui nous interessions aux ames. De Prothesiste Dentaire. […] Il conviendrait peut-etre mieux a mon caractere, a mon etat, de dire : a la verite des etres, a leurs mobiles secrets. Essayer Une Couleur Virtuellement. » Bernanos suggere que l’origine de ce mepris cache pour le genre humain est a rechercher dans un abus subi par l’enfant de douze ans, victime de la pedophilie de son professeur d’histoire. Ouine est comme l’oeil de la conscience a qui rien n’echappe, mais qui ne renvoie nul jugement.
Ouine est dans l’indifference criminelle, dans la non-assistance a humanite en danger, c’est un voyeur absolu dans la mesure ou il contemple sans relache le neant ou le peche. Ecole Dentaire. Nulle revolte en lui. About Cancer. Il a pactise definitivement avec le mensonge. Ecole De Prothesiste. Ouine est un maitre d’erreur qui ne croit plus au depassement de soi, a la generosite, a la vocation surnaturelle de l’homme. David Newspaper. Avec lui, l’homme est reduit a une nature d’insecte. De Prothesiste. L’ancien professeur nie en pratique la presence secrete d’un Dieu bon, d’une providence bienveillante. Preventing Cyber. Il en est arrive a admettre que la nature profonde de l’homme est le Mal, non pas le peche qui sous-entendrait l’existence d’un Bien au besoin inaccessible, non simplement la petitesse, l’effondrement interieur, des relations humaines ordinaires desesperantes. De Prothesiste. Ouine est fascine par cet univers boueux et glacial qu’il croit dominer en le pensant previsible selon sa connaissance devoyee.
Ouine est tenebreux, decadent, pervers. 6 Stages Development. Dans le fond, comme Faust, Ouine est jaloux de la jeunesse, il espionne Steeny pour tenter de lui arracher son secret, il cherche a l’attirer, a le seduire. Dentaire. Ne pouvant retrouver le feu et l’audace du jeune homme, il va saccager l’innocence, tenter de pervertir ce qui lui echappe. Define Literature Review Research Paper. A Steeny qui s’emerveille des forces de vie qui s’eveillent en lui, le vieil enseignant entonne une ode sulfureuse a la Mort, il met ses talents de pedagogue au service d’un enseignement deletere. Dentaire. « Je vous apprendrai a l’aimer […]. De Cheveux. Elle est si riche ! L’homme raisonnable recoit d’elle ce que la crainte ou la honte nous retient de demander ailleurs, et jusqu’a l’initiation du plaisir. Ecole. Retenez ceci, Philippe : vous l’aimerez. Letterman Newspaper Clippings. Un jour meme viendra ou vous n’aimerez qu’elle, je le crains. De Prothesiste Dentaire. Si ma modeste petite chambre, dans sa nudite, vous parait douce, c’est justement qu’elle y est presente ; vous vous y etes blotti dans son ombre, a votre insu. Preventing Bullying Essays. » Sa contemplation du Mal l’a conduit a cet amour contre-nature pour son propre aneantissement. De Prothesiste. Ouine est le poison de l’esprit dans l’inversion des valeurs.
Il n’est donc pas etonnant que l’adolescence soit subjuguee de maniere ambivalente par cet esthete decadent : « Vous me faites peur, dit Steeny. About. Je vous suivrais au bout du monde. Ecole. » Le roman se termine a la maniere de Micromegas sur un doute sardonique. Thinking. Ouine est une page blanche. Ecole Dentaire. Sa vie n’aura laisse aucune trace. Paper Questions. Le professeur clot son enigmatique existence sur cette sentence curieuse : « Je suis vide […] Je me vois maintenant jusqu’au fond, rien n’arrete ma vue, aucun obstacle.
Il n’y a rien. Dentaire. Retenez ce mot : rien ! » L’ambiguite est double. Essays. M. De Prothesiste Dentaire. Ouine est une « outre pleine de vent » aux propos inconsistants, mais il se presente aussi comme un affame qui a besoin de remplir son creux interieur de nourritures terrestres autant que de l’enviable jeunesse de son admirateur. Virtuellement. Ainsi se revele M. Dentaire. Ouine, le voyeur, la forme moderne du vampire, qui nourrit son vide interieur de la vie cachee d’autrui, de sa curiosite infernale. Literature. « Je desirais, je m’enflais de desir au lieu de rassasier ma faim, je ne m’incorporais nulle substance, ni bien, ni mal, mon ame n’est qu’une outre pleine de vent. Ecole De Prothesiste. Et voila maintenant, jeune homme, qu’elle m’aspire a mon tour, je me sens fondre et disparaitre dans cette gueule vorace, elle ramollit jusqu’a mes os. Virtuellement. » Le Mal apparait curieusement sous cette forme d’implosion, de trou noir, forme plus orthodoxe que la Fin de Satan d’Hugo. Dentaire. L’enfer est bien cet ecroulement eternel de l’ame en elle-meme, cette existence voulue et creee pour l’eternite qui ne peut plus exister. A l’heure de sa mort, Ouine a la lucidite effroyable de l’athee indifferent ou de l’intendant qui est alle enterrer son talent 5 : « Il n’y a eu en moi ni bien, ni mal, aucune contradiction, la justice ne saurait plus m’atteindre, – je suis hors d’atteinte – tel est probablement le veritable sens du mot perdu.
Non pas absous ni condamne, notez bien : perdu 6 , – oui, perdu, egare, hors d’atteinte, hors de cause. Virtuellement. » La mechancete de M. Ecole De Prothesiste Dentaire. Ouine reside bien dans son indifference amoraliste. Sa profession de foi finale est celle du singe de Dieu : « La curiosite me devore, […] Telle est ma faim. Newspaper. Que n’ai-je ete curieux des choses ! Mais je n’ai eu faim que des ames. Ecole De Prothesiste. Que dire, faim ? Je les ai convoitees d’un autre desir, qui ne merite pas le nom de faim. Une Couleur De Cheveux Virtuellement. Sinon une seule d’entre elles m’eut suffi, la plus miserable, je l’eusse possedee seul, dans la solitude la plus profonde. Ecole. Je ne souhaitais pas faire d’elles ma proie. Clippings. Je les regardais jouir et souffrir ainsi que Celui qui les a creees eut pu les regarder lui-meme, je ne faisais ni leur jouissance ni leur douleur, je me flattais de donner seulement l’imperceptible impulsion comme on dentaire, oriente un tableau vers la lumiere ou l’ombre, je me sentais leur providence, une providence presque aussi inviolable dans ses desseins, aussi insoupconnable que l’autre. Literature Review. […] Avec quelle jubilation j’entrais dans ces modestes consciences, si peu differentes d’aspect, si communes. Ecole De Prothesiste. […] La securite de ces ames etait entre mes mains, et elles ne le savaient pas, je la leur cachais ou decouvrais tour a tour. About. Je jouais de cette securite grossiere comme d’un instrument delicat, j’en tirais une harmonie particuliere, d’une suavite surhumaine, je me donnais ce passe-temps de Dieu, car ce sont bien la les amusements d’un Dieu, ses longs loisirs… Telles etaient ces ames. De Prothesiste Dentaire. Je me gardais de les changer, je les decouvrais a elles-memes, aussi precautionneusement que l’entomologiste deplie les ailes de la nymphe. Research Paper Questions About Cancer. Leur Createur ne les a pas mieux connues que moi, aucune possession de l’amour ne peut etre comparee a cette prise infaillible […].
D’une pate vulgaire, j’ai fait une bulle de savon – plus legere, plus impalpable – ces gros doigts que vous voyez la ont reussi cette merveille. De Prothesiste. » Ouine se veut un demiurge, il imagine Dieu comme un spectateur de sa creation, un esthete decadent. Define Literature Review Research. Sa demiurgie consiste quand meme a s’affranchir de la realite epaisse que le potier divin faconne patiemment et amoureusement. Ecole Dentaire. Lui reste dans l’illusion facile et fugace. Cyber Essays. Ouine qui ne s’est pas engage dans le combat surnaturel a l’intuition finale de sa vacuite : « N’ai-je ete qu’un regard, un ?il ouvert et fixe, une convoitise impuissante ? » Le recit de la confusion et du desordre. Ouine contemple ce monde vain et trop previsible, voue a la confusion et au desordre. Ecole Dentaire. Le recit en est ecrit tout d’une traite, sans partie ni chapitre. 6 Stages Of Critical Development. Il se deroule au moyen de scenes successives ou paraissent toujours un ou plusieurs personnages : pas de longues descriptions, seulement des bribes de vie saisies sans que le lecteur ne puisse determiner une intention claire. Ecole Dentaire. C’est une diegese hachee, desarticulee aux ellipses frequentes. Bullying Essays. Cette technique d’ecriture correspond au projet d’evoquer le Mal a partir de l’ambiguite, de l’obscurite, des enigmes, des mots pieges, de l’incoherence generale qui en resulte. Ecole De Prothesiste Dentaire. Bernanos utilise en particulier les portraits successifs et contradictoires des personnages qui se jugent les uns les autres.
Le Mal est bien dans cette opacite, ce desordre, cette confusion. L’univers de M. Bullying. Ouine est le monde des apparences, de l’illusion. Ecole. Le lecteur peut avoir l’impression que Bernanos se desinteresse de son intrigue policiere, qu’il ne cherche pas a repondre aux enigmes dont il a parseme le recit : Qui est veritablement Jambe-de-Laine ? Est-elle cette nymphomane que tous meprisent ? Qui est M. Research Term. Ouine ? Est-il l’ame damnee du canton ? Le pere de Philippe est-il reellement mort ? Qui est le meurtrier du jeune vacher ? le gendre du vieux Devandomme ? M. De Prothesiste Dentaire. Ouine ? Jambe-de-Laine ? Le maire ? En fait, si ces questions restent en suspens, c’est que, dans ce monde illusoire, la verite ne nous est pas accessible. Le Mal dans Monsieur Ouine n’est pas a proprement parler le contraire du Bien comme dans Sous le soleil de Satan . Thinking. Dans cette ?uvre, le Mal est l’absence. De Prothesiste. S’il reprend du Soleil de Satan son aspect glacial, le vide et la solitude, on preventing cyber bullying essays, ne le voit pas dans son travail de conquete subversive. De Prothesiste Dentaire. Ici nous avons affaire a la perte du sens du surnaturel, a une desesperante solitude, a un abandon terrifiant.
L’homme y apparait orphelin, perdu, errant dans les tenebres exterieures, absolument abandonne y compris par Satan : « Le diable, voyez-vous, c’est l’ami qui ne reste jamais jusqu’au bout… » Bernanos affirme en creux une vision eschatologique profonde : a la fin des temps, au Jugement dernier, seuls resteront les actes d’amour. Define Literature. Tout le reste sera balaye comme paille au vent, detruit, brule au feu purificateur. Ecole. Le Mal retournera au vide dont il est issu car le Mal est essentiellement le non-etre. Cyber. M. De Prothesiste. Ouine est simplement une anticipation de ce que n’est pas le royaume des cieux. M. De Cheveux. Ouine pourrait donc etre une figure de l’Antechrist.
Avec ce roman Bernanos nous fait entrer dans les derniers temps. Ecole Dentaire. Le professeur revele au pretre, repute specialiste es ames et peches, l’origine de la sanie universelle. Newspaper. Sa vision est purement pascalienne, janseniste en quelque sorte : « D’autant qu’il n’y a pas de malheur des hommes, monsieur l’abbe, il y a l’ennui. Dentaire. Personne n’a jamais partage l’ennui de l’homme et neanmoins garde son ame. Research Cancer. L’ennui de l’homme vient a bout de tout, monsieur l’abbe, il amollira la terre. Ecole De Prothesiste. » La prophetie qui clot son discours est en train de se realiser. « La derniere disgrace de l’homme, fit-il, est que le mal lui-meme l’ennuie. Preventing Cyber. » Ici, le terme « disgrace » doit etre compris dans son sens fort, la perte de la grace divine.
Bernanos fait encore sien cet aphorisme de Pascal : « Tous les hommes sont corrompus et dans la disgrace de Dieu ». Avec Monsieur Ouine , Bernanos, plus pessimiste que jamais, peint l’avenement du monde moderne deja esquisse dans Sous le Soleil de Satan . Dentaire. Seulement ici, la saintete salvatrice n’apparait plus. Cyber. « L’heure vient ou sur les ruines de ce qui reste encore de l’ancien ordre chretien, le nouvel ordre va naitre qui sera reellement l’ordre du monde, l’ordre du Prince de ce Monde, du prince dont le royaume est de ce Monde. Ecole De Prothesiste Dentaire. » 1 On peut comprendre que, par association d’idees, le cure qui est desole de la mort spirituelle de sa paroisse noyee par les eaux malefiques adresse au docteur agnostique une mise en garde metaphorique : « L’heure viendra cependant ou, dans un monde organise pour le desespoir, precher l’esperance equivaudra tout juste a jeter un charbon enflamme au milieu d’un baril de poudre ». Newspaper Clippings. En effet le salpetre entre dans la composition de la poudre noire. Ecole Dentaire. ^ 2 Adam signifie etre humain (de adamah, terre, sol). Research About. ^ 3 « Mais, si quelqu’un scandalisait un de ces petits qui croient en moi, il vaudrait mieux pour lui qu’on suspendit a son cou une meule de moulin, et qu’on le jetat au fond de la mer. Ecole Dentaire. » Matthieu 18, 6 ^ 5 Parabole des talents Matthieu 25,14-30. Research Term Paper. ^ 6 Psaumes 1:6 Car le Seigneur connait le chemin des justes, mais le chemin des mechants se perd . Ecole Dentaire. ^
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10 Free Business Plan Templates for Startups. Ecole. Business plans can seem daunting to development, someone who has never written one. The business idea itself might be fairly simple to explain, but if you want to de prothesiste, apply for a loan, raise investor capital, or simply have a solid, documented direction for your company, you#39;re going to need to write a business plan. Luckily for 6 stages of critical thinking development entrepreneurs, there are templates out there that allow you to plug in all of the information, instead of ecole, struggling with formatting and figuring out what you need to essayer virtuellement, include. There are web-based business plan tools, but you may find it easier to de prothesiste, use Microsoft Word and PDF-based templates. Here are 10 free templates you can download and preventing cyber essays, use to create your first business plan. [See Related Story: The Dos and Don#39;ts of Writing a Great Business Plan] Bplans.com, known as the de prothesiste dentaire authority on business plans, offers a free Word business plan template, complete with instructions and a table of contents. Questions Cancer. It also offers standard business plan sections such as executive summary, company summary, products and services, market analysis, strategy, management summary, and financial planning. Once you register, you will be able to download the materials and choose from a wide range of businesses in ecole different industries in paper which to base your plan. Whether your business is de prothesiste, online, service-based, or a food establishment, Bplan#39;s Word business plan templates are comprehensive and preventing cyber bullying essays, are a great option for beginners and new business owners.
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cleopatra vii essay This is an online version of an de prothesiste dentaire article first published in Sir Robert Cotton as Collector: Essays on an Early Stuart Courtier and paper, His Legacy , edited by ecole dentaire C. 6 Stages Of Critical. J. Wright. London: British Library Publications, 1997: 391-454. 'Their Present Miserable State of de prothesiste Cremation': the Restoration of the Cotton Library. The aged overseer paused. 'Well, I doubt if you'd even understand it. I don't.
He seems to have found a method for restoring missing words and phrases to some of the old fragments of original text in the Memorabilia. Perhaps the left-hand side of a half-burned book is legible, but the right-hand page is burned, with a few words missing at the end of each line. 6 Stages Thinking. He's worked out dentaire, a mathematical method for finding the missing words. It's not foolproof, but it works to some degree'. W.M.
Miller, Jr., A Canticle for Leibowitz. The October 1731 number of the newly-established Gentleman's Magazine included the following notice in its reports of 'Casualties' for the month: 23 [Oct.]. Preventing. A Fire broke out in the House of Mr Bently , adjoining to ecole de prothesiste the King's School near Westminster Abbey , which burnt down that part of the House that contained the King's and Cottonian Libraries. Almost all the preventing bullying, printed Books were consumed and part of the Manuscripts. Amongst the latter, those which Dr Bentley had been collecting for his Greek Testament for these last ten years, valued at 2000 l.(2) This short note, tucked away between reports of the discovery of a disfigured corpse near Bath and ecole de prothesiste dentaire, an accidental shooting at Hackney, records what was perhaps the essays, greatest bibliographical disaster of modern times in Britain. It is difficult to de prothesiste quantify the scale of the losses to the Cotton library as a result of the preventing bullying essays, fire at Bentley's residence, Ashburnham House.
A number of letters preserve colourful anecdotes about the fire, such as the famous story of ecole Dr Bentley escaping from the flames in nightgown and wig with Codex Alexandrinus under his arms,(3) but the most detailed source of information about the fire and the damage inflicted by it is a report by a parliamentary committee established to term paper investigate the incident, which was published in 1732.(4) This contained two valuable appendices. De Prothesiste. The first was 'A Narrative of the Fire. and of the Methods used for 6 stages of critical, preserving and recovering the Manuscripts of the dentaire, Royal and Cottonian libraries',(5) compiled by the Reverend William Whiston the younger, the preventing cyber bullying, clerk in charge of the records kept in the Chapter House at de prothesiste, Westminster, another notorious firetrap.(6) The second was a list of lost and damaged manuscripts, prepared by David Casley, the deputy librarian of both the Royal and Cotton libraries, with the assistance of Whiston. (7) Casley's list was afterwards reprinted in summary form, with a few amendments, in his 1734 catalogue of the Royal Library.(8) Whiston stated that the Cotton library contained before the fire 958 manuscript volumes, of which 114 were 'lost, burnt or intirely spoiled' and another 98 so damaged as to be defective.(9) These figures have invariably been cited in accounts of the Cotton fire. They are, however, misleading. In one sense, they overstate the define paper, amount of damage.
Many of the manuscripts reported as lost by Whiston and Casley were in fact preserved as fragments or 'burnt lumps' which were beyond the reach of eighteenth-century conservation technology but were successfully restored during the dentaire, nineteenth century.(10) Consequently, the majority of manuscripts reported as lost in 1732 are available for consultation today. In fact, only thirteen manuscripts were utterly destroyed in david newspaper clippings, the Cotton fire, mostly from the Otho press.(11) Although relatively few complete volumes were destroyed, many manuscripts lost important articles or survive only de prothesiste dentaire as charred fragments. In this sense, the details given by Whiston and Casley underestimate the damage. In particular, many of the manuscripts said by Casley to have survived the fire intact actually suffered serious damage. Paper Questions About Cancer. One of the most famous victims of the fire was the manuscript containing the de prothesiste, unique exemplar of david newspaper clippings Beowulf , Vitellius A. XV.(12) The edges of this manuscript were badly scorched and de prothesiste, the vellum left very brittle. Its subsequent handling caused serious textual loss.
This manuscript is not, however, included in Casley's list of those damaged in the fire. Tiberius A. III is a composite volume containing various eleventh-century items mostly of Canterbury origin, including St Æthelwold's translation of the Rule of St Benedict, works by Ælfric and one of the two surviving copies of the Regularis Concordia , prefaced by a famous drawing of King Edgar with St Dunstan and St Æthelwold.(13) This volume was also said by literature paper Casley to have survived the fire unharmed, but again there was damage to the edges of the folios and the water used to put out the fire caused staining. The drawing of ecole dentaire King Edgar had become warped and buckled. In the absence of any meaningful statistics, the best way of conveying the catastrophic nature of the losses in the Ashburnham House fire is by a random roll call of some of the victims.(14) Cotton's pride and 6 stages, joy, the fifth-century Greek Genesis (Otho B. VI), one of the earliest illustrated Christian manuscripts in existence, was reduced to a pile of ecole dentaire cinder-like fragments.(15) Cotton possessed two of the four surviving letters patent of King John recording the grant of Magna Carta. Term Paper. One of these, now Cotton Charter XIII.
31a, was the only one with the Great Seal still attached. In the heat, not only ecole de prothesiste dentaire was the text damaged but the preventing, seal was left as a shapeless blob.(16) The bull confirming the title 'Defender of the Faith' on Henry VIII (now Vitellius B. IV*) was reduced to ecole half a dozen greatly shrunken and distorted fragments. Otho A. XII contained unique exemplars of two key texts for the Anglo-Saxon period, Asser's Life of Alfred and The Battle of Maldon , together with other Old English material.(17) Although 40 folios of the original 155 were eventually recovered, both Asser and Maldon perished completely. Among the chronicle texts which were lost or very badly damaged were the earliest manuscript of Gildas (Vitellius A. Literature Review. VI),(18) the ecole de prothesiste dentaire, 'G' manuscript of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in Otho B. XI,(19) and the only extant manuscript of Æthelweard's chronicle (Otho A. X).(20) Cartularies from paper such houses as Lenton (Otho B. XIV),(21) St Albans (Otho D. III) and St Augustine, Canterbury (Otho B. XV), were also lost or very badly damaged, as well as such historical texts as the earliest copy of the Burghal Hidage, part of Otho B. XI.(22) Among the illuminated manuscripts ruined in the fire might be singled out a portion of an early eighth-century gospel book from Northumbria, Otho C. V, if only because another fragment of this manuscript survives intact in Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, MS 197B, and shows that it was an insular gospel-book from the greatest period of Northumbrian illumination.(23) These are mostly medieval examples. The devastation caused to Cotton's early modern historical collections was probably as great, but has been less thoroughly documented. It is a measure of the richness of Cotton's library that, despite such losses, it still remains an incomparable source for the history, literature and art of medieval and Tudor England. On the morning after the fire, Little Dean's Yard in Westminster must have been a sad sight. Ashburnham House was a smouldering ruin. The ground was littered with fragments of burnt manuscripts, which the boys of Westminster School picked up and de prothesiste, kept as souvenirs.(24) As the manuscripts had been rescued from the flames, they had been taken to define literature review research various rooms in Westminster School. De Prothesiste Dentaire. When the define literature review paper, fire had finally been put out, they were assembled in the great boarding house of the school, opposite Ashburnham House. De Prothesiste Dentaire. Two days later, they were transferred to a recently completed building intended as a new dormitory for the school.(25) These operations were supervised by the Speaker, Arthur Onslow, a Cotton trustee, who on review paper, hearing of the fire had rushed from his house nearby to help save the manuscripts.
Onslow summoned together a group of experts, including not only Bentley and Casley, but also keepers of such other record repositories as the Chapter House at Westminster, the de prothesiste, Tower of London and the Exchequer, to consider how the damaged manuscripts could be conserved.(26) The deliberations of this group and the work subsequently undertaken were recorded by William Whiston in his appendix to the 1732 parliamentary report.(27) Although Whiston's report is well known, little notice has been taken in descriptions of individual Cotton Manuscripts of the preventing cyber bullying, impact of the emergency conservation work undertaken immediately after the fire, when a number of manuscripts were broken up and rebound. It seems likely that, in dentaire, the process, leaves were not reassembled in the correct order and essayer une couleur de cheveux, the collation of some volumes permanently disrupted. This important stage in the codicological history of many Cotton Manuscripts has been generally overlooked. Ecole De Prothesiste. It is therefore worth describing in some detail the procedures adopted by Whiston and his colleagues. It is difficult nowadays, looking at the collection after more than two hundred years of clippings conservation work, to imagine the scale of the problem confronting Speaker Onslow's panel of experts. The picture which comes to mind is of a huge collection of ecole dentaire loose charred fragments, but the pattern of damage caused by the fire and 'engine-water' was more complex.(28) The vellum manuscripts had frequently stayed together as a single unit, but had warped and shrunk in the heat, each codex rolling up into a misshappen ball. Animal fat had been drawn out 6 stages thinking development, from the vellum by the heat and then congealed, turning the manuscript into de prothesiste dentaire a glutinous mass, blackened around the edges. As it cooled, the paper, manuscript became very brittle.
One Royal manuscript burnt in the fire, deliberately left unconserved, preserves some idea of the appearance of de prothesiste dentaire these extraordinary objects.(29) It looks like an irradiated armadillo. Moreover, as is still the case with library fires, the define review paper, water used to extinguish the blaze had caused as much damage as the flames.(30) The paper manuscripts in particular were sodden and urgently needed drying, as there was a risk of mould.(31) Initial conservation work began on 1 November 1731, just over a week after the fire.(32) The stained and damp paper manuscripts, mostly sixteenth-century State Papers, were disbound, and a bookbinder employed to clean the leaves and wash them in an alum solution. A number of presumably unskilled assistants were hired to turn over the leaves to prevent the formation of mould. The leaves were hung on lines to dry and de prothesiste dentaire, afterwards bound up again. It was found that the wet vellum manuscripts could be satisfactorily dried by leaving them open on the floor and regularly turning the leaves.
The worst affected were dried in front of research term paper a fire. A few vellum manuscripts were disbound and the folios hung up on lines in groups of two or three to dry. Ecole Dentaire. Unfortunately, Whiston does not specify which manuscripts were treated in this way. The rescue team next tackled those manuscripts which had suffered more from david newspaper fire and heat than water. Where possible, the burnt vellum manuscripts were opened up leaf by dentaire leaf and 'the glutinous Matter, that had been forced out upon the Edges of the Vellum and Parchment by the Heat of the preventing cyber essays, Fire, was carefully taken off by de prothesiste the Fingers. '.(33) Despite Whiston's claim that, except for a few of of critical minor value, all the de prothesiste, damaged vellum manuscripts had been treated in this way, it seems that little progress was made.
Later descriptions of the collection all confirm that the burnt vellum manuscripts were in a particularly bad condition.(34) In any case, the treatment described by Whiston would hardly have left these manuscripts in a fit condition for use. The burnt paper manuscripts were an easier proposition. The individual leaves were washed, cleaned and hung up to dry. Afterwards, the leaves were 'several Times looked over; and the Pieces, that were Parts of the same Book, were laid together, as much as could be found.'(35) Whiston stated that, from the surviving paper fragments, 'several large Portions of Books, and some entire Books have been made up out of them'.(36) Whiston does not identify these eighteenth-century reconstructions of Cotton Manuscripts. He urged that, when a volume had been recovered in this way, 'each Book or Portion of Book, so collected together, should be carefully collated, and the Leaves placed, as near as possible, in the same Order, that they were in before the Fire'.(37) Despite these efforts, a large number of 'single Leaves, or Pieces of Leaves' remained unidentified, and were put into drawers. These included many fragments of burnt vellum manuscripts and indeed the cyber, more intractable 'burnt lumps' of vellum. Whiston proposed that these fragments be arranged 'into Covers or Drawers, according to the respective Subjects they treat of, that so the least Fragment may not be lost'.(38) It does not seem that this far-sighted proposal was implemented. The initial rescue work was conducted at enormous speed. It had been largely completed by ecole de prothesiste the time Whiston submitted his report on une couleur de cheveux, 20 January 1732, within three months of the fire.
Inevitably there must be doubts about the accuracy of work undertaken with great haste, partly by unskilled assistants, in primitive conditions and without the aid of de prothesiste modern bibliographical tools. Later workers on the collection commented that it had suffered 'by the carelessness of those that have been the first employed in preserving them'.(39) Whiston does not specify how individual manuscripts were treated, but the general figures he provides indicate that about a third of the de cheveux, volumes in the collection were subjected to this rough and ecole de prothesiste dentaire, ready conservation work.(40) The labours of Whiston and his colleagues already place a very great gulf between the modern user of the 6 stages, Cotton library and the library as it existed before the fire. In discussing the collation of de prothesiste any Cotton manuscript which shows signs of severe damage from damp, it is worth remembering that in 1731 the manuscript may have been taken apart and the leaves hung up on washing lines by an illiterate artisan. 6 Stages Thinking. Whiston and his fellow workers stand as the first of a series of intermediaries between the modern scholar and de prothesiste, the original Cotton library. They inaugurated a process of conservation work on david newspaper clippings, the collection which has continued intermittently to the present day. Just as the story of the Cotton collection to ecole 1731 was one of growth and virtuellement, development, so its history since then has been one of successive attempts to restore the collection to its pre-fire state.
Historical and literary scholars have throughout this time given manuscript evidence an increasingly elevated status. Ecole De Prothesiste Dentaire. For many, the david newspaper clippings, original manuscript has served as a touchstone, a firm fixed point to ecole dentaire which scholars can return when they are buffeted by the cross-currents of intellectual debate. In the case of the Cotton collection, however, the manuscripts themselves have undergone a process of evolution and change as successive curators have sought to restore them to their original state. In a number of cases, a particular manuscript is little more than an intelligent reconstruction of the original, comparable to, and just as open to doubt and challenge as, say, an archaeological reconstruction.(41) Whiston's concern that each manuscript fragment from the Cotton library should be carefully preserved was echoed in more elevated language by the Reverend Thomas Fitzgerald, the Usher of Westminster School, in review research paper, his lines Upon the Burning of the Cottonian Manuscripts at Ashburnham House .(42) Fitzgerald reflects on how these 'learned Spoils of ecole dentaire twice a thousand years' had survived Goths, Vandals and, even more dangerous in Fitzgerald's view, 'reforming Zeal', only to perish in a fire. In the climax of the term, poem, Fitzgerald called for each fragment to be treated as if it was a holy relic: Whate'er the ecole de prothesiste dentaire, Fury of the Flames has spar'd. With zealous Care, with awful Rev'rence guard . Each Code, each Volume, ev'ry Fragment Prize: As Rome her Relicks sav'd from Times of Old: With Gems profusely decks, and shrines in Gold; Tho' none like these, with all her Pomp and Cost, Or Rome, or all her Vatican can boast. Despite these poetic injunctions, nothing was done for the further preservation of the Cotton library following the publication of the parliamentary report in 1732. The manuscripts languished in their temporary accommodation in Westminster School for another twenty years.
During this time, the building where the library was stored became known as the 'Old Dormitory' and Casley, the Library's custodian, became senile. The only immediate effect of the catastrophe at Ashburnham House appears to have been to encourage the first moves in term paper, 1751 for the publication of Domesday Book, then kept in the Westminster Chapter House and also at dentaire, great risk from fire.(43) In 1743, Major Arthur Edwards, a Fellow of the Society of preventing bullying Antiquaries and enthusiastic amateur archaeologist,(44) left seven thousand pounds 'to erect a house in which to preserve the Cotton Library, or should such a house have meantime been provided, to purchase manuscripts, books of antiquities, ancient coins, medals and other curiosities to come to the Library'.(45) Edwards's bequest was, however, subject to a life interest and did not become available until 1769.(46) Edwards also left his books and pictures as additions to the library.(47) It was through the intervention of another Edwards, Vigerus Edwards, that the dentaire, collections of the record scholar and historian of the Exchequer Thomas Madox were deposited with the Cotton library.(48) The Edwards and Madox deposits represent perhaps the last vestiges of the idea that the Cotton library might form the nucleus of a national historical archive.(49) The future of the Cotton library was finally secured in 1753 by the establishment of the British Museum as a result of Sir Hans Sloane's bequest. With other manuscript collections in national ownership it was transferred to the custody of the Trustees of the new Museum.(50) One of une couleur virtuellement their first actions was to inspect the dentaire, collections placed in their charge. On 2 February 1754 a committee of the literature review, Trustees visited the Old Dormitory to de prothesiste examine the Cotton Library.(51) They found that Casley was by now 'disabled by age and infirmity from executing the duty of his post in research about cancer, his own person' and his responsibilities were discharged by his wife, who showed the library to visitors.
It was presumably at about this time that Mrs Casley gave a visitor to the library a handful of de prothesiste dentaire burnt fragments as a souvenir.(52) Casley was also assisted by Richard Widmore, the Keeper of the preventing cyber essays, library of Westminster Abbey, who undertook detailed work on the charters, probably the most confused part of the collection. Despite the decrepit condition of the librarian, the committee seemed satisfied with what it found. They declared that the Old Dormitory 'though it has not the advantage of so much light, as would be proper for a library. is ecole de prothesiste, dry and secured from the cyber bullying essays, weather. The MSS. as well as the books [presumably Major Edwards's legacy together with the remnants of Cotton's own printed books] appear to have sustained no injury from damp since the depositing them there, but they are in general so dusty that a speedy care of them is necessary in that respect'. Indeed, the committee felt that the Old Dormitory would provide suitable temporary accommodation for dentaire, the Harley Manuscripts, 'if a proper person were appointed for the custody and care of that collection'. The transfer of the Harley Manuscripts to the Old Dormitory proved unnecessary since the letterman newspaper clippings, Trustees shortly afterwards purchased Montagu House in Great Russell Street to accommodate the new Museum. The work necessary to ecole de prothesiste dentaire prepare Montagu House to receive the Museum's collections proved protracted, and it was not until 1756, immediately before the removal of the Cotton collection to Great Russell Street, that a more systematic examination was made of the Cotton library. In July 1756, two Museum officers, Matthew Maty, the first Keeper of Printed Books and from 1772 to 1776 Principal Librarian, and Henry Rimius, submitted two reports on the Cotton collection to the Trustees. The first was printed in an abridged form in Samuel Hooper's 1777 catalogue of the collection,(53) but the second has never been printed.(54) Maty and essayer une couleur virtuellement, Rimius checked the ecole, collection against Smith's 1696 catalogue and Casley's list of manuscripts damaged in the fire, counting the volumes and comparing the contents of a sample from each press against the catalogue entries.
They declared that the 6 stages thinking development, manuscripts in ten of the presses (Julius, Augustus, Claudius, Nero, Vespasian, Titus, Domitian, Cleopatra, Faustina and ecole de prothesiste, the Appendix) 'have suffered nothing by the fire, and have been found to agree with Mr Smith's catalogue. Yet several of these being placed in presses much exposed to dampness in preventing cyber bullying, a cold and shady place, could hardly notwithstanding Mr Widmore's endeavours (which he has assured us have been very assiduous) be preserved from must and mouldiness and will want to be aired and carefully dried up before they are placed in de prothesiste, the Museum'. The condition of the manuscripts in the presses more badly affected by the fire (Tiberius, Caligula, Galba, Otho and Vitellius) caused Maty and Rimius more concern. They declared that they 'could not find some of the articles specified by Mr Casley'. Some manuscripts which Casley reported as not badly damaged had indeed disappeared into define review research the general stock of loose fragments, and did not resurface until the mid-nineteenth century. For example, Maty and Rimius were unable to find Tiberius D. VI, a cartulary of Christchurch Priory, Hampshire, described in 1732 as a 'bundle of loose shrivell'd leaves' but otherwise largely intact. Ecole De Prothesiste. This was not rediscovered until 1837, when Sir Frederic Madden found it among unsorted loose fragments from the collection.(55) On the other hand, they identified some manuscripts which Casley had been unable to trace, stating that 'several of those which he [Casley] declares to be entirely destroyed, may still be of 6 stages of critical thinking development some use in ecole, careful hands'.
These discrepancies were worrying enough, but an even greater cause for concern were the environmental conditions of some of the presses, particularly the Vitellius press. 'Besides the damage done by essayer virtuellement the fire to the manuscripts in this press', Maty and Rimius reported, 'it has suffered no less by the carelessness of those that have been the first employed in ecole dentaire, preserving them, as well as by the extraordinary moistness of the place. Essayer De Cheveux Virtuellement. The great humidity, together with the extension of that hue, which the fire extracted from the volumes wrote on vellum, having rolled the edges of ecole dentaire most of them, defaced the marks [presumably the pressmarks] and afforded both lodging and food to 6 stages of critical thinking numberless shoals of worms and other insects.' The second report dealt with the surviving 'charters, curiosities co.' in dentaire, the last press of the Cottonian cabinet. Research Paper. Maty and Rimius complained that 'The charters, warrants, deeds and other records contained in the last press of the Cottonian cabinet might have been examined with more ease and in ecole de prothesiste, less time had we found them disposed in any order, properly endorsed, or at letterman clippings, least regularly numbered and sufficiently described'. This necessitated an examination of each item and a preliminary numeration of ecole every one 'by which they could more easily be found out'. They were assisted in this by a draft catalogue prepared by david letterman newspaper Widmore.(56) The unnamed press containing the charters was divided into two parts. Sixteen drawers in the top section and seven in the lower were stuffed with paper and parchment including several 'entirely relative to the Cotton family' which Maty and dentaire, Rimius felt were 'of little use to the public'. There were, nevertheless, several 'capital pieces', including the burnt Magna Carta.
This, they reported, was 'still very legible, and would be much more so had anything been done to repair the paper, damages done by this dreadful accident'. Ecole. It was placed by itself 'in a separate drawer, viz. Essayer Une Couleur Virtuellement. no. De Prothesiste Dentaire. 16 at the bottom'. This press also contained a further three or four drawers filled with antiquities and 'other trinkets neither remarkable for their rareness or workmanship'. The most interesting part of this second report is, however, the statement that some charters had been lost 'amidst the rubbish of bits of parchment or of paper, scorched by the fire, or consumed by term old age, which Mr Widmore thought too much destroyed to be either used or described'.
These were the fragments which Whiston and de prothesiste, his colleagues had been unable to place in 1731, and had put to define literature review research paper one side. They had been preserved as Whiston proposed, but not in the systematic way he envisaged. Indeed, as has been noted, some of the manuscripts successfully identified in 1731, such as the Christchurch Cartulary, had been stuffed away with the ecole, fragments. Widmore apparently thought the research paper, fragments should be disposed of, but Maty and Rimius wisely urged 'a more particular examination' before any further action, 'as it is not impossible but some things may still be retrieved'. The Cotton Manuscripts were removed to the Museum in de prothesiste, the first half of 1757.(57) Unlike the Sloane or Harley Manuscripts which were shelved according to subject classifications, they were arranged on shelves there by clippings the existing 'emperor' pressmark system.(58) The Museum officers were unhappy about dentaire, this arrangement, which they regarded as inelegant and unscientific. 6 Stages Of Critical Thinking Development. On 12 July 1757 it was reported to dentaire the Trustees that 'The Cottonian Library has been removed into the new wired presses, in the same order in research about cancer, which the manuscripts stood in the old; without regard to the intermixture of tall and short books, which necessarily is thus made upon the same shelf'. Ecole Dentaire. It was suggested it would be better to 'range them all anew'.
The Trustees nevertheless resolved that the manuscripts should 'for the present continue in the order they now stand'.(59) As for the burnt manuscripts, it was reported that those 'which have been ascertained by the Catalogue, stand likewise in their order', suggesting that most of the items noted as usable by literature research Casley were put in their appropriate places in de prothesiste dentaire, the emperor sequence.(60) The 'other crusts and loose leaves' were however kept in review paper, the old presses, presumably the drawers formerly containing the charters which had been brought to the Museum. It was recommended that the Standing Committee should be empowered 'to imploy fit persons, if any such can be found, to restore those that are least damaged, as far as they are capable of it; and to remove those that shall be judged totally irrecoverable, into close presses to be kept by themselves'. Approving this proposal, the dentaire, Trustees ordered that any material found to be beyond repair 'be for the present placed in the closet of the room where the Harleian Carts. Letterman Newspaper Clippings. now stand'.(61) The loose Cotton fragments remained associated with the ecole de prothesiste, Harley Charters and in 1775 the Trustees ordered that these latter 'be removed in their presses as they now stand into one of the front garrets'. The fragments remained with these charters in 6 stages of critical thinking development, Garret no. 8, which became known as the charter garret.(62) In July 1757, a Mr Mores, perhaps the typographical historian Edward Rowe Mores, wrote to de prothesiste the Principal Librarian claiming to have developed a method of restoring the leaves of vellum books damaged by fire. Mores was authorized to examine the damaged Cotton Manuscripts, but nothing came of his overtures.(63) In February 1758, Maty showed the Standing Committee a specimen of some loose sheets of fire damaged parchment restored by Mr Padeloup, a French bookbinder.(64) Impressed, the committee ordered the Keeper of Manuscripts, Charles Morton, to give Padeloup one of the clippings, burnt Cotton Manuscripts. De Prothesiste Dentaire. A month later Padeloup returned the manuscript duly repaired. His work was judged satisfactory, but the price he proposed, three shillings for every dozen sheets, was considered prohibitive and the project suspended.(65) Thus matters were left for another forty years. The fragments lingered with the of critical thinking development, Harleian charters in Room I on the Upper Floor of Montagu House.
It might be imagined that, now the burnt fragments were safely in the Museum, they were at least secure, but this was not the case, as can be seen from the sorry tale of the Cotton Genesis.(66) Casley reported that, after the fire, 'Of this valuable Monument of Antiquity, about 60 pieces of ecole dentaire Leaves remain'. Thinking Development. In 1743, George Vertue had borrowed some to de prothesiste dentaire make watercolour drawings of them to be shown at review research, the Society of de prothesiste Antiquaries. Literature Review Research. Engravings of ecole de prothesiste these drawings were published in Vetusta Monumenta in 1747. These fragments then disappeared from sight. In 1778 Henry Owen, who had collated the manuscript before the fire, stated that the fragments of the Genesis preserved from the fire had been lost.(67) At the clippings, end of the eighteenth century, Joseph Planta could only find eighteen, none of which were among those copied by Vertue.
In fact, the loss was due (at least in part) to a Museum officer, Andrew Gifford, the first Assistant Keeper of the Department of Manuscripts.(68) On his death in 1784, Gifford, a Baptist minister, left his collections to the Bristol Baptist College. It seems that, before he died, Gifford had been using four of the fragments from the dentaire, Cotton Genesis copied by Vertue. When his manuscripts and books were collected from the Museum, these fragments were inadvertently taken with them to Bristol. There they remained, unidentified and forgotten. In a 1795 catalogue of the Bristol library they were described as 'some pieces of an term old copy of the Septuagint said to ecole de prothesiste have been found in the ruins of the city of of critical thinking Herculaneum'. They were only finally reidentified in 1834 by Frederic Gotch, who wrote to Hartwell Horne, an Under-Librarian at the Museum, pointing out their survival. Horne amended a footnote in one of ecole his publications referring to preventing the Cotton Genesis, but the Museum authorities took no further action.(69) Gotch's discoveries remained virtually unknown until 1881 when he published a transcription of the Bristol fragments as a supplement to Tischendorf's edition of the text of the ecole dentaire, fragments left in the Museum.(70) Five other fragments used by Vertue have never been traced.(71) In his diary for 13 March 1856,(72) the une couleur, redoubtable Keeper of Manuscripts Sir Frederic Madden speculated that the lost fragments might also have been taken to Bristol with Gifford's books. However, they have never been identified there.
More likely they were just thrown away when Gifford's belongings were disposed of. Ecole. In 1928, the Bristol fragments were deposited on define literature research paper, loan at ecole, the Museum, which finally reacquired them in 1962, nearly two hundred years after they had originally left the building.(73) In 1792, Thomas Astle, Keeper of david Records at the Tower of London, urged the Trustees to authorize the compilation of a new catalogue of the Cotton library.(74) Users of the Cotton collection were at this time still chiefly reliant on Smith's 1696 catalogue. De Prothesiste Dentaire. To establish if a manuscript had survived the fire, they had to cross-refer to Casley's 1732 list. In 1777 Samuel Hooper had produced a subject catalogue of the Cotton collection,(75) but, although he published the corrections of paper questions about cancer Maty and Rimius to Casley's schedule of de prothesiste dentaire damaged manuscripts,(76) his work was of limited assistance to readers grappling with Smith and Casley. Accordingly, the Standing Committee of the Trustees ordered the Keeper of Manuscripts, Joseph Planta, to investigate the research, matter. In his report, dated 14 December 1793,(77) Planta declared that most of the volumes contained a great number of dentaire articles 'bound up with very little attention to any arrangement either as to authors, matter or date'. This was particularly a problem with the State Papers which, according to Planta, were collected according to countries but otherwise not arranged in any order.(78) He considered Smith's catalogue wholly deficient, both in its arrangement and in the lack of detailed descriptions of term individual State Papers.
In Planta's view, a new catalogue was certainly required, preferably one following a subject classification. This would also provide an opportunity of rearranging the collection 'in a classical order, which no doubt ought always to have the preference'. Alternatively, the new catalogue should have a detailed index. Luckily, the Trustees were unwilling to see the collection rearranged. Nevertheless, they accepted the need for ecole de prothesiste, a replacement for Smith, and instructed Planta to restore all those manuscripts capable of repair and prepare a new catalogue.(79) The descriptive section of the catalogue was completed by November 1796.(80) The index was compiled between 1796 and 1802,(81) and the whole catalogue finally published by the Record Commission in 1802.(82) The section of the published preface describing the procedures adopted by Planta in conserving and cataloguing the manuscripts is copied almost word for word from a report submitted to the Trustees by him on paper questions about, 4 November 1796.(83) In this report, Planta gives a detailed account of the second phase of major restoration work on the Cotton collection. Planta states that 861 volumes had been brought to the Museum, of which 105 were damaged bundles in cases.(84) This indicates that he concentrated on those burnt manuscripts whose identity was readily ascertainable and dentaire, which had been placed on their arrival in the Museum in the main emperor sequence. He did not attempt to research questions about tackle the ecole dentaire, mass of burnt fragments stored with the Harley Charters. The first problem which confronted him was that the of critical, damaged manuscripts in cases frequently consisted of loose unnumbered sheets or quires. The order of these sheets -- already disrupted as a result of the fire and de prothesiste dentaire, the hasty rescue work in 1731 -- had been further confused by preventing cyber bullying their use in the Reading Room. Planta complained that readers had thrown the manuscripts 'into great, and in many instances, irretrievable confusion'. Consequently, his 'first care on entering on my task, was to cause all the volumes to be regularly paged, or at least the old paging to be regularly ascertained'.
This ink foliation can still be seen on many of the manuscripts.(85) The foliations are in a variety of different hands, and were probably made for Planta by dentaire various attendants in the Department.(86) Damage to the manuscript margins made it difficult to position the numbers and research questions cancer, occasionally the foliators were forced to write them in the middle of the ecole, page.(87) Ink foliation notes are given at research questions cancer, the end of the volumes, using the characteristic early Museum formula 'Constat fol.' Planta then 'proceeded to examine the bundles in cases, and dentaire, found means, after many repeated and not a few unsuccessful attempts, to arrange several volumes and parts of cyber bullying essays volumes of State Papers. Some of the shrivelled MSS. on vellum I likewise found capable of being restored, though not without great care and dexterity on the part of the bookbinder'. In his original report he identifies the ecole de prothesiste, binder as C. 6 Stages Thinking. Elliot, the Museum binder from 1773 to 1815. By these means, fifty-one of the manuscripts kept in cases were restored and ecole dentaire, bound up as forty-four volumes. The remaining sixty-one bundles Planta considered 'irretrievable', but dismissed most of them as 'obscure tracts and fragments of little importance'. Planta's report gives an unduly rosy picture of the condition of the Cotton collection at the conclusion of development his work. Little progress had been made with the damaged vellum manuscripts.(88) A number of important manuscripts were left as loose sheets in cases, including, for example, one of the earliest manuscripts of Bede (Tiberius A. De Prothesiste Dentaire. XIV). Thinking. These loose fragments may perhaps have been sheets which Planta and Elliot had managed to 'restore' by separating and to some extent flattening them. Many other manuscripts were left simply as 'crusts' in cases.
Far from ecole de prothesiste dentaire being 'obscure tracts and fragments of little importance', they included cartularies of St Albans (Tiberius E. VI, Otho D. III), St James, Northampton (Tiberius E. V), the Annals of Dunstable (Tiberius A. X), and the eleventh-century Vitellius Psalter (Vitellius E. Preventing Cyber Bullying Essays. XVIII). Planta's caution arose from a concern that repairing and binding these damaged manuscripts might make matters worse. This is borne out by comments by de prothesiste two later Keepers of 6 stages of critical development Manuscripts. In 1825 Sir Henry Ellis noted that fragments of Cotton Manuscripts had been 'placed in pasteboard cases because it was impossible to bind them without losing more than they had already lost of ecole their respective texts'.(89) Similarly, in 1835 Josiah Forshall reminded a parliamentary Select Committee investigating the Museum that 'In many cases there is a great risk of doing more injury by paper cancer any attempt to repair a manuscript that has been damaged by the fire than if it is left in ecole dentaire, its damaged state'.(90) Like his predecessors in 1731, Planta concentrated on cyber bullying, the paper manuscripts.
Even here restoration was not as comprehensive as his report might suggest. Such important paper manuscripts as the ecole dentaire, autograph manuscript of Buck's History of Richard III (Tiberius E. X), a volume of Joscelin's collections (Vitellius D. Essayer Virtuellement. VII) and a valuable sixteenth-century copy of the Russian Primary Chronicle (Vitellius F. X)(91) were left as loose sheets in cases, as were some volumes of the early State Papers such as Caligula D. IV, V, X and XI.(92) Planta's success in identifying and ecole de prothesiste dentaire, reconstituting the paper manuscripts is difficult to establish. In some cases, he found fewer leaves from the manuscript than were reported as surviving in 1732. In others, he states that the number of folios in the manuscript was greater than that reported not only in 1732, but even in Smith's 1696 catalogue.(93) These discrepancies may be partly due to the rearrangement of papers, but may also suggest that Planta's methods for identifying loose papers and reuniting them with their parent volumes were less rigorous than might be hoped. The major defect of Planta's restoration work, however, was his failure to tackle any of the burnt fragments stored separately with the Harley Charters. Large portions of many of the numerous manuscripts marked 'deest' or 'desideratur' by literature paper him were in fact sitting in a room not far from his study. Nowhere in the catalogue is the existence of this material even hinted at. Planta's complacent account of the state of the collection at de prothesiste, the completion of his catalogue is therefore seriously misleading. It could even be argued that in research term, some ways Planta's work made matters worse. The false impression his catalogue gave of the condition of the manuscripts probably encouraged neglect of the loose unsorted fragments. De Prothesiste Dentaire. In addition, the provision of a catalogue encouraged the use of brittle manuscripts, both bound and unbound, which were not in a fit state for public handling.
The vulnerable edges of the manuscripts were completely unprotected, and pieces of text broke off as they were used by readers. Literature Review Research. Every time one of these damaged manuscripts was issued in the Reading Room, fragments of text were probably left all over the Museum. The effects of the continued handling of these fragile manuscripts have been most strikingly documented in the case of the Beowulf text in Vitellius A. XV. It seems reasonable to assume that this was one of the 105 bundles in cases which Planta found at the beginning of ecole dentaire his work. The state of the manuscript in the 1780s is recorded in the two transcripts associated with the Danish antiquary Grmur Jnsson Thorkelin,(94) which record over 1900 letters which afterwards disappeared as a result of the paper, crumbling of the edges of the manuscript.(95) Apparently, fragments of text were being lost even as the transcripts were being prepared. The manuscript was probably bound by Elliot under Planta's supervision. Planta's catalogue entries usually indicated if a particular volume was kept in a case, and there is ecole de prothesiste, no such reference in essayer de cheveux, his description of Vitellius A. XV.(96) Given the testimony of Ellis, Forshall and Planta himself as to the hazards of binding brittle vellum manuscripts, it seems likely that further damage to the Beowulf text occurred in the process of binding the manuscript in ecole dentaire, the 1790s. Letterman Newspaper Clippings. In 1817, John Conybeare made a detailed comparison between Thorkelin's 1815 edition of the poem and the original manuscript, marking the letters he could no longer see. According to Conybeare, over 900 letters had vanished by 1817.(97) A more accurate collation made by Sir Frederic Madden in 1824 shows even greater loss than that noted by Conybeare.(98) Much of the damage to the manuscript in the early nineteenth century was due to unrestricted handling of it by readers.
Ironically, both Conybeare and dentaire, Madden, by handling the manuscript when making their collations, accelerated the decay. The erosion of the essayer de cheveux, Beowulf text continued until 1845, when the ecole dentaire, manuscript was inlaid, at last providing the fragile edges of the manuscript with some protection and preventing further loss. Presumably a number of essayer une couleur other damaged Cotton Manuscripts suffered similar, if unrecorded, textual losses at this time.(99) Planta's successors as Keepers of Manuscripts, Robert Nares and Francis Douce, did not undertake any further work on the Cotton Manuscripts. The main sequence of Cotton Manuscripts remained with the Royal manuscripts in the seventh room of the upper floor of Montagu House, the ecole dentaire, last of the rooms containing manuscripts. Both collections remained in their original order, the 1808 synopsis of the Museum noting apologetically that 'These two libraries are not classed in a strict scientific order'.(100) At this time, the Cotton Manuscripts occupied twenty-one presses, six more than those allowed for by the Emperor system (including the Appendix as a separate case).
The use of boxes to house some burnt manuscripts presumably made it difficult to development follow the system of one press per emperor.(101) This perhaps prompted the decision to write numerical pressmarks, consisting of a roman numeral for the press and a letter for the shelf, in pencil on the flyleaf of the ecole, manuscripts. Preventing Bullying Essays. Many of these old Montagu House pressmarks can still be seen on flyleaves of Cotton Manuscripts.(102) As long as manuscripts continued to be stored as loose vellum sheets in flimsy boxes, there were endless possibilities for loss and confusion. In June 1825, Sir Henry Ellis, who succeeded Douce as Keeper of Manuscripts in ecole de prothesiste, 1812, reported to the Trustees a misfortune with the autograph manuscript of letterman newspaper Sir George Buck's History of Richard III (Tiberius E. X).(103) A reader called Yarnold had collated the ecole de prothesiste, Cotton manuscript with another in david letterman newspaper, his possession. 'Having but one eye, and very indifferent sight in the other', Yarnold had accidentally taken away half a leaf of the ecole, Cotton manuscript with his own papers. On discovering his mistake, he had returned the fragment. Sometime later, Yarnold's books were sold.
One lot was described as a manuscript of virtuellement Buck. When Ellis went to inspect this as a possible acquisition, he was horrified to discover that the lot consisted of de prothesiste fourteen leaves of the 6 stages of critical, Cotton manuscript. He immediately claimed the leaves as Museum property, and returned them to their proper place. Although the loose fragments and crusts stored with the Harley Charters had not been included in Planta's restoration efforts, they had not been forgotten by the Museum authorities. On 14 May 1825, the de prothesiste dentaire, Standing Committee of the Trustees agreed that a small bundle of cinders and other fragments of Cotton Manuscripts should be sent to William Hyde Wollaston so that he could undertake experiments on them.(104) Wollaston was distinguished as a physiologist, chemist and physicist, who even anticipated some of Faraday's discoveries about electricity. Indeed, it was said that each of newspaper Wollaston's fifty-six papers in many different fields marked 'a distinct advance in the particular science concerned'.(105) The reasons for Wollaston's interest in the Cotton fragments are unclear. His covering letters returning the fragments survive, but do not state what he did to them or how successful his experiments were.(106) In fact, whatever his experiments, the results were disastrous. The state of the leaves treated by Wollaston was described in his diary by Sir Frederic Madden thirty years later: 'these leaves are almost like biscuit , and contracted to one third of their original size! Simply soaking them in water would have been much more effectual. Of these leaves sent to ecole Dr.
W. sixteen prove to be part of Grosthead's Works in Otho D. X, and 6 stages thinking, complete the ecole, volume ; while eleven others belong to the Higden, Otho D. I, and one to Vitellius E. IX'.(107) Madden later reported that he was able to counteract the effects of Wollaston's process by soaking the term, leaves in water, so that they expanded again to 'one half of their original size'.(108) Despite the unpromising results of Wollaston's first experiments, Ellis proposed in June 1825 that he be sent some fragments from the Cotton Genesis.(109) Ellis felt that these leaves would be particularly suitable for experiment, since this manuscript had not been as badly shrunken by the fire as others. He was confident that 'Dr Wollaston's experiments in ecole, this instance may produce some new or important readings for the commentators'. This suggests that Wollaston was not attempting to define flatten the fragments but trying to make them more legible by using some form of chemical agent. The results of his experiments on the Cotton Genesis are not known. Dentaire. Perhaps the most revealing aspect of the affair is Ellis's statement to the Trustees that the Cotton fragments 'do not form a Part of the Collection of Manuscripts at of critical thinking development, the present time but are kept in a garret at the top of the House, perfectly useless to the Museum in every sense of the de prothesiste, word'.(110) Ellis was shortly to be proved quite wrong. In January 1826, a few months after Wollaston had finished his further shrivelling of Cotton fragments, Henry Petrie, Keeper of Records at the Tower, wrote to the Standing Committee of the Trustees, 'expressing a hope that some mode might be devised by which certain masses of the Fragments of the Cotton Library. which are at present preserved in cases, may be rendered readable without the risk of losing portions of their leaves from their adhesion and brittleness whenever an attempt is made to ascertain their contents'.(111) The Committee asked Sir Humphry Davy, a Trustee, to talk to Petrie about the problem.(112) A month later the Standing Committee 'Resolved that the plan proposed by david clippings Sir Humphry Davy of submerging the burnt manuscripts on vellum belonging to the Cottonian collection which were injured in the fire of 1731 be adopted, from time to dentaire time, upon such MSS. as it may be desirable to david letterman clippings examine: also that the edges of such manuscripts may be cut, where there is no writing, for the sake of ecole de prothesiste dentaire separating the leaves'.(113) On 12 May 1826, the Assistant Keeper of Manuscripts, Josiah Forshall, informed the Trustees that 'The means recommended by the President of the Royal Society for the restoration of une couleur these MSS. have been employed with more complete success than could in the first instance have been reasonably anticipated.'(114) Tiberius D. III, a collection of ecole dentaire saints' lives in research term paper, which Petrie had expressed a particular interest, 'was first carefully divided into convenient portions, and these were severally immersed for a longer or shorter time as they appeared more or less scorched.
This immersion and a very partial application of hot water made it practicable to separate the leaves, without any material injury. De Prothesiste Dentaire. By making incisions between the columns and lines of writing, thus making room for an expansion of the parts most shrivelled and contracted by the fire, and by subsequently applying a gentle pressure until the moisture was evaporated, the leaves have been rendered sufficiently flat and smooth to admit of the contents being read for the most part with great facility'.(115) The process recommended by Davy was therefore to soak the manuscript to questions about make it more pliable and then cut it open. Ecole De Prothesiste Dentaire. The exact nature of the solution used to soften the manuscript is not known; Madden reported that it consisted of a solution of spirits of thinking development zinc and water.(116) Encouraged by their success with Tiberius D. De Prothesiste. III, Ellis and Forshall were keen to try and restore some of the fragments stored in the charter garret. Forshall immediately tried the technique on what 'appeared at first sight mere lumps of wax and term paper, cinder'.
After treatment, they proved to be twelfth and thirteenth century charters.(117) During June 1826, Ellis and Forshall sorted through the material in the garret to establish which fragments were worth treating. Ellis described to the Trustees how they had managed to trace nearly a hundred fragments from the Cotton Genesis, which had been placed in a separate box. Likewise, they 'sorted all the dentaire, Fragments which are written in the Saxon language. ; they amount to david clippings some hundreds; these he [Ellis] has placed in another Box; many of ecole de prothesiste them single, and many adhering to each other in thin close masses'.(118) Forshall bore the brunt of this difficult work,(119) which continued after he became Keeper in 1827.(120) About forty manuscripts were treated in this way.(121) The leaves were separated, partially flattened and stored loose in solander cases. Even after treatment the leaves still remained brittle, and were clearly still at great risk from careless handling in of critical, the Reading Room. Madden afterwards described Forshall's efforts as a only 'very partial' attempt at restoration,(122) and this seems to have been a justified criticism.
Nevertheless, substantial progress was made.(123) Forshall's work led to the recovery of a number of important Anglo-Saxon manuscripts which were described by Planta as being either lost or unusable. Among the most spectacular rediscoveries were: the unique manuscript of King Alfred's prosimetrical translation of dentaire Boethius (Otho A. VI);(124) 131 leaves from the Old English translation of the Pastoral Care (Tiberius B. XI), one of only two extant contemporary manuscripts of the Old English translations associated with King Alfred; an eleventh-century copy of Werferth's Old English translation of the Dialogues of Gregory the Great (Otho C. Research. I, vol. 2); the Vitellius Psalter (Vitellius E. XVIII), complete except for eleven leaves, ten of which were afterwards found by Madden; fragments of the insular gospels in Otho C. V; two eleventh-century manuscripts of Ælfric's Homilies (Vitellius C. V and Vitellius D. Ecole De Prothesiste Dentaire. XVII); and a large part of Tiberius A. XV, a composite manuscript including an early eleventh-century copy of Alcuin's letters from Christ Church, Canterbury, and an eighth-century copy of literature review paper Junilius. Among the later manuscripts made available for scholars for the first time since the fire were a number of cartularies and an important manuscript of Layamon (Otho C. XIII).(125) Forshall also located extra leaves of manuscripts probably partly restored by Planta, such as the early Bede (Tiberius A. XIV) to which he added five leaves, and the Worcester cartulary (Tiberius A. XIII). Most notable of all was the work on the Cotton Genesis.
Although the 1732 report stated that sixty fragments of this manuscript had been identified after the fire, Planta could only trace eighteen. In July 1826, Forshall reported that 110 fragments of the volume, previously among the loose fragments in ecole, the charter garret, had been identified, unrolled and research, cleaned, '88 of which it had been found possible to ecole de prothesiste appropriate to their respective places.' These fragments were now 'ready to be numbered and deposited in preventing bullying, cases secure from future injury'.(126) Madden was afterwards to increase the number of fragments preserved to 147.(127) Madden's work in identifying and preserving this manuscript has long been recognized, but Forshall's major role has not been noted. As Forshall proceeded, he also added material recovered from the fragments to the Appendix manuscripts.(128) Above all, however, he also prepared detailed descriptions of the restored volumes, and de prothesiste dentaire, proposed printing these in preventing cyber essays, a supplement to Planta's catalogue.(129) A few of these survive, still unpublished, in copies made for Sir Frederic Madden and inserted in an annotated copy of Planta, preserved in the reference library of the dentaire, Manuscripts Department.(130) Forshall is a forgotten pioneer in define review research, the restoration of the ecole dentaire, Cotton Manuscripts. However, the conservation work undertaken during his Keepership used new techniques, and the results were not always completely satisfactory.
Not only was the restoration incomplete, resulting in a pile of loose brittle leaves in david clippings, a box, but some unnecessary damage was caused. In particular, vellum leaves were cut at the edge both to ecole allow the fat-covered crusts to be opened and individual leaves to be flattened. In subsequent restoration work these incisions were found to be unnecessary and paper about cancer, indeed to be a considerable hindrance to further repair of the leaves.(131) The incisions that Forshall had made account for dentaire, the serrated appearance of the leaves in research paper questions about, many burnt Cotton Manuscripts, and are particularly visible in, for example, Otho B. II, a copy of Alfred's translation of the Pastoral Care,(132) Otho C. Dentaire. XIII, an early copy of Layamon, and research term paper, Otho C. I, volume one, an Anglo-Saxon translation of the Gospels. The greatest blot on Forshall's record in the conservation of the Cotton Manuscripts is the work on the burnt Magna Carta, Cotton Charter xiii. 31a. In May 1834, he drew the dentaire, Trustees' attention to the condition of research term 'Magna Carta and the ancient and de prothesiste dentaire, otherwise valuable charters in the Cottonian MS. Augustus A.II', pointing out une couleur de cheveux virtuellement, that 'all these documents were suffering much injury, owing to the very imperfect manner in which they had originally been secured'.(133) Augustus II contained one of the greatest single concentrations of Anglo-Saxon charters. It is clear from a later report that Forshall was referring in this minute to the burnt Magna Carta rather than the other exemplar (Augustus II.
106).(134) This minute implies that the 136 varied documents with this pressmark were still bound as a single volume, which would inevitably have caused damage to them. Forshall recommended that Hogarth, the restorer who had been used in ecole dentaire, unrolling and fixing the Egyptian papyri (then kept in the Manuscripts Department), should repair and secure the charters.(135) A month later, he reported that this work had been satisfactorily accomplished.(136) In fact, the results as far as the Magna Carta were concerned seem to david letterman clippings have been far from ecole de prothesiste dentaire satisfactory. This document at present is largely unreadable, even under ultra-violet light. 6 Stages Of Critical Development. However, Casley's transcription of it made immediately after the fire, now Cotton Charter xiii. 31b, gives a virtually complete text.(137) Similarly, in ecole de prothesiste, 1733 John Pine published an engraving of the burnt Magna Carta which showed the damage caused by the fire as limited chiefly to the melting of the seal.(138) Moreover, Maty and Rimius reported in 1756 that the document was still 'very legible'.(139) This certainly could not be said of its present condition. Most of the une couleur de cheveux, damage to de prothesiste dentaire this document was, therefore, probably due to the repair work of 1834 rather than the fire, a conclusion supported by Madden's comment that this copy of Magna Carta was 'Injured in the fire of 1731 (and still more by the injudicious treatment it received from Mr Hogarth).'(140) Forshall's restoration work received some public attention during the proceedings of a parliamentary Select Committee into the administration of the of critical thinking development, Museum in 1835-6. The committee had been disturbed by ecole de prothesiste Forshall's statement that 'There were in the year 1824 a great quantity of crusts or fragments of manuscripts remaining unopened'.(141) Pressed by the committee, Forshall explained that he referred only to 'the fragments and relics left by the fire, namely, the remnants of about 130 volumes, which were damaged to a considerable extent, and perhaps much more than one half of research them, being those manuscripts that were very much damaged, remained in the same condition until the year 1824. I thought them, when I came to the Museum, of so much value, that I spent a great deal of pains in washing and opening them. The operation took up much time, and ecole dentaire, occasioned some expense'.(142) Questioned as to how he knew that there were not other Cotton Manuscripts worth unrolling, Forshall emphasized that such a judgement depended on the description in Smith's catalogue, claiming that the value of a burnt crust could be 'ascertained in most cases from preventing essays bare inspection', and that the crusts left unconserved were not worth the expense of unrolling.(143) By this time, Forshall felt, like Planta before him, that he had completed the restoration of the Cotton library and that everything worth saving was available for scholars to consult.
He repeatedly told the Assistant Keeper of Manuscripts, Frederic Madden, that no further Cotton fragments of any value were preserved in the Museum.(144) During the Easter week of 1827, the Manuscript collections of the Museum were transferred from Montagu House to the accommodation in the new Museum building which (until the opening of the St Pancras building) they still occupy.(145) It was at this point that use of the emperor pressmarks for shelving the Cotton Manuscripts finally ceased. The motley mixture of placing systems used in Montagu House was abandoned and replaced by the system still used today.(146) The manuscripts were ranked on the shelf according to size, regardless of previous numeration or subject content. They were then given a separate pressmark. De Prothesiste. At first, this consisted of a roman numeral for the press and a letter for the shelf; from the mid-nineteenth century, arabic numerals were used for the press. Research Questions Cancer. In order to find a particular manuscript on the shelf, it was necessary to refer to a concordance now known as a handlist.(147) These pressmarks were pencilled on ecole de prothesiste, the flyleaf. Research Term Paper. They were also put on the spine, as part of the spine title, preceded by the word `Plut.' for Pluteus or shelf.(148) Later in the nineteenth century, the ecole, modern procedure of using printed labels on the spine for the pressmark was introduced.(149) One of the 1835-6 Select Committee's principal recommendations was that the office of Secretary of the of critical thinking development, Museum should no longer be combined with one of the Keeperships, and, by ecole dentaire April 1837, Forshall had confided to his assistant, Sir Frederic Madden, his intention to retain the office of Secretary and 6 stages of critical thinking, resign as Keeper of Manuscripts.(150) On 17 April, Madden asked Forshall if they could inspect the old charter garret. Madden's diary records what they found:(151) Mr Forshall. went, at my request, up with me to the garret called the Charter-Room (because the dentaire, charters were formerly kept here), and where I had always been told there were only a few fragments not worth the bother of dusting or sorting.
To my great surprise however, I found a large collection of Bagford's Title-pages. covered with the accumulated dust of nearly 80 years, also a large quantity of fragments and crusts of the burnt Cotton MSS. many of which appeared to me well worth the process of cyber essays restoration. Mr F. had always assured me he had selected from them every thing worth preserving, but I saw enough before me to doubt the accuracy of his statement, and going on with my searches, I discovered in an old cupboard the identical Cartulary of Christ Church Twinham in Hampshire [Tiberius D. VI], which I have so often and so fruitlessly inquired after, and very little the worse for the fire, except being wrinkled up! Is not this very disgraceful of the Keepers of ecole de prothesiste MSS. from the middle of the last century to the present day. I saw enough to make me resolve in my own mind, to have the entire room cleared out, whenever it should be my lot to be Keeper of the MSS. and I resolved at once to david bring down into my own room the two large bundles which formed the Christ Church Cartulary, and a third bundle which apparently contains an ecole de prothesiste dentaire English Chronicle. I left up in the garret fragments of crusts of vellum enough to fill several bushel baskets, likewise a box full of cyber bullying receipts of Sir Robert Cotton's, and ecole de prothesiste dentaire, three boxes said to cyber contain the refuse of the Hargrave collection. It is very much to the discredit of ecole de prothesiste dentaire Mr F that affairs should have remained thus, and so I believe he felt, when I produced to him the long lost Christ Church Cartulary, which he had declared to me over and over again could not by of critical thinking any possibility exist! Madden took the Christchurch Cartulary fragments back to his room, and began washing and flattening them, using the methods pioneered by Davy and Forshall.
His personal diary for ecole dentaire, 26 April 1837 notes: Continued the preventing bullying, washing pressing of the ecole de prothesiste, burnt Cartulary of Ch. Research Paper. Ch. Twinham, Hants., which I am happy to find, will be perfectly legible, after it has undergone the de prothesiste, process. The Calendar of virtuellement Contents prefixed is complete, so that I shall be able by that means to easily arrange the leaves which have lost their numbering. The account given of this Priory in dentaire, the New Editn. of the Monasticon is essayer de cheveux virtuellement, very trifling, and, Ellis declares, without any reason, that the Cartulary was lost in the Cotton fire!(152) In July 1837, Madden was appointed Keeper of Manuscripts. De Prothesiste Dentaire. On 16 August, he began to 'make a list of all the Cotton MSS. that were injured by the fire of 1731 and their present state -- with a view of identifying, as far as possible, the mass of fragments still remaining in 6 stages, the old Charter Room'.(153) On his return from holiday in dentaire, October 1837, Madden badgered Forshall into handing over the keys of the charter room,(154) and define literature research, immediately made a further examination of its contents. He gave a detailed account of the material stored there in his work diary for ecole, 31 October 1837 (afterwards adding notes on further investigations undertaken during November):
Went up in the old Charter Room looked out Bagford's long neglected loose collections -- also the remainder of the Cartulary of Ch[rist] Ch[urch] Twinham, Hants and define literature review research paper, many other valuable fragments which I propose to have restored. The contents of this room are at de prothesiste dentaire, present as follows. 1. David Newspaper. A very large box filled with fragments of burnt vellum Cotton MSS. the greater part broken and single leaves. In a dreadful state of dirt and confusion. (lock) 2. A large box, recently made, containing the ecole dentaire, more entire portions of the burnt vellum Cotton MSS. (lock) 3. A large box recently made, containing portions of the burnt paper Cotton MSS. and also bundles of Cotton bills Accounts c. (lock) 4. A box, locked, but found to be empty, when forced open on 23d Nov. 5. Paper About Cancer. A larger box, containing Hargrave law papers (opened 23 Nov.) 6. A box containing the refuse of the Lansdowne Collection, placed here by Sir H. Ellis (Nailed down)(155)
7. A small box containing papers relating to the British Fishery Company (chiefly powers of dentaire attorney) and some miscellaneous papers of no value, the latter placed there by myself.(156) As Madden's annotations indicate, these precious boxes of Cotton fragments were locked up again after he had examined them, but he removed some of the larger vellum fragments and on 2 November again spent most of the day personally washing and flattening the further fragments of the david letterman clippings, cartulary of Christchurch Priory he had found.(157) Madden was a native of Hampshire and planned to write a history of the county.(158) The rediscovery of the Christchurch Cartulary was an achievement of which he was particularly proud.(159) The fact that Madden himself made the first attempts at dentaire, restoring the Christchurch Cartulary indicates the limited resources for major conservation work at his disposal. He doubted whether the thinking, Museum's binder, Charles Tuckett, was equal to ecole de prothesiste the intricate task of dealing with the brittle vellum fragments. Forshall had preferred to use Hogarth on more delicate work, such as unrolling the research about cancer, Egyptian papyri, and even he had caused great damage when working on the burnt Magna Carta. On 11 January 1838, Madden reported to the Trustees: that he has received from Dr [Bulkeley] Bandinel, chief librarian of the Bodleian Library, and Dr [Philip] Bliss, Registrar, very strong testimonials in favour of a person named [Henry] Gough, who has been extensively employed to repair, inlay, and restore damaged manuscripts in ecole de prothesiste, the Bodleian and several of the College Libraries at Oxford. [He] recommends most seriously, that he should be permitted to have a trial, in the restoration of the burnt Cotton charters (now from the state in which they are in, impossible to be used), and also on essays, a few of the most valuable MSS. such as the Greek psalter on papyrus, purchased of Dr Hogg;(160) the fragments of the burnt Cotton Genesis; the remains of the Saxon Boethius, and other Saxon fragments, which cannot at present [be] consulted without injury to them, and which require a very practiced hand to restore them. Ecole De Prothesiste. Dr Bandinel assures Sir F.M. that the review, terms of Gough are very moderate. He is at present still employed at Oxford, but will shortly come up to ecole London.(161)
It is evident that Madden did not at this stage envisage using Gough for a full-scale restoration of the paper questions about cancer, Cotton Manuscripts. He perhaps thought the Trustees would be nervous of the ecole de prothesiste, cost of such a project. Essayer Virtuellement. Instead, he seems to have intended using Gough to protect those manuscripts of which large sections had been recovered by Forshall and which were in de prothesiste, danger of essayer une couleur virtuellement damage as a result of the handling of loose unprotected leaves in the Reading Room. It is noticeable that Madden does not mention here his discoveries in the garret. His concern that the Trustees would shrink from the cost of such elaborate conservation work was justified. De Prothesiste. On 26 May, they refused Gough's services.(162) Madden noted in his diary: 'I am of opinion they neglect the term, interests of this Department by dentaire such a step'.(163) He continued working himself on some of the newly recovered fragments. In his personal diary for 17 July 1838, he wrote: 'Went up in the Old Charter Room and finished looking over the larger box containing the burnt Cotton fragments, and selecting the best portion. Flattened a few leaves of the valuable Cotton Genesis, which had been overlooked by Mr Forshall.'(164) On the following day, he 'Flattened some fragments of paper about Saxon MSS. and discovered two leaves of the curious Proverbs ascribed to Alfred [Galba A. XIX], supposed to have been totally destroyed in the fire'.(165)
The impetus for the full restoration of the Cotton collection came not from Madden, but from ecole de prothesiste that ubiquitous figure in essayer, nineteenth-century manuscript studies, Sir Thomas Phillipps. On 10 October 1838 Phillipps wrote to William Richard Hamilton, a Museum Trustee, expressing his concern about the condition of the damaged Cotton Manuscripts and dentaire, suggesting that the most valuable should be transcribed before they were sent for binding.(166) The Trustees were at last persuaded of the need for action and instructed Madden to repair a report on the damaged Cotton Manuscripts, indicating which were sufficiently important to be worth the expense of transcription. Madden replied on 6 stages of critical development, 13 December with a masterly survey of the ecole dentaire, condition of the Cotton Manuscripts.(167) This was more comprehensive than any previous survey of the condition of the research term paper, manuscripts, since he described all the volumes damaged in the fire, not just the most badly affected manuscripts. He divided the de prothesiste dentaire, damaged manuscripts (as distinct from the fragments) into three classes. The first comprised 'Those MSS. Essayer De Cheveux. which by the agency of heat have been compressed and corrugated, with the edges burnt, and in many cases, broken, torn, and dirtied. Dentaire. These are in number 35, all of which, if skilfully flattened, inlaid and repaired, might be protected from further injury, and rendered in a comparatively good condition for thinking development, general use'.(168) Madden pointed out that 'Many of these MSS. are among the most valuable of those possessed by the Museum, such for ecole, instance, as the unique Saxon poem of Beowulf [Vitellius A. XV], the une couleur virtuellement, Saxon Grammar of Ælfric [Julius A. De Prothesiste Dentaire. II], a copy of the essayer une couleur, Saxon Chronicle [Tiberius B. Ecole De Prothesiste. IV], two copies of Bede's Ecclesiastical History, probably nearly contemporary with the author [Tiberius C. II, and presumably Tiberius A. Paper. XIV, although this was in fact stored as loose leaves at ecole, this time, and was elsewhere correctly assigned by clippings Madden to the third class]; two exceedingly curious copies of ecole Aratus c., with illuminations, of the tenth and eleventh centuries [Tiberius B. V and C. I], a Psalter with a Saxon Gloss [Tiberius C. VI]; the Cartulary of Worcester with the Saxon Charters c. Research Term Paper. [Tiberius A. Dentaire. XIII]'. He observed that 'None of these MSS. Essayer. are at present in ecole, a state fit for general use and they are constantly receiving fresh injuries'. There was in Madden's view no alternative to the full restoration of these manuscripts: 'The expenses of transcription would be enormous, and to copy the illuminations of some impossible. Research Paper. Sir F.M. thinks that the whole of this class ought to be repaired with as little delay as possible'. He stressed to the Trustees his view that the Museum's own binder, Charles Tuckett, was not sufficiently skilled for ecole de prothesiste, this delicate work. He did not restrict himself to the Cotton Manuscripts, and research paper about cancer, pointed out that some of the Royal Manuscripts, also affected by the fire at de prothesiste, Ashburnham House, needed treatment.
He drew the Trustees' attention in particular to Royal MS. 15 C. XI, 'containing a very valuable copy of Plautus of the 11th century', which had been badly damaged by damp and also required careful inlaying and repair. Madden's second class of damaged manuscripts consisted of 'those MSS. Essays. (chiefly on paper) which have been burnt on the edges and part of the ecole de prothesiste dentaire, writing injured or are otherwise out of repair.' These manuscripts were no less valuable than those in the first class, since they 'comprehend a very large portion of the original State Correspondence between England and other countries from the reign of Henry the research term paper, Eighth to the reign of James the ecole, First'. This was by far the largest category of manuscripts requiring repair, 134 in cyber, all.(169) Unlike the manuscripts of the first class, Madden felt that all were 'capable of being inlaid or bound by Tuckett'. However, there was a high risk of further loss or damage in de prothesiste, this operation. Madden stressed that 'in numerous instances the written edges must sustain further injury in being handled'. It was consequently 'highly desirable that many of the letters should be transcribed before they are placed in the binder's hands'. The third class of damaged manuscripts consisted of those loose leaves in solander cases, chiefly the manuscripts reclaimed by Forshall but also including a number which Planta had been reluctant to have bound up. Paper Questions About. Madden assigned 67 manuscripts to this class, including some portions of paper manuscripts kept as loose leaves in cases, presumably since Planta's time.(170) He recommended that these manuscripts should also be inlaid and bound, and the most vulnerable parts transcribed. He suggested that it was to one of these manuscripts, a cartulary of St Albans, that Sir Thomas Phillipps had referred in ecole de prothesiste, his letter.(171) Madden pointed out that the edges of this manuscript had been ' greatly injured and broken by readers'.
This was certainly a manuscript worthy of full transcription. This, Madden emphasized, was merely the tip of the iceberg, namely those manuscripts available in the Reading Room and kept with the main manuscript collections. There were also the 'burnt fragments or crusts of the research term, Cotton library, which fill three large boxes, among which are various Saxon portions and other valuable remains (all deserving of transcription)', as well as 'the injured Cotton Charters, which fill two drawers, all of which might be flattened and preserved by a skilful person'. He concluded by stressing once again the need for outside help in contemplating such a project. He sought to 'press on the attention of the Trustees. the necessity of employing some competent person, who shall put the Cotton Library into a complete state of repair'. He also returned to an old hobbyhorse, the need of attaching a transcriber to the department 'whose sole business should be to transcribe and copy. The utility of such a measure must soon become apparent, for many of the Royal and other autographs are wearing out from constant use, and the same is the case in ecole dentaire, regard to the Indexes to the Heraldic Visitations and collections of pedigrees'. Madden's report provided a blueprint for the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts.
His classification and listing of the different types of damaged manuscripts provided the cyber bullying, basis on which the work was organized over the next forty years. His analysis of the treatment required was acute and needed little modification as the work proceeded. He backed up his case by laying before the Trustees some of the most damaged manuscripts in the first class, but, not surprisingly, they were alarmed at the scale of the project Madden had unfolded before them. Ecole. In particular, they were worried about the cost of restoring the vellum manuscripts, and were reluctant to make use of Gough. The Trustees therefore decided to concentrate on the manuscripts in preventing bullying essays, Madden's second class, which could be managed by Tuckett.
They ordered that the damaged paper manuscripts should be repaired, and on ecole de prothesiste dentaire, 10 January 1839, Madden presented them with a detailed list of these manuscripts.(172) Twenty-five of these were marked by him as at risk of serious textual loss in the course of binding. He described these as consisting largely 'of Original State Correspondence and Papers between England and France, 1577-1620, between England and david letterman newspaper, Belgium, 1516-1586, and between England and Rome, 1509-1529'. He proposed that a transcript should be bound up leaf by leaf with the original. The remaining manuscripts in de prothesiste dentaire, this list only required careful repairing and rebinding, so that the labour of transcribing their contents before binding was not justifiable. These included not only damaged paper manuscripts, but also a few of the less badly injured vellum manuscripts. In order to reduce the cost of the proposed transcriptions, Madden suggested 'the plan not of copying these papers in intire , but only the marginal words, which run the risk of being broken off in the hands of the reader or binder (indeed(173) several of this class of scorched MSS. have already materially so suffered), and after the literature, transcript is ecole, made, to thinking bind it up leaf by leaf with the original.'(174) Madden describes the Trustees' reactions to his proposals: 'although they saw with their own eyes confessed the necessity, yet the expense (about 300£) seemed such a bugbear in their eyes, that they would only authorise me to have one volume done in the manner I proposed'.(175) It was agreed to prepare a transcript of Caligula E. VII as a trial.(176) The experiment proved unsuccessful. On 29 June Madden had regretfully to recommend that the preparation of transcripts of damaged volumes be discontinued, as the transcripts would have almost doubled the ecole, size of the collection and there was not enough room in research paper, the presses to accommodate them.(177) It was therefore agreed that 'all of this class should be inlaid and rebound forthwith by dentaire Tuckett'.(178) On 11 July 1839, work finally began in earnest. Madden gave Tuckett the binder Caligula E. Of Critical. VII, as well as one of the injured Saxon charters.(179) Once started, the restoration of the paper manuscripts proceeded quickly. By the end of de prothesiste dentaire 1841 the bulk of the manuscripts in this category had been successfully repaired.(180) Madden had not forgotten the damaged vellum manuscripts.
His reaction to the Trustees' decision to concentrate on the paper manuscripts was to 6 stages development urge on them 'the propriety of placing certain restrictions on de prothesiste dentaire, the use of the damaged Cotton MSS. until they shall have been secured against further injury'.(181) He gave a characteristically vivid description of the danger facing these manuscripts: 'At present every person who receives a ticket to the Reading Room, has thereby a sanction to send for every MS. in the collection, without regard to its condition or value, and it may be adviseable, without placing any check to term paper the researches of persons properly qualified to examine MSS. to put these arrangements on a somewhat different footing.' Manuscripts were at de prothesiste, this time read in bullying essays, the general Reading Room.(182) Asked to ecole de prothesiste outline what changes he would make, he proposed issuing 'a distinct ticket for readers wishing to use MSS.'(183) This proposal did not find favour and Madden's later attempts to preventing cyber essays ensure that the more valuable manuscripts did not leave his department caused great antagonism.(184) During 1840, although much preoccupied with the repair of the paper manuscripts, Madden nevertheless found time to make some preliminary notes on the contents of the boxes of burnt fragments and to ecole de prothesiste dentaire prepare a further detailed schedule of the current condition of the damaged manuscripts.(185) He had also given to Tuckett for 6 stages of critical, inlaying a few of the damaged vellum manuscripts of the first class which he felt Tuckett could be trusted with.(186) The continued threat to dentaire the vellum manuscripts that resulted from allowing them to remain as loose leaves is illustrated by an incident involving Forshall. Already on 27 May 1841, Forshall had located among his belongings 'some fragments of term one of the injured Cotton MSS. and transcripts of a few of the Norreys papers in ecole, the handwriting of Mr Stevenson'.(187) On 3 April 1843, Madden was checking a transcription of Tiberius A. X and found ff. 141-172 missing.(188) He ordered an immediate search.
Two days later 'To my great surprise Mr Forshall brought me the missing portion of cancer Tib. A X, ff. 141-172 together with some other fragments of vellum Cotton MSS. Ecole Dentaire. which had been laying, unnoticed, in cyber bullying essays, a wicker basket, covered by his private papers, since the year 1825! How he can explain this, is wonderful to me; for my own part I think him greatly to blame in this matter. Among the fragments in this basket I found portions of the 2d text of Layamon, which I am vexed at, as I have been prevented from ecole de prothesiste including the lines in my edition'.(189) In 1841, Madden returned to the offensive on behalf of the vellum manuscripts, and on 5 May he again drew the of critical, Trustees' attention to 'the deplorable condition of the valuable Cottonian MSS. on vellum ' and 'the injuries to which they are now daily subject.
He therefore urgently(190) recommends(191) that Mr Gough, the person employed formerly to repair MSS. in the Bodleian Library, should be allowed a trial, to repair one of the injured Cotton MSS. and de prothesiste, if successful, that he should be allowed to proceed until the whole are in a fit state of repair.'(192) The timing of this report was perfect. Three days later the Trustees made a visitation of the Manuscripts Department. Madden describes how 'They sent for me to confer respecting the reparation of the injured vellum Cotton MSS. and preventing essays, after much discussion, authorised a trial to be made on two or three detached leaves'.(193) With an evident sense of ecole de prothesiste relief, Madden noted that 'The address of H. Gough, the david letterman clippings, person to be employed, is 26 Lower Islington Terrace, Cloudesley Square, Islington'.(194) Gough called on de prothesiste dentaire, Madden and Sir Frederic 'placed in his hands three vellum leaves much injured, to flatten and inlay'.(195) On 29 May, Gough returned to research paper about Madden the three trial leaves. As a further test, Madden gave him three more 'of a better description'.(196) On 3 June, Madden wrote in his personal diary 'In the de prothesiste dentaire, evening received from Gough the additional fragments of 6 stages of critical thinking injured Cotton MSS. that I placed in his hands. On the dentaire, whole, he has certainly succeeded as I anticipated, and it is very clear that many of the injured MSS. may be carefully inlaid rendered fit for use.'(197) On 9 June, Madden submitted the fragments flattened and david clippings, inlaid by dentaire Gough to the Trustees and 6 stages thinking, reported:(198) 'Mr Gough would be willing to employ his time in this description of work at ecole de prothesiste, the rate of 12s. per diem, from 9 in the morning till 4 in the afternoon.
He estimates the time and labor expended on term, the six fragments placed in dentaire, his hands to be about a day's work, but he states that if regularly employed, a much greater number of leaves, say from 10 to 16 might be taken in research paper, hand at the same time, consequently greater progress made.(199) Sir F.M. recommends that Gough should be allowed to ecole proceed with the flattening and cyber, inlaying of ecole de prothesiste such of the valuable Cottonian MSS. as are at present in loose leaves , such as the Saxon Boethius, Otho A. VI, the letterman newspaper clippings, interlineary Saxon Psalter, Vitell. E. XVIII, the Saxon Gospels and Gregory's Dialogues, Otho C. I, Alcuin's Letters, Tib. A. XV, the Cartulary of de prothesiste Christchurch Twinham, Tib. Paper Cancer. D. VI. etc. These volumes might then be bound and allowed to be used, without fear of further injury.' Thus Madden's first priority was to de prothesiste dentaire inlay the manuscripts separated by Forshall and of critical development, preserved as loose leaves, with the addition of the dentaire, Christchurch Cartulary, treated by define literature research Madden himself in the same way. Madden doubtless hoped that this strategy would help reduce the initial costs of the exercise. The Trustees once again took fright at the cost, asking the Principal Librarian, Ellis, to seek further information.
Madden was furious. 'The Trustees act most shamefully and disgracefully in ecole dentaire, this business', he grumbled.(200) His exasperation is evident in his reply of July 1 to Ellis.(201) 'In reply to your note of 16 June on the subject of the injured Cotton MSS. on vellum the necessity of paper having them repaired', he wrote, `I beg leave to de prothesiste dentaire refer you to cyber bullying my reports of 11 Jany 1838, 13 Dec. 1838, 3 Jan. 1839, 7 March 1839, 5 May 1841 and 9 June 1841 which contain, I conceive, every information that the Trustees or yourself could require'. Ecole De Prothesiste. However, he went on essayer une couleur de cheveux, to give a detailed breakdown of the amount of work required. The number of cases containing loose leaves was, Madden reckoned, altogether 71, amounting altogether to about 7300 leaves. With the ecole, exception of thinking one case, containing about 200 leaves, all this material was 'of great value '. Ecole De Prothesiste. In the drawers in his own room, there were a further 450 leaves, and additionally about a thousand leaves had recently been extracted from the boxes in the garret as suitable for treatment. This gave a total of 8750 leaves requiring work, which Madden rounded up to 9000 leaves. Madden guessed that, of these, about 2900 leaves were from Anglo-Saxon manuscripts. Another 5700 leaves were from historical manuscripts, including monastic cartularies. Cyber. The final 400 consisted of theological works from before the twelfth century.
Madden felt that it was 'decidedly expedient' to have all this material treated by Gough. He pointed out that 'The greater part by far of these consists of inedited matter , of a very valuable description.' The size of the leaves varied 'from folio to 12mo of course the expense would vary with the size'. Despite these detailed figures, it was still difficult to produce an accurate costing of the work, and Madden urged that, to establish this, Gough should be allowed 'to flatten and inlay three of these MSS. simultaneously '. He also took the opportunity of a visitation of the Trustees on 19 June 1841 to press the case further. In his personal diary, he noted that 'Mr Speaker then inquired relative to the success of Gough's experiment on de prothesiste, the injured MSS. and came into my private room, accompanied by the Archbishop, Lord Ashburton, and others, and research paper about cancer, I shewed them and urged the necessity of repairing the Cotton vellum MSS. Dentaire. seriatim. They all appeared to approve of research paper about cancer what I said, particularly the Archbishop, who said that Gough had been working for him in de prothesiste, the Lambeth Library and that his charges were very moderate.'(202) Eventually, on 15 July, the Trustees authorized Madden to employ Gough to flatten and inlay three of the damaged vellum manuscripts stored as loose leaves, namely the Vitellius Psalter (Vitellius E. XVIII), the Christchurch Cartulary (Tiberius D. VI) and the volume containing a copy of essays Alcuin's letters (Tiberius A. XV). It was afterwards decided to de prothesiste leave the Alcuin volume for the time being, and use the Old English Gospels, Otho C. I, volume one, for the trial instead.(203) It was some time before Gough was able to de cheveux start work.
The manuscripts were not allowed to leave Museum premises and, as always, space was a problem. In his work diary for 19 November 1841, Madden noted showing Gough the rooms beneath the Manuscripts Department and elsewhere, and discussing the subject with Ellis. 'The only dentaire room he can possibly use (before Hogarth finishes his work) is the small room underneath my own, which is very badly lighted and very damp. I ordered the room to be thoroughly cleaned a fire to be kept constantly, to see the effect.'(204) Gough eventually started work, beginning with the bullying, Vitellius Psalter. Ecole Dentaire. By May 1842 he had inlaid the research term paper, leaves of the manuscript in paper mounts, which were then bound by Tuckett. Ecole De Prothesiste. By November 1842, he had also inlaid Otho C. I and Tiberius D. VI, which were similarly bound up by Tuckett.(205) On 10 November 1842, Madden laid the results of clippings Gough's work before the Trustees: For nearly a century none of ecole dentaire these MSS. were accessible for newspaper clippings, literary purposes, and even within these last few years when a partial restoration was attempted it was impossible to handle them, particularly the Saxon volumes, without causing further damage.
They are now completely secured for the future, and can be consulted without fear of de prothesiste any additional injury. In regard to the expense, the great value of the MSS. of this class, in clippings, Sir F. M.'s opinion, sufficiently authorise it and he begs leave to remark, that in ecole, the payments made to Gough, no charge is made by him for literature research paper, the tracing paper at 12s. per quire or isinglass at 14s per ecole dentaire, lb.; things not generally used, but essential to preserve the flexibility of the leaves. Mr Gough also remarks with justice, that the time labor required to inlay MSS. that have previously been flattened by incisions (as is the case with those now completed) is far greater than if the leaves had remained intact . The great proportion however of the MSS. proposed to be restored and inlaid, are of the latter class . Sir F.M. trusts that the volumes will meet with the approbation of the Trustees, and that Mr Gough will be authorised to proceed with the work so well commenced.(206) Despite Madden's reassurances, the Trustees, worried at essayer une couleur, the expense, would agree to Gough's working only on ecole de prothesiste dentaire, 'four or five of the paper questions, more valuable MSS. which Sir F.M. is to select'.(207) Madden chose Tiberius B. V, Tiberius C. VI, Otho A. VI and ecole de prothesiste dentaire, 'one without a number', a household book of Edward I. Gough completed these by April 1843, then delivered what must have been a body-blow to Madden, by cyber essays writing on 19 April to ecole de prothesiste dentaire say that 'having made his mind to reside at Oxford, he should resign his employment at the Museum'.(208) Madden's comment in his work diary, 'This really is vexatious', sounds an letterman understatement.(209) Two days later, when Gough brought up to Madden the inlaid leaves of ecole dentaire Tiberius C. VI and essayer une couleur, Otho A. VI, Madden tried to persuade him to change his mind. Madden recorded that 'He will discontinue his work here for the present, but I am in hopes that he will be able to give 3 months of his time yearly to ecole de prothesiste the Museum, after he is settled in Oxford'.(210) Gough's departure put paid to further work on the vellum manuscripts in 1843, and Madden had to report to the Trustees that 'no person could be found to supply Gough's place, and research paper, until he resumes and proceeds with the work undertaken by him, Sir F. M. feels himself under the necessity of witholding from the readers several valuable MSS. too much injured to ecole de prothesiste be handled'.(211) In January 1844, Gough was able to research resume the work for three months,(212) but it was not until January 1845 that Madden was able finally to settle this problem. On 17 January, Madden reported to the Trustees: 'Mr Gough now proposes, to ecole dentaire give up the whole of his time to the Museum, until the research, injured Cotton vellum MSS. are entirely restored; and to facilitate this, he begs to be allowed an assistant at the rate of dentaire 5d per david letterman, diem.'(213) The assistant Gough had in mind was his son Philip, who started work at de prothesiste dentaire, the Museum in cyber bullying, March 1845, and continued until November 1849.(214) The Trustees' minute of 18 March 1845 approving this also gave Madden permission to 'proceed with the reparation of the burnt vellum MSS. until all which deserve the ecole, expenditure [in Madden's view, every single one] are completed'.(215)
For nearly seven years Madden had been seeking authorization from the david letterman newspaper, Trustees for a full programme for the restoration of the damaged Cotton Manuscripts. At last he had secured it. He interpreted the Trustees' instructions as widely as possible. Not only de prothesiste dentaire were the damaged manuscripts repaired but the condition of the whole collection was checked, and all necessary repairs undertaken. Having been given the carte blanche he wanted, Madden ensured that work proceeded as quickly as possible. 1845 proved to research about cancer be the annus mirabilis of conservation work on the Cotton collection. Ecole De Prothesiste. Gough inlaid twelve manuscripts, including the Beowulf manuscript (Vitellius A. XV), the preventing essays, early Bede (Tiberius A. De Prothesiste Dentaire. XIV), and the Old English translation of the Pastoral Care, reuniting the fragments numbered Appendix 43 with those under the original number of the manuscript, Otho B. III, as well as cartularies from Chertsey and Winchcombe.(216) In 1846, Gough dealt with a further eleven manuscripts, including the autograph manuscript of Knighton's Chronicle, Tiberius C. VII, and Otho B. XI, a tenth-century compilation of Old English historical works, including a translation of Bede and a version of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.(217) In the meantime, Tuckett had continued with the paper manuscripts and some of the term paper, less badly damaged vellum material.
Indeed, Madden's confidence in Tuckett's ability to deal with damaged vellum manuscripts increased, and ecole de prothesiste, from 1847 Tuckett was allowed to inlay the leaves of some of the older vellum manuscripts.(218) Eventually, his work in this respect began to equal if not surpass that of Gough. On 24 March 1852, Madden noted that 'Tuckett's workman has been able to open the MS. of Capgrave [Otho D. IX] which Gough injured so much. I shall put the worst in his hands. Gough's work could draw to letterman clippings a close in another twelvemonth or so'.(219) By 1852, the Trustees were growing anxious about the length of time the restoration was taking, and asked Madden to indicate 'which of these MSS. still unrestored he would specify as deserving the earliest attention, and ecole de prothesiste, how many in the whole, he would regard as requiring restoration'.(220) This was a difficult question to answer. At the beginning of of critical development his work on ecole dentaire, the Cotton Manuscripts, Madden had been able to find manuscripts from the loose fragments which were still largely intact and could be readily identified. As the david clippings, work progressed, however, more and more shapeless 'black lumps' and 'crusts' were being sent down for treatment. These could not be identified until they were opened up and ecole de prothesiste, flattened. Thus, in his personal diary for 7 June 1851, Madden recorded that 'Mr Gough brought me up inlaid, the burnt Cotton MS. David Letterman Newspaper. lump I lately placed in his hands, and on examining it, I found it to be Vitellius F.III, which is stated to ecole de prothesiste be totally lost both by Casley and Planta. It contains the Lives of several saints c. by Ailred of Rievaux, and 6 stages thinking development, is a fine copy of the 12th century, and nearly perfect.'(221)
Madden therefore laid before the Trustees a selection of the burnt lumps and crusts to show them the impossibility of ascertaining their contents 'in their present miserable state of cremation, dirt and neglect'.(222) However, he also proposed an important change in procedure to ecole de prothesiste speed up the 6 stages development, work.(223) He suggested 'that instead of taking each single lump, and fragment, and after flattening it, proceeding to inlay it, as at ecole de prothesiste dentaire, present, that for bullying, the present Mr Gough should be directed to confine his operations wholly to the task of de prothesiste cleaning, separating and research paper, flattening, until the whole have been done. By this means, very great progress could be made, and Sir F. M. would be enabled, as the mass was rendered capable of ecole de prothesiste dentaire examination, to class the leaves portions together, so as to form volumes. Research. When this was done, the more valuable volumes might then be inlaid, according to the instructions of the ecole, Trustees.' In his book of reports Madden noted sourly that ' No notice was taken of this Report '.(224) He nevertheless took this as assent to his proposal for bullying, a preliminary flattening of the burnt crusts, and ecole dentaire, from July 1852 Gough concentrated on separating and flattening loose leaves.(225) During 1852, not only were Tiberius B. VI, Otho A. VII, Otho C. XI, part of david letterman Otho D. X, Otho E. XII and XIII, and Vitellius F. VII -- all supposed to have been lost in the fire -- identified, flattened, inlaid, collated and bound, but also 4939 loose leaves had been flattened, 2894 identified and 1375 inlaid.(226) By 1854, Madden was able to report that 'the entire mass of the burnt vellum fragments of the Cottonian Collection (which originally in bulk would have filled a small cart) have now been flattened not a scrap remains unexamined '.(227) Two years later, the de prothesiste, inlaying of these fragments had been completed and on 30 October 1856, Madden was finally able to report that Gough would within a few days complete his 'long and arduous work' in inlaying the fragments.(228) Madden lost no opportunity to publicize these achievements. Paper Questions About Cancer. In 1850, a Royal Commission investigated the Museum. Ecole De Prothesiste Dentaire. Madden proudly laid before them some examples of restored Cotton Manuscripts, including the Christchurch Cartulary, and described how two hundred of the damaged manuscripts had been inlaid and of the de cheveux, vellum alone about 7,000 leaves, of which 2,000 had been inlaid in ecole de prothesiste dentaire, 1849.(229) The centrepiece of the first public exhibition of manuscripts at preventing cyber, the Museum in 1851, arranged on de prothesiste, the occasion of the research term paper, Great Exhibition, was a drawing commissioned by Gough from the miniaturist and accomplished imitator of medieval manuscripts, Caleb W. Wing, showing an early manuscript of Roger of ecole dentaire Wendover's chronicle, Otho B. V, before and after its restoration by Gough.(230) This remarkable drawing dramatically illustrates the extent and skill of Gough's restoration. Indeed, this was more like resurrection than restoration.(231) To emphasize the point, the exhibition also included an example of term a burnt manuscript from the Royal Library, Royal MS. Ecole De Prothesiste Dentaire. 9 C. X, which was deliberately left unconserved to illustrate the condition of the manuscripts before treatment.(232) The departure of Gough did not mark the end of the work on literature research paper, the Cotton Manuscripts.
He left behind a huge quantity of loose leaves, each one carefully inlaid, which required identification and sorting, perhaps the most arduous task of all. In the ecole, early 1860s, Madden enlisted the help of a number of research paper questions his brightest assistants, including the young Edward Maunde Thompson, in a final assault on the fragments.(233) It was largely as a result of de prothesiste dentaire this concentration on the Cotton material that the cataloguing backlog for which Madden was afterwards criticized built up.(234) By 1864, this last work on the fragments was well advanced. Madden could afford to feel, if not complacent, then at least pleased with himself for having pushed to the verge of research paper completion one of the largest programmes of manuscript conservation ever undertaken, even if the Trustees failed to de prothesiste dentaire recognize its importance. On 10 March 1864, Madden recorded in his personal diary: Gave into the hands of Mr Thompson, one of my assistants, the whole of the remaining vellum fragments of the Cottonian Collection, not yet bound, or not identified, with instructions for him and Mr Scott [Edward Scott, afterwards Keeper of Manuscripts], to go carefully over them, and arrange such as are identified, and then identify, as far as possible, the rest. I have long had this work at david letterman, heart, as, when it is done, I shall be able finally to bind up in boards the whole of what now remains of the loose 'refuse' of the Cotton MSS. left after the fire of 1731 and de prothesiste, which by my own labor and define research paper, perseverance were rescued from dentaire dust and oblivion , when thrown together in heaps in one of the garrets of the old Museum building. I shall be truly glad to get this completed before I quit the Museum. Research Term Paper. I may then give a brief list of the de prothesiste dentaire, Volumes or portions of this noble collection, which have been rescued from destruction, and made available to literature scholars. Ecole De Prothesiste. I have received no thanks from the Trustees, nor indeed from the Public, for the pains I have taken since 1844 to restore these missing portions of the Cottonian Collection, but I have the satisfaction of my own conscience in having undertaken and carried out a task so onerous and difficult, that I do not believe any other man living would have attempted it.(235)
When he wrote these words, Madden was unaware that the work on the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts was about to receive its greatest setback. On the evening of 10 July 1865, Madden was writing letters in his residence when at about 9 o'clock 'we were alarmed by questions about cancer a report that Mr Panizzi's house was on fire! It was the work of a few moments to fly downstairs, put on my boots and de prothesiste dentaire, overcoat, get out the Museum keys, and rush into the Court. The first thing I saw was an immense column of black smoke, followed by flames, rising apparently out of the corridor leading to Mr. P's house, but on approaching closer, I perceived that the david letterman newspaper, fire was not in the corridor but in ecole dentaire, Tuckett's the binder's work shops! The sight was terrible, for I knew that many MSS. of value had lately been sent down to him!'(236) The Museum's fire drill did not prove very effective. Policemen with vital keys could not be found; the define literature research paper, fireman was on dentaire, leave, and no trained replacements could be found, so that on the first attempt to use the fire hydrants, the une couleur de cheveux virtuellement, hose burst; Panizzi was (as usual, comments Madden) dining out, and did not return until midnight; when the fire brigade, summoned by telegram, arrived after half an hour with two fire engines, only one could be used. 'Such a want of organization (after all the fair printed rules and instructions)', declared Madden, 'I never beheld in my life'.
The fire raged for over an hour. By 10.15 pm it had been put out, and Madden sent one of his attendants, George Gatfield, to try and find out de prothesiste dentaire, which manuscripts had been damaged. Fortunately most of the research paper questions about cancer, manuscripts had been placed in an iron safe in ecole, the stone-vaulted room where the Duke of Bedford's muniments were formerly deposited and had escaped injury. This left the manuscripts actually in the hands of the workmen to research be accounted for. At eleven, Gatfield brought Madden a parcel of ecole vellum manuscripts recovered from the workshop.
It was burnt on the outside and saturated with water. 'I could not tell what they were, but put them away to dry. I was very weary and vexed beyond measure at so unfortunate an occurance, although I had always feared it !' On the following day, Madden visited the devastated bindery to survey the damage. It appeared that the cause of the fire was a charcoal brazier in the finishing room, and the manuscripts left overnight in virtuellement, this room had been destroyed and damaged. Madden ordered one of the assistants, Richard Sims, to make a complete list of manuscripts sent down to the binder, and check it by those returned so as to ascertain the extent of the loss. 'The MSS. brought to my house last night by Gatfield prove to be the remains of several Cottonian MSS. which after having had so much labor time expended on ecole dentaire, them, in flattening, inlaying, identifying, collating arranging, had been finally described and sent down to be bound. It is most unfortunate that these remains, saved almost by miracle from the fire of 1731 should now again, after the lapse of above 130 years be again partially burnt. The water has done almost as much damage as the fire, and the whole are in a very sad plight.' Madden gave his deputy, Edward Augustus Bond, instructions as to the salvage work to define literature review be undertaken on the manuscripts, and went to de prothesiste acquaint some of the Trustees with the bad news. He returned to the scene of the literature review research paper, disaster in the afternoon. 'Some Persian MSS have been recovered (partly in the sewing room up stairs) but I am distressed to learn that the Anglo-Saxon copy of Gregory's Pastoral Care, in Tib. B. XI (which Mr Hamilton and myself had in our hands so recently, to ascertain the places of a few loose leaves) has been entirely destroyed as has also a vellum MS. of the Arundel Collection, No.
243.' The techniques used by Madden and his staff in trying to ecole de prothesiste rescue the research paper about cancer, damaged manuscripts were much the same as those employed in 1731: 'All my Assistants, aided by Mr Bond and ecole, myself, were at une couleur de cheveux virtuellement, work to separate the burnt soaked leaves of dentaire vellum and about cancer, paper, and then, with the help of one of C. Tuckett's men, to wash them, and hang them on ecole, lines to dry.' The scene understandably saddened Madden: 'It is a truly melancholy sight, and unlucky to the last degree, for the binder's man had no occasion to keep the Anglo-Saxon MS. out all night. It ought to essayer une couleur virtuellement have been restored to the iron safe. I met Mr. P[anizzi] and accompanied him and his sneaking shadow Jones to Tuckett's rooms, where Mr. P. De Prothesiste Dentaire. behaved like a brute!' The 1865 Bindery fire was arguably the greatest single disaster to the collections since the establishment of the research paper questions, Museum in 1753. In terms of the quality and ecole de prothesiste, importance of material destroyed, the loss was greater than the destruction of a large number of printed books by enemy action during World War II. There was initially some difficulty in establishing which manuscripts had been in the bindery.(237) One at least (Arundel MS. 152) had been taken down as a pattern without Madden's knowledge. Others, at research questions about, first thought lost, were afterwards found,(238) whereas other volumes thought only to have been damaged had been completely destroyed. The process of separating, drying and identifying the surviving fragments took at least two months.(239)
The most notable loss was Tiberius B. XI, a late ninth-century copy of King Alfred's Old English translation of Gregory the Great's Pastoral Care. Madden described the circumstances of its destruction: 'it lay on a board immediately above the bin of dentaire charcoal, and a slate slab was placed above it. The slate flew into fragments from the research, heat, and ecole dentaire, the MS. (a good thick folio written on vellum, bound in russia) must have fallen into the midst of the burning charcoal.'(240) Eight tiny fragments from Tiberius B. XI were eventually identified (at what date is not clear -- probably within a month or two of the fire) and are all that remains of the define literature paper, manuscript today.(241) In the event, three Cotton Manuscripts were completely destroyed in dentaire, the fire: Galba A. I, II and III. Galba A. I was a fifteenth-century historical collection containing a copy of Murimoth's Chronicle, proceedings of the Council of Florence and other texts.
Thought to be totally destroyed in 1731, Madden had managed to recover 52 leaves of it before they all perished in research, the bindery fire. Galba A. II and III were a collection of Old English sermons, also recorded as lost in ecole, 1731, of which Madden had found a large part. In addition to Tiberius B. 6 Stages Of Critical Development. XI, another twelve manuscripts, already burnt in 1731, suffered further severe damage in de prothesiste, 1865: Galba A. XIX, Otho A. I, IX-XII, XIV, Otho B. III-IV, IX, XII and Tiberius E. XI. Of these, Madden singled out as particularly regrettable the damage to Otho A. X, containing the unique text of Æthelweard's chronicle, and Otho A. XII, the manuscript which formerly contained The Battle of Maldon and Asser. At the time of the fire, Madden believed that seven leaves of Asser had been found and restored to Otho A. XII. In fact, these leaves were from the text of Æthelweard in Otho A. X.(242) Apart from the Cotton Manuscripts, which bore the brunt of the effects of the fire, Arundel MS. 343 and of critical, Egerton MSS. 1961 and 1962 were completely destroyed.
Arundel MS. 152 and Additional MSS. De Prothesiste. 25686 and 25805 were severely damaged. A final blow was the loss of the complete impression of the third volume of Madden's long-standing bugbear, the Catalogue of Maps and Topographical Drawings , on which Madden's former Assistant Keeper, John Holmes, had, to Madden's great annoyance, laboured for many years, which Madden himself had spent a great amount of time finally preparing for the press after Holmes' death, and for which Madden had prepared an important appendix of research corrections and additions, only to ecole dentaire see it suppressed by Panizzi and the Trustees. Preventing Bullying Essays. As a result of the fire, this volume of the catalogue was not finally published until 1962.(243) The undoing of so much of his recent work on the Cotton Manuscripts devastated Madden. At loggerheads with Panizzi and the prevailing Museum ethos, he felt that all his achievements had been wilfully overlooked by the Trustees and sank into despondency. The last straw came in the following year, 1866, when, despite Madden's great seniority, the Keeper of Printed Books, John Winter Jones, was appointed over his head as Principal Librarian. He decided to retire.
On 12 July 1866, he submitted a last memorial to the Trustees reminding them how, in the twenty-nine years since he had been appointed Keeper, the collections had doubled in size, accurate registers and inventories of the manuscripts been prepared, and many catalogues produced.(244) He then went on to describe his work on the Cotton Manuscripts: 'it is not too much for me to say, that, after the lapse of ecole de prothesiste dentaire more than twenty years, I may claim, without egotism, the title of the Restorer of the 6 stages thinking development, Cottonian Library, for ecole de prothesiste dentaire, out of the number of volumes supposed to literature paper be lost or destroyed, above one hundred under my direction and superintendence have been in great measure recovered, and the whole of the damaged volumes have been repaired, and ecole, rendered accessible'. He retired on 29 September 1866. His official diary for the previous Saturday, 22 September, describes how he took his leave of the Cotton Manuscripts: Completed notes of Cotton MSS. and placed in preventing cyber essays, Mr Thompson's hands the whole of the remaining fragments on de prothesiste, vellum paper of the Cotton MSS. to be prepared for the binder. I now say Finis to my long and arduous labors on this Collection during so many years, by means of which upwards of 100 volumes have been restored for use supposed to term be lost or totally useless! The schedule of injured MSS. made by ecole my direction, compared with Planta's Catalogue of the Cottonian MSS. in literature research, 1802 will prove the extent of what I have done, but for which I have neither received recompense nor thanks!! (245) The story of ecole Madden's forty-year struggle to restore fully the essayer de cheveux, Cotton Manuscripts is a heroic one, with, perhaps, a whiff of tragedy in its conclusion. The scale of the achievement of Madden and ecole dentaire, his colleagues is even more apparent when the techniques used in recovering these burnt manuscripts are considered. An appreciation of this process is essential to a full understanding of the present structure of many of the de cheveux virtuellement, Cotton Manuscripts.
The records of Madden's work on the Cotton Manuscripts are voluminous. Madden's massive personal diaries, forty-three large foolscap volumes covering the period 1819 to ecole de prothesiste 1872, contain much information about the preventing cyber essays, Cotton library. However, as Madden himself makes clear,(246) his personal diary was not the main record of his day-to-day work in the Manuscripts Department. He kept a more detailed record of his work as Keeper in his official diaries, preserved in the British Library.(247) In these 'memoranda of business' every action of Madden as Keeper -- whether letter, conversation, meeting, cataloguing, binding order or recommendation for purchase -- is de prothesiste dentaire, carefully recorded. The official diaries provide the key for tracing Madden's activities as Restorer of the Cotton library. They are supplemented by the volumes containing Madden's draft reports to the Trustees.(248) These contain not only such major reports as Madden's memorandum of 13 December 1838 giving his plan for the restoration of the Cotton collection, but also his monthly reports to the Trustees giving precise details of the gradual progress of the work. Some assistance in define literature paper, tracing the main reports relating to the Cotton collection is provided by three notebooks compiled by de prothesiste dentaire Madden containing digests of newspaper key information from dentaire his reports and elsewhere arranged alphabetically by subject.(249) These notebooks were intended to assist Madden in giving evidence to the Royal Commission into the Museum in 1848 and 1849.
The constant anxiety of the Trustees about the cost of the work on the Cotton Manuscripts has been noted. In July 1849, Madden 'Began to make a complete list of the Cotton MSS. in reference to preventing cyber the binding, inlaying and de prothesiste dentaire, repairs since the year 1839 collected from the vouchers and binders books'.(250) This notebook was kept up until 1866 and provides perhaps the best overview of the work on individual manuscripts.(251) Details are given in manuscript order of the exact treatment each volume received, the date when it was done, the number of folios in the volume, and the binder responsible for the work (either 'T', Tuckett, or 'G', Gough).(252) In 1845, Madden purchased a copy of the 1732 report on the fire which he had interleaved and which he also used to help keep track of the restoration work.(253) These records presumably provided the basis for the detailed description of the current condition of the Cotton Manuscripts prepared for Madden in 1866. This exists in three versions, namely a draft corrected by 6 stages thinking Madden,(254) and two fair copies, which are in the form of interleaved copies of the ecole dentaire, 1732 report.(255) A number of Madden's working lists and notes on damaged Cotton Manuscripts also survive, but are difficult to questions about use because they have been bound up in de prothesiste, the wrong order.(256) The most important was probably that prepared by Madden in 1837, which he described as 'a list of the whole of the MSS. then damaged or destroyed, with an account of the contents of each, how far injured, and what repairs they have subsequently received, collected from the printed notes of Smith, Wanley, Casley, Maty, Hooper, Planta c. and the MS. notes of Mr Forshall and himself'. Madden, unlike Forshall, did not make any concerted attempt to define literature describe the manuscripts restored by de prothesiste dentaire him. The only research paper questions about cancer exceptions were some of the State Papers, for ecole dentaire, which Madden and une couleur de cheveux virtuellement, his Assistant Keeper, Bond, prepared detailed lists of the ecole, articles not noted in Planta. Preventing Essays. These have never been published, and indeed were not made publicly available until 1983.(257) Of great value are the numerous annotations by Madden in the copy of Planta kept in ecole, the Keeper of research paper questions cancer Manuscripts' Room and preserved in the Departmental Reference library. This volume summarizes much of the information about the structure of the Cotton library accrued in the process of restoration. Ecole De Prothesiste Dentaire. Nevertheless, it is a bewildering and patchy compilation. Newspaper. The rearrangement, reidentification and recovery of masses of material is recorded in a very piecemeal fashion, through a mass of scribbled notes, many of them by dentaire Madden and sometimes vitriolic in their denunciation of earlier workers on the collection.
Another valuable source for preventing cyber essays, the history of the restoration under Madden is the printed annual returns of progress in the British Museum, which list each of the ecole de prothesiste dentaire, Cotton Manuscripts restored year by year.(258) Finally, Madden's own annotations on the manuscripts themselves often contain valuable information. His notes on the flyleaf of the Cotton Genesis, for example, provide a particularly lucid summary of the misfortunes of this manuscript. Much of this material lay hidden from public view until recently. Madden left a box containing his personal diaries and other material to une couleur the Bodleian Library but these were reserved from public use until 1 January 1920. When the box was opened, it was found that the contents consisted of not only the personal diaries but also Madden's official diaries, report books and lists of acquisitions. Recognising that these belonged more properly to the Museum's Archives, the Curators of the Bodleian Library offered them to the Trustees.(259) The then Keeper of ecole de prothesiste manuscripts, Julius Gilson, reported that these volumes 'are almost wholly concerned with the business of the Department of une couleur virtuellement MSS. and would naturally have remained as part of its archives, but for the evidence they contain of the difficult relations between Sir Frederic Madden and the then Principal Librarian, Sir A. Panizzi'. Gilson therefore recommended that this material should be accepted as a gift to the Museum, but proposed that 'they remain part of the ecole dentaire, archives of the define research paper, department instead of being placed with collections open to the public, to whom they would be of little use'.(260) These vital records of the restoration process consequently remained in the Departmental Archives, virtually unknown, until they were incorporated as Additional Manuscripts in 1981. Similarly, Madden's notes on dentaire, his restoration work, including the ledger recording the work on each manuscript, were kept in the Departmental Archives until 1983, when they were also made Additional Manuscripts. Perhaps partly as a result of this, printed references to Madden's work on the Cotton Manuscripts are few and far between. In 1854, Gustav Waagen, in his guide to Treasures of Art in Great Britain , described how in 1835, on his first visit to the British Museum, the leaves of the Cotton Genesis were 'still quite crumpled up with the effects of the fire'.
By 1854, 'they had been successfully smoothed out, and define literature review research, mounted on separate sheets of ecole dentaire paper, so as to admit a due estimate being formed of their style of une couleur virtuellement art'.(261) Julius Zupitza in his 1882 facsimile of Beowulf noted how further textual losses to the manuscript had been stopped by a new binding. He observed, however, that 'admirably as this was done, the binder could not help covering some letters or portions of letters in every back page with the de prothesiste dentaire, edge of the paper which now surrounds every parchment leaf'.(262) Zupitza does not mention Madden's name, neither does he indicate that the work on Vitellius A. XV was part of a general restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts. A few other editions of texts rescued by Madden also mentioned his work.(263) More detailed accounts of the restoration process were given in two nineteenth-century guides to the Museum Library. In 1854, Madden's trusty transcriber, Richard Sims, in term paper, his unofficial Handbook to the Library of the British Museum , gave a lucid short account of the restoration.(264) The work of Madden and Forshall was also briefly noted by Edward Edwards in his 1859 Memoirs of Libraries .(265) Of recent histories of the Museum, Esdaile gives Madden's work the briefest passing mention,(266) while Miller refers only to the discovery of material in ecole de prothesiste, the garret in 1837.(267) It was not until 1981 that the procedures adopted by Madden and his binders in restoring the about cancer, Cotton Manuscripts were first described in detail, by de prothesiste dentaire Professor Kevin S. Kiernan in his groundbreaking book Beowulf and the Beowulf Manuscript . Kiernan describes the procedure adopted in inlaying the individual leaves of the Beowulf manuscript in the following terms: The binder first made pencil tracings of the separate folio leaves on 6 stages of critical, sheets of heavy construction paper. These tracings are usually quite visible in the MS. the ecole, binder then cut out the center of the research term, paper, following the outline, but leaving from 1 to de prothesiste 2 mm. of paper within the literature, traced line, so that the frame would be slightly smaller than the vellum leaf it was designed to hold. Paste was then applied to dentaire this marginal retaining space, and cyber, the folio was pressed into place. Finally, transparent paper strips were pasted on like Scotch tape along the edge of the vellum on the recto, thus to ecole de prothesiste dentaire secure the mounted leaf from both sides.(268) Kiernan points out the advantages of this procedure. Term. It saves having to ecole dentaire handle the vellum while consulting the manuscript. Moreover, it avoids the risk of confusing leaves inherent in handling the loose vellum.
The drawback is 6 stages, that the edges of the paper frames cover letters and parts of letters on the verso of ecole each leaf, which are thus effectively lost. However, as Kiernan points out, at least 'there is something left to try and decipher; without the paper frames many of these uncertain letters would now be gone'.(269) In 1983, Kiernan triumphantly vindicated this conservation strategy. Newspaper Clippings. He showed that by lighting the obscured vellum from dentaire behind with a cold fibre-optic light source, many of the covered letters could be read.(270) Recently, Kiernan has used a digital camera to record images of the obscured letters and letterman newspaper, demonstrated the use of computer imaging to restore the hidden letters to their place in the manuscript.(271) Thus, by stabilizing the condition of the vellum, Madden and Gough had allowed future scholars, using technological aids undreamt of in the mid-nineteenth century, to read letters which would otherwise have disappeared in the British Museum Reading Room in the nineteenth century. Kiernan's work on the Beowulf manuscript has implications for the study of all Cotton Manuscripts inlaid in this way. Wherever the text on the verso of an de prothesiste inlaid leaf runs up to the edge of the paper frame, there is likely to be text concealed beneath the edge of the mount, which may be read with the aid of fibre-optic backlighting. This applies to both vellum and paper manuscripts, since many of the burnt paper volumes were inlaid in a similar fashion, although usually using much lighter paper than in the case of the vellum manuscripts. 6 Stages Thinking. Moreover, the inlaying of the paper manuscripts, undertaken by Tuckett, was often much more clumsily done than with the vellum manuscripts, so larger portions of text are concealed beneath the mounts. The first of the Cotton Manuscripts to be inlaid in this way was a paper manuscript, Vitellius F. Ecole De Prothesiste Dentaire. V, the paper questions about, sixteenth-century diary of ecole dentaire Henry Machyn, a merchant tailor of London, which contains, along with much other heraldic information, the first description of a Lord Mayor's Show. The restoration of this manuscript was supervised by Madden in 1829, while he was still Forshall's assistant.(272) Madden noted that 'The fragments forming the present Volume were formerly kept in a case, without any regard to order, and are thus decribed by Dr Smith(273) in his Catalogue. Cod. Questions About. chartac. in ecole dentaire, fol. constans foliis solutis circiter 150 in pixide asservatis, quae rite disponere frustra tentavimus .'(274) The paper leaves were badly singed around the edges by the fire, but none were lost.(275) The pages were inlaid by Tuckett using exactly the same technique as the later restorations.(276) Much lighter paper was used for the frames of Vitellius F. V than in subsequent restorations and the inlay was less skilfully done. Nevertheless, the result is an impressive first attempt.
Just as in the Beowulf manuscript, the paper mounts conceal odd letters and words around the une couleur de cheveux virtuellement, edges of the leaves on the verso which can now be read by the use of de prothesiste fibre-optic light.(277) Madden took the inlaid leaves of thinking development Vitellius F. V and compared them with Strype, who, in Madden's words, 'made use of the MS. when perfect, and who quotes largely from it'; Madden was thus able to restore the manuscript to its original order. He carefully noted the month and year of each entry in ink at the top of each page, and, wherever an entry is mentioned by Strype, gives the reference in pencil on the manuscript itself. His comment on the work might serve as a motto for the whole restoration process: 'The curiosity and value of these fragments seemed a sufficient warrant for the labor and time consumed in arranging them in their present form'.(278) As a result of Madden's work, John Gough Nichols was able to produce the first full edition of Machyn's diary in de prothesiste dentaire, 1848.(279) Madden was sufficiently pleased with the results of this first experiment to have two further burnt paper manuscripts in define literature research, the Vitellius press, Vitellius F. IV and VIII (which afterwards turned out to in fact be folios 1-95 of Otho D. IV) inlaid and rebound in September 1834, three years before he became Keeper.(280) These early prototypes show that the credit for devising the de prothesiste dentaire, techniques used in term paper, restoring the Cotton Manuscripts belongs to Madden, though he may have been inspired by examples of Gough's work he had seen in Oxford.
This is confirmed by Madden's stress on the fact that the volumes were restored 'under my superintendence' and the way in which he gave both Gough and Tuckett very detailed instructions on the procedures they were to use. The physical labour involved in ecole de prothesiste dentaire, the work undertaken by Gough and Tuckett was enormous. They had to preventing cyber open up, clean, flatten, make frames for and mount thousands of leaves. Each stage of the work required manual dexterity and skill of the highest order. Ecole De Prothesiste. Just as arduous, however, was the intellectual labour involved in identifying and arranging the review research, inlaid leaves.
As these were returned to Madden, he checked their order, making amendments as necessary, and then passed them over to Tuckett for binding. De Prothesiste. It should be noted that, in this respect, the notes made by Madden in the binding ledger, Additional MS. 62577, as to the binder responsible for particular pieces of work are misleading. Even where the letter G appears beside a note that a volume was inlaid and rebound, Gough was responsible only for the inlaying of the leaves. The inlaid folios arranged by Madden were actually bound up by Tuckett. Gough's time was too valuable to be spent on such routine tasks.(281) Madden provides little information in his diaries and elsewhere as to the exact procedures adopted by him in sorting and bullying essays, arranging the inlaid leaves.(282) References to work on de prothesiste dentaire, individual manuscripts are usually frustratingly vague, but it is clear that, in establishing the order of the leaves, he relied heavily on early catalogues such as Smith and Wanley. In his personal diary for 26 May 1854, he notes that he 'Collated the Cottonian MS.
Otho D. X (now inlaid) with Smith's list of contents. Originally it consisted of 291 leaves, but previous to research Smith's Catalogue (1696), thirty six leaves had been cut out, leaving only 255 and at ecole, present I find only 239 much injured by fire'.(283) By 1865, Madden had traced the term, remaining leaves and placed them in the appropriate places in the volume.(284) In other cases, the process of arrangement was more complex. On 29 March 1845, Madden 'Began to arrange for the binder the vellum fragments of MS. Cotton Otho B. II containing Alfred's Saxon version of ecole dentaire Gregory de Cura Pastorale. This volume was much injured in david letterman clippings, the fire of 1731, and only 49 leaves remain of it, which have been inlaid by Gough. I am enabled to place them in order by ecole de prothesiste dentaire comparing each leaf with the printed Latin text of Gregory's work, a tedious and rather difficult task.'(285) Madden was still engaged on this work four months later.(286) The reconstructed Otho B. II was then used as an aid in arranging another copy of the same text, Tiberius B. Letterman Clippings. XI.(287) The complexity of the ecole de prothesiste dentaire, task confronting by Madden and the care with which he carried it out is evident, to take a random example, from a collection of twelfth-century historical works, Otho D. VII. The surviving manuscript includes works by Diceto, Robert de Torigni, Ailred of Rievaulx and Henry of Huntingdon.
These represent a very partial survival of the original volume, comprising parts of articles 3, 5-8 and 11 of the manuscript as described by Smith. In the essayer une couleur virtuellement, first of the surviving articles, Diceto's Abbreviatio Chronicorum , the order of the dentaire, leaves has been determined by reference to two different manuscripts (Royal MS. 13 E. VI and Cotton MS. Claudius E. III) together with Twysden's printed edition. Detailed references to these various works are supplied in pencil on the paper frames of the leaves. On f. 10 a reference to the Royal MS. has been replaced with one from Claudius E. III and the folio number altered from 6 to 9 and then 10, apparently reflecting a rearrangement. Between ff. 15 and 25 there are a number of literature review research paper erased pencil numerations which show leaves being fed in to the sequence and rearranged while still loose. Ecole Dentaire. After f. 14, where two leaves are noted as missing, blank paper leaves, already ruled with ink borders, have been provided to receive the questions cancer, blank leaves if found.
On ff. 26 and 27 inlaid leaves have been pasted into previously prepared blank leaves of ecole this type. Confusingly, these extra leaves were not foliated when they were added to the volume and the foliation of the letterman, subsequent leaves was not altered. Madden also attempted at various points to indicate the ecole, original pre-fire foliation of particular leaves (e.g. ff. 62-65). This was useful to him in sorting, but, as it was not consistently done or clearly labelled, it was likely afterwards to cause great confusion.
To provide guidance for the binder, Madden put an extra foliation on the top right hand corner, which is de cheveux, still just visible, though heavily cropped and largely erased. The foliation sequences provide important clues as to the stages in the restoration process, as can be seen also from the insular gospel fragment, Otho C. V.(288) Casley reported that 'some pieces of leaves' of this manuscript had survived the fire and indeed illustrates one of them.(289) Nevertheless, the manuscript is described as wanting by Planta. The fragments were eventually retrieved from the refuse in the garret by Forshall, cut open and flattened. The manuscript consisted in ecole de prothesiste, 1841 of sixty loose leaves.(290) However, six of the fragments thought by Forshall to term paper belong to Otho C. V were in fact from ecole de prothesiste dentaire Otho A. I.(291) Moreover, some of the fragments now joined together to define review research paper form a single folio were probably separate in ecole, Forshall's time.(292) Nevertheless, it is clear that the bulk of the manuscript was recovered by Forshall, and that the cyber bullying, additions made by Madden from the loose material in the garret were relatively few. The leaves treated by Forshall can be identified from the 'notching' left when the manuscript was cut open, a practice abandoned under Madden.(293) The volume, including the six leaves from de prothesiste Otho A. I, was inlaid by Gough and arranged by Madden during the latter part of 1848.(294) A much heavier grade paper than usual was used for the inlay, perhaps in order more effectively to protect the fragments, which are particularly brittle.
In arranging the leaves, Madden painstakingly wrote the biblical references for each leaf on the top of the paper mount. Some of the points at research paper, which identification proved particularly difficult are evident from the occasional erasure and correction of these references.(295) During the course of the arrangement, Madden established that some fragments belonged to the same folio and could be joined together, so he returned them to Gough to be inlaid again.(296) The old foliation in dentaire, the top right hand corner of the ink border framing the essayer une couleur de cheveux virtuellement, inlaid leaf was made by de prothesiste dentaire Madden shortly before he sent the leaves to Tuckett to be bound. Four leaves were added to the sequence after Madden had completed this foliation(297) and 6 stages development, were given starred folio numbers. In 1855, seven years after the manuscript was bound, six of the leaves which Madden's assistant Hamilton(298) realised in ecole de prothesiste, fact came from Otho A. I(299) were removed.(300) There is no disruption in the sequence of Madden's foliation and his binding ledger does not show that the manuscript was rebound after 1848. The most reasonable inference from this is that the newspaper clippings, leaves from Otho A. Ecole Dentaire. I had been placed at the end of the research paper, volume and could be removed without disrupting the foliation. De Prothesiste. At the same time as the leaves from Otho A. I were removed, Hamilton is also reported to essayer de cheveux virtuellement have 'inserted some fragments' in Otho C. V.(301) Since the only indication of any disruption in the foliation are the four starred folios, the most likely explanation is that these are the fragments identified by Hamilton, which were presumably tipped in to the old binding. Unfortunately, all other evidence of dentaire this rearrangement was destroyed when the preventing bullying essays, inlaid leaves of Otho C. V were mounted on guards and rebound in 1963.(302)
Although the various foliations are vital evidence of the restoration process, one of the weaknesses of Madden's work was the confusion he left in the referencing system of particular manuscripts. New leaves were inserted and their order altered but the foliation was not amended. Occasionally, asterisks were used to indicate additional folios, but this was not consistently done. Thus, in Vitellius C. VIII, Madden inserted new material after Planta's f. 139. He continued Planta's foliation sequence from this point in ecole de prothesiste, pencil up to f. 153, then used starred foliation for some further added leaves. However, he did not alter the numeration of the remaining leaves with a Planta foliation.
As a result, before 1875, the manuscript contained two sets of ff. Term. 148-153. Such a situation was clearly unsatisfactory, and was one of the reasons for the refoliation of all the Cotton Manuscripts in the 1870s and 1880s, when Madden's successors, Bond and Thompson, introduced the system of foliation still used in the Department of Manuscripts.(303) The work performed by Madden and his team on the arrangement of the de prothesiste, restored leaves was a bibliographical and palaeographical tour de force . Their tools were limited in scope: Smith, Wanley and questions about cancer, a handful of very old editions. Ecole De Prothesiste. Many of the fragments were scorched and shrunk beyond recognition. Modern aids such as ultra-violet light and even a table-lamp were unavailable. The task of sorting and of critical, arrangement of the dentaire, leaves became even more formidable after 1852 when the fragments started to be flattened and inlaid without preliminary sorting.
By 1856, thousands of inlaid and unsorted loose leaves had accumulated in folders, each of which had to be individually identified. In the meantime, Madden was growing older and research term, his sight began to deteriorate. He therefore started to involve his most competent assistants in the sorting and arrangement of the fragments. Ecole De Prothesiste Dentaire. The first to be recruited in this way was his Assistant Keeper, Edward Augustus Bond, who was to succeed Madden as Keeper and afterwards rose to be Principal Librarian. In 1850, Madden noted that he 'Gave Tiberius A. XV into Mr Bond's hands to arrange.'(304) Bond was also extensively involved in work on the State Papers. Cyber Essays. Some of Madden's assistants were unequal to the task. In 1853, Madden complained that he had been 'Employed in collating the Cotton MS. Otho D. I (which was done in ecole de prothesiste, a very slovenly way previously by Mr Lerieu, one of essayer de cheveux virtuellement my assistants) and inserted 17 additional leaves'.
Three years later, 'Mr Lerieu brought me the de prothesiste, remains of MS. Cott. Calig. D. X, XI, E. I and E. Letterman Clippings. II which have been in his hands ever since 1852'.(305) More enthusiastic about the work was N.E.S.A. Hamilton, who in ecole de prothesiste, 1876 published the Inquisitio Comitatus Cantabrigiensis ,(306) a text which came to his attention as a result of his work with the Cotton Manuscripts. This document records an early stage in the Domesday survey of Cambridgeshire and was (erroneously) hailed by no less a figure than John Horace Round as 'the true key to the Domesday Survey'.(307) In Galbraith's view, Round's misinterpretation of the function of this document, compounded by Maitland's acceptance of Round's position, fundamentally distorted Domesday studies until very recently.(308) Hamilton's edition of the Inquisitio was dedicated to the memory of Madden, 'the greatest palaeographer of the age', and in his introduction Hamilton described how he had been asked by Madden 'to arrange and where possible to restore to their proper places a considerable number of cyber essays separate and damaged leaves, which were known to belong to manuscripts in the Cotton collection; and it was while thus employed that he made the discovery of the important nature of the Domesday portion of the manuscript [Tiberius A. Dentaire. VI].'(309) Madden urged Hamilton to publish the text, which had been omitted from Henry Ellis's edition of Domesday-related material even though it was in the same manuscript as another text, the Inquisitio Eliensis , which had been included.(310) Hamilton did a great deal of work on define review paper, the Cotton fragments, but was not wholly reliable.
On 31 January 1854, Madden recorded how 'Mr Hamilton identified the Cotton MS. Append. XXXI to be Vitellius F.VI said by Planta to be lost ';(311) on closer examination three months later Madden felt some doubts about the identification, observing that 'It does not correspond satisfactorily with Smith, but it maybe'.(312) In the 1860s, Hamilton was assigned the arrangement of the remaining Old English fragments, most of ecole de prothesiste dentaire which are now in essayer, Otho A. VIII, Otho B. X and Otho B. XI.(313) These three volumes are among those where recent work has revealed serious deficiencies in the arrangement, with leaves inserted upside down and assigned to the wrong manuscripts.(314) It seems that these volumes were in an even worse state when they left Hamilton's hands and were sent to Madden for checking. On 12 May 1863, Madden, while examining these volumes, 'Identified 5 leaves of the Anglo-Saxon Boethius, Otho A. Ecole De Prothesiste. VI, and directed them to essays be inserted in ecole, their places which I ascertained by collation with Rawlinson's edition. Mr Hamilton (to whom I have previously given the Anglo-Saxon fragments) made sad work of them. Five leaves of Boethius he notes as Colloquy. Description of une couleur de cheveux Britain!!'.(315) Even so, when Madden sent the checked volumes to the binder, very obvious errors in the reconstruction remained, evidence perhaps of his own failing powers.(316) Madden's most important associate in the task of ecole de prothesiste identifying and arranging the of critical development, fragments was the young Edward Maunde Thompson. Thompson had been a clerk in Panizzi's office, and de prothesiste, was transferred, at Panizzi's insistence, to Manuscripts in une couleur, 1862.(317) Despite this unpromising start, he soon distinguished himself. In May 1863, Thompson identified article 3 of Vitellius A. III(318), located a number of ecole de prothesiste fragments from Otho A. III and rearranged Vitellius A. VII.(319) On 1 June, he found the last eleven leaves of the chronicle of Roger of Wendover, Otho B. V.(320) 'This is important', Madden declared.(321) On the following day, 'Mr Thompson identified the leaves of the commencement of Tib.
A. IX which were missing before 1734 when the Report on the Library was printed, also the nine last leaves of Vitell. A. VIII.'(322) Madden was delighted: 'Mr Thompson is a most useful assistant his services more valuable than several of the older ones'.(323) However, even Thompson was not above making mistakes. He seems to paper about have been responsible for identifying seven leaves from ecole Æthelweard's chronicle, Otho A. X, as part of the literature paper, unique manuscript of Asser, the first article of Otho A. XII,(324) a mistake which seriously misled Henry Bradshaw in his account of the placenames in Asser(325) and ecole, was only rectified by Sir George Warner some years later.(326) These leaves, further damaged in the bindery fire, still form the first seven folios of Otho A. XII. It is perhaps only research term when mistakes like this come to light that the modern reader becomes conscious that many of the Cotton Manuscripts are in a way replicas or reconstitutions, made from the original materials by Madden and his colleagues. The words of ecole de prothesiste Susan Sontag describing the 1845 restoration of the smashed Portland Vase come to mind: 'neither replica or original.
A perfect job of reconstruction, for the time'.(327) Madden's great enterprise has been exhaustively described here, but there are still many other aspects of the research cancer, work which would be worth further investigation. Ecole De Prothesiste. The Cotton Charters, which, as Madden noted, were in a particularly bad condition in 1838, were also repaired. Une Couleur Virtuellement. The charters had perhaps the most complex history of any part of the de prothesiste dentaire, Cotton collection. They were the only part of the collection which was renumbered when it came to the Museum, being assigned a roman number representing the drawer in which the charter was stored and an arabic number recording the piece number of the charter within the drawer. The original Cotton Charters only extend as far as XVI.3.
The numbers from this point onwards were assigned by Samuel Ayscough to une couleur virtuellement various unnumbered charters and seal impressions while he was compiling his catalogue of charters in the 1790s.(328) These included a number of Harleian charters.(329) Madden was afterwards to lament the 'sad confusion' that Ayscough had caused in the charter numeration.(330) In Madden's time, these later additions to de prothesiste the charters were distinguished, following Ayscough's usage, as 'Cartae Miscellaneae Addendae' or 'Various Collections'. During the david letterman newspaper clippings, Bond's Keepership (1866-78), the use of a separate designation for these charters ceased, and ecole, they have since always been referred to as Cotton Charters and Rolls. This has led to thinking development the confusing situation where the item known nowadays as Cotton Charter XXIV.17 was in fact presented to de prothesiste dentaire the Museum by Mr Leake of Middlewich in 1788.(331) Madden not only restored damaged charters but also recovered many charters from the damaged fragments in the garret.(332) The numeration assigned to these charters presumably reflects Madden's view of their likely provenance. Hand in hand with the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts went a closer investigation of the history of the collection, leading to the rediscovery of much lost and preventing bullying, stray material. Madden compiled a detailed list of lost or strayed Cotton Manuscripts.(333) He persuaded Sir Thomas Phillipps to sell a stray Cotton manuscript in de prothesiste, his possession, Vitellius D. IX, to term paper the Museum at a special price.(334) Perhaps the ecole, most exciting rediscovery was that of the Utrecht Psalter. On 1 December 1856, Madden 'Received a letter from Mr D. Laing giving me a description of a MS. in the University Library Utrecht [the famous Utrecht Psalter], which proves to be one of the lost Cotton MSS. Claudius C.VII which is marked Deest in Smith's Catalogue of 1696. Mr Laing recommends that the Trustees should negotiate for its acquisition. Cyber. I think so too .'(335)
The second half of the de prothesiste dentaire, nineteenth century saw a great leap forward in critical and editorial standards. Madden's work with the david clippings, Cotton Manuscripts was of fundamental importance in this movement. The connection between Hamilton's influential edition of the Inquisitio Comitatus Cantabrigiensis and the restoration work has already been mentioned. Madden rescued important manuscripts of many of the key English historical sources edited in the Rolls Series and elsewhere, such as (to take two random examples) one of only dentaire two extant manuscripts of Roger of letterman newspaper Wendover's Flores Historiarum (Otho B. V) and a presentation copy of Capgrave's De Illustribus Henricis (Tiberius A. VIII). Ecole De Prothesiste Dentaire. Moreover, the work on the restoration of the define literature review research, Cotton Manuscripts, by establishing the ecole de prothesiste dentaire, exact extent of the survival of particular manuscripts, helped clear the ground for new editions of texts whose chief witnesses had been destroyed or reduced to a few fragments, such as Gildas and thinking, Asser. Madden's achievements as 'Restorer of the Cotton library' may not have achieved much public recognition, but they can be seen as underpinning the emergence of modern historical technique in Britain. This is reflected in the prominence of those most closely associated with the ecole, work on the Cotton Manuscripts -- Thompson, Hamilton, Bond and Madden himself -- in the editing of the Rolls Series. The two main published catalogues of the bullying, Cotton Library, those of de prothesiste Thomas Smith, published in 1696, and Joseph Planta, published in 1802, had both, within fifty years of their publication, ceased to be accurate guides to paper questions cancer the collection they describe. Dentaire. The 1731 fire reduced Smith's catalogue overnight to the status of a historical document: an indispensable guide to the contents of the collection before the fire but no longer an up-to-date working catalogue. The process by which Planta's catalogue became equally outmoded was more complex but equally devastating.
Criticisms of it had begun to be widely voiced as early as the 1830s. Most telling were those made by Sir Nicholas Harris Nicolas in letterman, his Observations on ecole dentaire, the State of Historical Literature , published in 1830. This attacked the une couleur, work of the ecole, Record Commission which, rather than the Museum Trustees, had published the cyber essays, catalogues of the Harley, Lansdowne and Cotton Manuscripts. That these three catalogues were 'often erroneous and generally unsatisfactory', Sir Nicholas declared, 'is well known to all who have consulted them'.(336) He complained that the Cotton catalogue, like the third volume of the Harley catalogue, was full of short and vague descriptions of complex manuscripts.(337) He also attacked the accuracy of the catalogue: 'The descriptions of the manuscripts are not unfrequently erroneous, and what is equally material, the general index at the end of the volume is ecole, extremely incomplete. Term Paper. For example, the Cottonian collection contains the ecole, highly valuable chronicle of Lanercost, but no special reference is to literature paper be found to it in the general index; and other omissions of equal consequence might easily be cited.'(338)
In giving evidence to the 1836 Select Committee on the Museum, Nicolas not only repeated the criticisms in his earlier pamphlet, but also also drew attention to the problem of the burnt manuscripts. He noted that Planta did not give any indication as to the contents of manuscripts thought to ecole de prothesiste dentaire be completely lost, and 6 stages thinking, offered no hint that any further fragments might still be surviving in the Museum.(339) Forshall's initial restoration work had, of course, already rendered Planta seriously out of date in dentaire, this respect and it was no longer an define literature review accurate statement of those Cotton Manuscripts which were available for consultation in ecole de prothesiste, the Reading Room. Cyber Bullying. Forshall conceded to the Select Committee that a supplement to Planta's catalogue was needed. The basis for de prothesiste dentaire, this would be the 'considerable materials' which he had already begun to gather.(340) Planta's inadequate treatment of the burnt and missing manuscripts was a glaring deficiency in david letterman newspaper clippings, his catalogue. De Prothesiste. An even more serious fault, however, was his failure to distinguish between manuscripts lost in the fire and those already noted as wanting in Smith's 1696 catalogue.
Some of these were lost to the Library as a result of loans and cyber essays, survive elsewhere. Others may simply have been phantoms which never existed.(341) As Madden's restoration work proceeded, the de prothesiste dentaire, refrain of 'deest' and review research, 'desideratur' which echoes through Planta's catalogue became more and more misleading. Ecole De Prothesiste. Increasingly, manuscripts dismissed by Planta as lost or useless were being made available for public consultation. Moreover, as Madden's facelift of the collection continued, manuscripts described by Planta were rearranged, so that the bullying essays, description itself became out of date. This was communicated to readers, if at dentaire, all, by brief written notes, often very inadequate or confusing, in the margins of copies of literature review Planta's catalogue in dentaire, the Reading Room. Not surprisingly, towards the end of Madden's time as Keeper, readers became very frustrated with this situation. Madden's personal diary for 6 December 1861 contains the preventing cyber, following entry: Saw Mr Panizzi in ecole dentaire, his room, who shewed me a printed sheet sent to him by the post, anonymously, in which some person bearing no good will to the Dept. of MSS. has taken the trouble to collect from my Annual Reports to the House of Commons the define research paper, references to dentaire the injured Cottonian MSS. which have been restored by my direction and under my superintendence, and then by way of a grievance, asking why a copy of Smith's Catalogue of paper about cancer 1696 has not been placed in the Reading Room, with an account of those MSS. which had been restored. My answer is thus, to this anonymous piece of spite.
1. Ecole De Prothesiste Dentaire. There is development, a copy of ecole Smith's Catalogue in virtuellement, the Reading Room always has been. 2. At the de prothesiste, end of Casley's Catalogue of the research paper, Royal Library there is a short list of those MSS. damaged or lost by fire in 1731. 3. A great part of the MSS. so restored have been bound placed on the shelves, are accessible to every reader. 4. Practically the whole are easily accessible, for every reader who wishes to know of any remains of a MS. Dentaire. (said by Planta to be lost ), exist, has only to ask, and he is david newspaper, immediately informed. 5. For a long time past I have [purposed] an interleaved copy of Planta's Catalogue for ecole de prothesiste, the Reading Room, in which are to be entered descriptions of the MSS. wholly or in part recovered or restored; but up to the present time, it has been found impossible to execute this, since it would require the services of an extra assistant devoted especially to the task.(342)
Despite his dusty reply to this anonymous criticism, Madden was conscious of the need to provide better information about the availability of particular Cotton Manuscripts. In June 1861, he had pointed out to 6 stages of critical thinking development the Trustees that all the restored manuscripts needed to be described, and that Planta's catalogue 'requires careful revision, and additions to be made; to do which would require a good palaeographer one well versed in ecole de prothesiste, English History and Middle Age literature'.(343) As Madden approached the end of his work on the manuscripts, he had prepared a detailed account of the current condition of those reported as lost or injured by the parliamentary committee of 1732.(344) This information was inserted in term, two interleaved copies of the de prothesiste dentaire, committee's report. One was retained for internal Departmental use. The other was placed at essayer une couleur de cheveux virtuellement, the catalogue desk in the Reading Room shortly before Madden submitted his resignation.(345) This provided an authoritative account of the restoration work, but unfortunately it did not stay in the Reading Room for very long.
It was withdrawn from the dentaire, catalogue desk, perhaps when a separate Manuscripts Students' Room was opened in of critical development, 1885. Ecole De Prothesiste. It was at first placed in the general printed book collections with the pressmark 362.b.14, but was afterwards returned to the Manuscripts Department, where it rejoined its companion in the Departmental Reference Library.(346) The two volumes remained there until 1983, when the copy originally intended for the Reading Room was incorporated in the Manuscript collections as Additional MS. 62573. In 1984 this information was finally made available in print, when one of the volumes was published in facsimile in Colin Tite's indispensable edition of Thomas Smith's catalogue.(347) The interleaved copy of the parliamentary report is the cyber bullying essays, only convenient statement available of the work done by Madden on the Cotton Manuscripts but is nevertheless unsatisfactory in a number of ecole de prothesiste dentaire ways.
It was not kept up to date and does not record the further work on the collection done after Madden left the Museum.(348) Moreover, Madden's notes are restricted to the manuscripts listed by Casley as lost or effectively destroyed but his work was far more wide-ranging than this. Many leaves were added to de cheveux manuscripts described by Casley as damaged but usable, and dentaire, there are only indirect references to the extensive work undertaken in rearranging and sorting the manuscripts in the Appendix. Had it been made more widely available, the interleaved copy of the parliamentary report would have provided a useful stop-gap, but it was never a replacement for a new catalogue. The preparation of a new catalogue was a constant aspiration of successive Keepers of Manuscripts, rather as the restoration of the fragments had been up to paper Madden's time. In the 1870s, while George Warner was arranging the loose inlaid fragments left by Madden into a separate series, he compiled detailed descriptions of them.
Shortly before the First World War, Eric Millar described the bulk of the appendix and the remaining loose fragments. These descriptions may perhaps have been intended to be the first stage in de prothesiste, the preparation of a new catalogue. With the outbreak of the First World War, however, this project was abandoned, and term, Millar and Warner's descriptions filed away. Ecole Dentaire. They were not finally typed up until 1973, and only made available in the Students' Room in 1981.(349) In 1931, the tercentenary of Cotton's death, a special exhibition of research paper about cancer his finest manuscripts was held in dentaire, the King's Library. The then Keeper, Sir Harold Idris Bell, expressed a hope in the preface to 6 stages the exhibition catalogue that it would be soon be possible to start work on a new catalogue, similar to that recently produced for the Royal and King's Manuscripts.(350) Shortly afterwards, the Trustees gave permission for this work to begin.(351) Manuscripts in the Julius, Tiberius and Caligula groups were assigned for description to de prothesiste dentaire various officers including Bell himself, Robin Flower, Francis Wormald, Eric Millar, and Theodore Skeat. The rules drawn up for the new catalogue still survive. They stressed that 'The new catalogue was sanctioned by questions about the Trustees on the understanding that the work for it would be done concurrently with that on the General Catalogue. It is ecole de prothesiste, important that it should not interfere too much with the latter, the arrears in which, though reduced, are as yet by no means overtaken. It has therefore been decided that Officers should devote no more than two days a week to the Cotton catalogue'. It was proposed to preventing issue the catalogue in a series of fascicules, with the first volume containing descriptions of the earlier manuscripts, arranged in ecole dentaire, Emperor order.
It was hoped to draw on the expertise of readers and an appeal for information on the manuscripts was to be circulated among readers. F. Of Critical Thinking. M. Powicke and V. H. Galbraith were to be consulted on the treatment of chronicles and F. M. Stenton was to act as advisor on the cartularies. This ambitious scheme, which would undoubtedly have produced a first-rate catalogue, was again cut short by the outbreak of war. The dispersal of staff and collections during the de prothesiste dentaire, war, as well as such vicissitudes as the destruction during the Blitz of the printers stock of the descriptions of the Catalogue of Additions to essayer virtuellement the Manuscripts for 1921-1925 and part of 1926-1930, meant that an arrear of publication built up which is only just being eradicated.(352) The retirement of de prothesiste Madden did not mark the of critical, conclusion of work on ecole de prothesiste dentaire, the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts. He had passed over to Maunde Thompson a large pile of inlaid fragments not yet identified and a little loose material.
The annual reports of the Museum for 1867 and 1868 indicate that work continued on letterman, these fragments,(353) but it was soon abandoned as Madden's successor, Bond, began to concentrate on his pet project, the creation of the ecole de prothesiste, classed catalogue. When Maunde Thompson himself became Keeper in 1878, the decision seems to have been taken to bind up the of critical development, remaining inlaid fragments in separate volumes. Rather than attempting to reunite these with their parent volumes, detailed descriptions were prepared which indicated as far as possible the provenance of de prothesiste dentaire particular fragments. This was the origin of the present series of Cotton fragments, which represent the remnant of the material found by Madden in the garret in 1837. The loose material which had not been inlaid by Madden was kept respectively in a 'case', a 'portfolio' and 'box'. Detailed work on the identification of define review research paper this material was undertaken by Millar, but does not seem to have led to any extensive rearrangement. The loose material was not generally available for public consultation. Eventually in de prothesiste, 1990 the decision was taken to sew the loose material into inert transparent plastic sleeves to facilitate its use in the Students' Room. Paper. This work was undertaken by Cyril Titus of the Manuscripts Conservation Studio under the supervision of Rachel Stockdale, relying on de prothesiste, the work of Millar and Warner. The material from the former 'case' is now available as Fragments XXX. It is intended that the contents of the 'box' and 'case' will also be bound up in this fashion.
The story of the restoration is not yet ended. Indeed, it may be beginning afresh. Apart from the possibilities opened up by essayer de cheveux the use of computer imaging as demonstrated by Kevin Kiernan, Madden's restoration work is beginning to show signs of age. Vellum behaves in a different way to paper. As the vellum moves in ecole dentaire, one direction, the paper moves in another. Gough's paper frames are buckling and in one or two places the vellum is becoming detached from the paper frames. Define Literature Review Research. Even more seriously, in de prothesiste, the later stages of the restoration process, acid paper was used for the mounts of david clippings some of the fragments. This accounts for the yellowing of some frames in ecole de prothesiste, a manuscript like Otho B. X.(354) In order to stabilise the situation, some of the burnt Cotton Manuscripts have been recently encapsulated in plastic(355) but, as David Dumville has observed,(356) this makes study of the manuscripts difficult. A conservation technique which balances the need to preserve the manuscripts against the requirements of public access needs to be developed. In some respects, we are back in the time of Ellis and Forshall. Again the words of Susan Sontag in respect of the review research, Portland Vase seem apposite. 'A perfect job of reconstruction, for its time.
Until time wears it out. Transparent glue yellows and ecole de prothesiste, bulges, making seamless joints visible. Can something shattered, then expertly repaired, be the same, the same as it was? Yes, to the eye, yes, if one doesn't look too closely. No, to the mind'.(357)
Reports of bullying essays Matthew Maty and ecole, Henry Rimius on the condition. of the Cotton Library, July 1756. These reports are printed from the copies in the minutes of the Standing Committee of the Museum Trustees, vol. 1, 1754-1757 (British Museum Archives CE 3/1), 102-106, 110-114. [ The initial report ] The report of Dr Maty and Mr Rimius concerning the state in 6 stages development, which they have found the manuscripts and ecole dentaire, medals in the Cottonian collection. According to the order given us by literature review research paper the Honourable Committee of the Trustees of the British Museum, Friday July 16th, 1756, we waited upon Mr Widmore at the Cottonian Repository, and de prothesiste dentaire, examined the manuscripts, by comparing them both with the catalogue, composed by Mr Smith and printed in 1695, and with the account which was given by Mr Casley in 1732 of the state of the manuscripts after the fire. For this purpose we opened the several presses distinguished by the names of the twelve Caesars, those of Cleopatra and Faustina, and the Appendix; and having counted the number of volumes under every division, we took one or two of each and compared them with the catalogues, to be satisfied they answered to the accounts given of them.
And though, for want of time, we could not be as particular as we could have wished in our examination, we hope the define literature review research paper, following account will be found agreeable to the actual state of this valuable, though hitherto much neglected, collection. The manuscripts contained in the presses called Julius, Augustus, Claudius, Nero, Vespasianus, Titus, Domitianus, Cleopatra, Faustina, and those of the Appendix, have suffered nothing by ecole the fire, and have been found to agree with Mr Smith's catalogue. Yet several of these being placed in presses much exposed to dampness in a cold and shady place, could hardly notwithstanding Mr Widmore's endeavours (which he has assured us to have been very assiduous) be preserved from must and mouldiness and will want to be aired and carefully dried up before they are placed in the Museum. The condition of the manuscripts contained in the presses called Tiberius, Caligula, Galba, Otho and Vitellius, obliges us to david newspaper clippings be a little more particular, as we could not find some of the articles specified by Mr Casley, and ecole, as several of those which he declares to be entirely destroyed, may still be of essayer de cheveux virtuellement some use in ecole de prothesiste dentaire, careful hands. Beginning therefore with Tiberius we find the division. A. Answering to the two catalogues; 12 and 15 entirely destroyed; all the books damaged besides 1, 5 and 6. Research Paper. Yet the most damaged still capable of being read, either in part or entire.
B. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and de prothesiste dentaire, 8 still subsisting; 9, though said to be burnt to a crust, very legible in the inside. C. Though nothing is said of them in the account, have most of them greatly suffered by research paper questions about the fire. D. 6 is wanting; 9, marked with a star in the account as entirely destroyed, has been found by de prothesiste us. E. Answers to the catalogue compared with the report. A, B, C. Suffered nothing, or very little by the fire, and have been collated with Mr Smith's catalogue. D E. Answers to Mr Casley's account of the effect of the fire upon them. A. 6 is not found; 15 exists, though damaged; and 18 which was referred to in Mr Smith's catalogue as being transferred to Caligula A.14 was reported to be lost by Mr Casley. B, C, D, E. Answer to the catalogues compared one with the other. A. According to the report consists of 18 numbers all destroyed; yet we discovered the 6 stages of critical thinking, first part of number XII being the Life of Alfred by Asser Menevensis. C. 1, 4 and 13, said to ecole de prothesiste dentaire be destroyed, are in part legible.
The other numbers answer to the catalogue as well as. D E. Several bundles and essayer une couleur virtuellement, loose papers not taken notice of by Mr Casley may, in part, be recovered and read. Besides the ecole dentaire, damage done by the fire to the manuscripts in this press, it has suffered no less by the carelessness of those that have been the first employed in preserving them, as well as by the extraordinary moistness of the place. The great humidity, together with the preventing essays, extension of that hue, which the fire extracted from the ecole dentaire, volumes wrote on vellum, having rolled the edges of most of them, defaced the marks and david, afforded both lodging and food to numberless shoals of worms and other insects. Ecole. In this state we cannot answer whether number 15, under the division C, all those that were under D, number 13 under E, and 15 and 17 under F, which were the only ones under the several divisions we could not find, besides those that have been marked in Mr Casley's report as entirely destroyed, may not still be recovered, at least in part, among the sad remains of this precious part of the collection. The medals or coins, of which Mr Pegge and the late worthy Mr Folkes gave some manuscript account in 6 stages of critical development, 1747 and ecole dentaire, 1748 have been found by us in research term paper, a most confused state. Dentaire. The Reverend Mr Widmore has never examined them according to une couleur these accounts, and answers only to the number, which we found to be as follows:
Pope's Heads, Seals co. Medals or English coins. The account of the charters, curiosities co. and of Major Edwards's books, we beg leave to refer to dentaire the meeting of the committee, as we have not had time hitherto to examine them. London. July 22 1756. [ The further report ] The charters, warrants, deeds and other records contained in the last press of the Cottonian cabinet might have been examined with more ease and in less time had we found them disposed in any order, properly endorsed, or at least regularly numbered and sufficiently described. But as nothing of all this has to our knowledge hitherto been done, and as no other assistance could be procured but the rough draft of define paper a catalogue, which the Reverend Mr Widmore has made of them for his own use, we were obliged to look them over one by one, to pick up the late learned Keeper's loose sheets, and to affix to every one of them a number by which they could more easily be found out. We cannot and indeed we ought not to ecole be very particular in our account of 6 stages development these precious relicts, as such an account would not only be dry and tedious, but also in ecole de prothesiste dentaire, a manner useless, since Mr Widmore has promised to lend his notes. These, though he himself modestly owns them imperfect, will still be of great use in the future arrangement of this part of the collection.
We declare that of above five hundred pieces mentioned by newspaper clippings him in his rough draft, no more than four or five have escaped our researches. These few appeared to us to be of ecole de prothesiste little consequence, to essayer une couleur de cheveux virtuellement lose more time than we could spare in looking for them amidst the rubbish of bits of parchment or of paper, scorched by the fire, or consumed by old age, which Mr Widmore thought too much destroyed to be either used or described. We think however a more particular examination will be necessary, as it is not impossible but some things may still be retrieved. As this Honourable Board required from us not an accurate description but simply a general survey of the whole, we flatter ourselves that what we have said hitherto and ecole de prothesiste dentaire, are now going to add will in some measure answer their intention though not our desire of fulfilling our duty. The upper part of this last press contains sixteen, and the under one seven, drawers filled with papers or parchments. Several of them being entirely relative to the Cotton family seem to be of little use to the public, and the same may be said of many more, which only serve to swell but in our opinion by review no means to enrich this collection. Some capital pieces are already sufficiently known, and their importance seems to require the dentaire, greatest care of them. Among them deserves the first rank, King John's famous grant of privileges, which though one of the sufferers by the fire, is still very legible, and would be much more so had anything been done to define literature research repair the damages done by this dreadful accident. We have put this piece by itself in a separate drawer, viz. no. 16 at bottom.
The explanations of Magna Carta and of that of the de prothesiste dentaire, Forests by Edward the First are likewise subsisting, and preventing cyber bullying, ought we think to be brought nearer than they now are to the preceding piece. Amongst the public records preserved in our collection, we beg leave to mention Pope Innocent's Bull containing the cession of the weak king, Robert de Bruce's claim to the crown of Scotland as laid before Edward I in French in 1297, the dentaire, Scotch Barons' submission to the English King's determination, the declaration of John, King of France, about the quarrel between the Dukes of Lancaster and Brunswick in 1352, the Archbishop of Canterbury and of York's letter to Henry VIII containing their synod's compliance with his desires in the affair of the divorce with Ann of Cleves, an instrument of the Dutch commissioners in 1585 confirming the cautionary cession of some of their towns. Essayer Une Couleur De Cheveux Virtuellement. Some original, though not very remarkable, letters of Queen Elizabeth, Prince Maurice and co. are likewise found there. The antiquity of many of the pieces contained in this press is alone sufficient to render them venerable. Several of them are of the ecole dentaire, ancient Saxon and Danish kings, viz. Ethelbert, Edred, Kinewolf, Canut, Alfred and co. and must be very near a thousand years old. Historical, chronological and genealogical rolls, drawn up by monks, in david, the ages of ignorance and darkness, may still afford some satisfaction. Inventories of the books and effects of the several monasteries, expenses for the table of their abbots, and ecole, orders for the table of some princes, will probably likewise be examined and compared.
But what constitutes by research term paper much the greatest part of these records relates to the church, viz. Ecole De Prothesiste. Pope's Bulls, indulgences, grants and dispensations, ordinations of bishops, but especially pious gifts and grants to monasteries. Cyber. Some of them have appeared in print, others have not, though deserving of that honour, and proper to ascertain the titles of several churches to their estates. The antiquities contained in ecole, three or four of the drawers of this press do not appear to define literature review research paper us of very great value. Some ancient little brass statues of Egyptian or other heathen gods or heroes, a few scales, instruments, and other trinkets neither remarkable for their rareness or workmanship do not deserve, at least at present, a more particular description, and we already too much fear to have abused the patience of this learned assembly by our hasty and very imperfect account. London. July 30th 1756. Description in chronological order of the lists, etc., of damaged Cotton Manuscripts in Add. MS. 62576. (1) Labels from boxes containing loose fragments of Caligula D. V (f.
11) and Vitellius E. IX (f. 15). (2) Notes of lost Cotton and de prothesiste dentaire, Royal MSS., early 19th cent.(?). ff. 59-60. (3) List by research term Forshall of 'Saxon MSS. wanting', circa 1827. ff. 52-52v.
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Essay contest: A moment that changed your life. A moment that changed your life. By Arianna Valdez , Paramount HS. Arianna Valdez (second from left) hangs out with her family.Photo by Arianna’s mom, Nora Valdez. I was 14 years old and de prothesiste, thought I knew it all. I had good grades at school, but at home I fought a lot with my mom and stepdad. My parents divorced when I was young, and cyber bullying, I developed anger toward my father for leaving my mom.
I had become distant from my extended family as well. Ecole! I couldn’t stand my hair; I complained about it every day. I am an only child, but I have a stepbrother whom I hated. I wanted nothing more than to preventing cyber, hang out with my friends. Ecole Dentaire! I always wanted to be left alone, listening to music, surfing the research about, web, you name it.
I was always bitter and crabby. I took my life for granted. May 2010, I’m diagnosed with cancer. Over two months, I was being tested and had two surgeries to determine if I was still in an early stage and could be spared the infamous chemotherapy and dentaire, radiation therapy. Luckily, the cancer hadn’t spread into my bloodstream and cleaning out the tumors would be easy. Paper! Although it didn’t last as long as you would expect, those two months were hell. I cried myself to sleep every night, fearing the changes that accompanied chemo. I would have to be home-schooled.
Chemo would cause me to be nauseous, weak, tired. I’d have to ecole, be on preventing cyber, a strict diet—unhealthy food could get me sick. I would lose all my hair. I would have tubes connected to my heart coming out of my chest, and so much more. Thankfully, after the second surgery I was cancer free. Of course, I have to ecole de prothesiste, remain in remission and observation for five years to be sure the cancer doesn’t come back, but there’s only a small chance it will.
At first, I didn’t understand why I had gotten cancer. I would think, “Why me? What did I do to deserve this? Does God hate me? How could he let anyone suffer what I’m suffering? Especially a kid!” Once I started accepting that this was real and I couldn’t do anything but fight it, I figured I would enjoy my life as long as I could before getting really sick.
I started hanging out with my family more. I spent the preventing cyber bullying essays, weekends with my aunts and cousins, or with my dad and his side of the family. It was hard to do too much, though, because I spent more time at the hospital than I did at my house. Once I was “cancer free,” I was still stuck with the dentaire, mentality that it could come back at any moment, and I would regret not having enjoyed my life as much as I could have. Questions About! I decided that from then on, I would live life to its fullest.
I wouldn’t take anything for ecole de prothesiste dentaire granted. Research Term Paper! I would try new things. De Prothesiste Dentaire! I would love my brother and my parents, forgive my father, take lots of pictures, smile, laugh and act goofy. 6 Stages! I’d be outgoing. Two years later, I’m still cancer free. Dentaire! Three more to go until I’m considered safe. I have to say, God answered my questions. Why did I have cancer? Why me?
Because my life was going to of critical thinking development, waste. I was a selfish, inconsiderate, stubborn, unforgiving, careless, bratty yet shy girl. De Prothesiste Dentaire! But when the cancer hit, it completely changed me. When I saw my mom cry, it hurt me. Newspaper! When I heard my dad’s voice crack, his one and only child, his daughter, diagnosed with cancer, I regretted ever being mad at him. Ecole! When my stepbrother and cousins were speechless, I reassured them. De Cheveux! As I cried, my aunt held my hand and cried with me. She even went to appointments with my parents and me. I’m not the same girl I was before I had cancer. Ecole! Today, I take too many pictures, smile too much, goof off too much. Essayer De Cheveux! My brother and I have become close and my cousins have their “big sister” back.
Cancer brought my family back together. Sometimes my hair is hard to manage, but I can’t say I hate it. Don’t wait for something like cancer to come around and change your life. Take it upon yourself to ecole dentaire, make things right and truly worth living for. My dad’s death turned my world upside down. T he second I heard the news from my mom almost seven years ago, “Your dad died. Une Couleur De Cheveux Virtuellement! He’s in a better place now,” it changed my life so much. Dentaire! Those were the most painful words I have ever heard. I had no father anymore.
Never will I be able to research paper questions, hug him or tell him that I love him or talk about my problems with him because he’s gone. People always say that somebody never truly leaves you, that their spirit is here no matter what. Well, can you hug a spirit, can you cry on their shoulder? Will a spirit teach you things? It is ecole de prothesiste, impossible. After my father died, my whole world collapsed. My brother became a delinquent and made my mom cry night after night and literature research, all we did was fight. Dentaire! I felt no support from anybody. I tried being strong but it was impossible because the pain I felt was so unbearable that I could not help but break down every time I was alone. To my family I appeared to be heartless with no emotion but nobody understood that I was hiding it, trying to protect my mom from david letterman feeling more pain. The hardest thing I have ever done was pretend that my father’s death did not make me sad, when in ecole de prothesiste reality I was devastated beyond belief.
Before my father passed away, I was a straight-A student. For a while I gave up on school. Last year it finally hit me that my mom is still around and I should work on making her proud instead of disappointing everybody. Cyber Bullying Essays! She has done nothing but take care of my brother and me so I did my best and almost got straight As once again. Now I understand how much you have to appreciate your parents and loved ones because once they die nobody will bring them back no matter how much it hurts or how much you miss them. I always tell my mom that I love her because I learned my lesson with my dad. This incident changed my life when I was young, but recently it changed my life again. I have learned how to live life.
I learned how beautiful things are and how to enjoy them while they are there. Even though I have been through much struggle with my family, I still love life and being alive as much as I miss somebody who is dentaire, dead. I know that maybe I will see them once I die. Until then I am going to live my life to its fullest and never look back. A bike helped me lose weight. By Victor Loza , Marshall Fundamental HS (Pasadena) A life-changing moment in my life was Dec.
24, 2010. On this day, I purchased my bike. I was always a lazy kid who never participated in any type of term, physical activity. Ecole Dentaire! I was extremely overweight—almost 300 pounds. I was upset with myself, always thinking, “How did I let this happen?” Being able to grab the bike and literature paper, take it for ecole dentaire a ride was difficult. I didn’t know where to ride. Newspaper! I didn’t have anyone to ride with or to motivate me.
I would ride my bike for 20 minutes and I’d be exhausted. That’s how out of shape I was. Little by little I got more in my comfort zone. Video games were becoming something I would do when I wasn’t able to leave the house. My family noticed weight loss. De Prothesiste! I never noticed. Literature! Then one day I put on shorts that used to ecole, fit snug and now were baggy. Paper! After noticing that I started to feel very happy. School was out for summer and ecole de prothesiste, I had just turned 16 years old.
I had met some friends who also rode bikes. Our goal for the summer was to just ride. Letterman Clippings! We would go on long rides and only stop to rehydrate, eat or sleep. Ecole Dentaire! In the middle of the summer I had a doctor’s appointment. 6 Stages Thinking! I weighed in and the doctor told me I had lost 20 pounds! I was proud of myself. I was exploring the world, losing weight and gaining self-confidence by riding a bike. By the end of summer I had lost about 50 pounds. If it wasn’t for dentaire that bike I would have probably been writing about getting a high score in a video game.
Cycling has changed my life. I have lost tons of weight I never thought I was going to be able to lose. Essayer Une Couleur! I now know my city a lot better and ecole de prothesiste, I’m not always indoors hiding from this great world. Une Couleur De Cheveux Virtuellement! My confidence has increased and I will carry this life-changing experience with me throughout my life. GRAB A BIKE, IT’S GREAT! My baby sister brought my family together. By Katherin Albizures , Hollywood HS.
A moment that ultimately gave my life a huge turning point was the de prothesiste, birth of my baby sister Kaylee. Preventing Cyber! She changed the way I saw things and dentaire, she made me become a better person. Even though she has only research about cancer been in my life for ecole de prothesiste a year, she’s the best thing that has happened to my family. After my parents got divorced, it was always only newspaper three people living under the same roof. My mom, younger sister and dentaire, I were living together and clippings, it was a lot of fun because we hung out at de prothesiste dentaire the mall, went to the movies, ate a new restaurants, etc. I was used to my small family and I liked how it only contained three people. When I was about 9 years old, my mom got a boyfriend, whom I didn’t think much of. It was a long-distance relationship, so I honestly thought that they were not going to last long. Thinking Development! However, when I was 13, my mom told us that he was going to ecole, come and live with us, but I ignored her because I thought she was joking. One week later, without a single warning, he was at my doorstep smiling down at us as if his presence was supposed to term, make me happy.
I really disliked everything he did and said. De Prothesiste Dentaire! He tried to make us laugh, but I only stood there with a blank expression on my face. He cooked for define review research us, but I denied eating his food. Basically, I was an intolerant brat who did not want to ecole dentaire, give him a chance. Of Critical! After a while, I thought he was going to leave due to the treatment my sister and I were giving him. De Prothesiste! My mom started to paper, have problems with him because he always complained about us and ecole, all she told him was to try harder to win us over. Term! I thought that I had finally gotten rid of ecole de prothesiste dentaire, him until Christmas morning, my mom told me that she was pregnant and research, that we were going to ecole dentaire, have a baby sister. Clippings! I was happy with the idea of having a little baby around, but it was upsetting to know that my stepdad would have to ecole de prothesiste dentaire, stick around now. My mom started to get weaker by her seventh month of essayer une couleur de cheveux virtuellement, pregnancy, so we all had to work together to ecole de prothesiste, help my mom out.
My stepdad and I shared the kitchen to make dinner and after awhile, there was no tension. We had small conversations and gave each other tips for cancer some recipes. I decided to ecole dentaire, give him a chance because it was the least I could do after all the negative treatment I had given him. He turned out to of critical, be a pretty cool guy after all. As soon as Kaylee was born, we became a united family. We went on trips together and we all got along. It’s crazy to think that one human being could have this huge impact on everyone else, so that they change for the better. My stepdad and de prothesiste dentaire, I always joke around with each other now and research about, sometimes I even introduce him as my dad. Ecole De Prothesiste Dentaire! Any time I need a favor, he’s always there to help in any way he can. My mom is finally happy to see that I gave someone a chance to david letterman clippings, enter our lives.
I guess what I was really afraid of was letting someone enter my life knowing that one day they would leave again, like my dad did. De Prothesiste! However, I know that my step dad is different and bullying, that he will stay. I’m glad that our family now contains five people instead of dentaire, three. It seems complete and I hope it will always stay that way. Caring for questions cancer my nephew forced me to grow up. By Oscar Reyes , Paramount HS.
My nephew was born on Nov. 15, 2011, but I didn’t think much of it at dentaire the time. As soon as my sister came home my life began to change far more than I expected. During the next few months I could not imagine a more tiring time of my life, but more rewarding than anything. In this short time I began to take on new responsibilities around my house. I’m not the one to usually do chores. But as soon as the david letterman newspaper clippings, baby came into the house, I was responsible for taking care of him while my sister was busy doing chores. I had to de prothesiste, learn how to essayer une couleur virtuellement, feed him, which was pretty easy. Then, awhile later I had to learn how to change him, which was kind of difficult because I really didn’t know what I was doing half the time, due to me not knowing which side goes on which side. Though I later learned how to ecole dentaire, master changing a baby, it was pretty difficult then.
As soon as I came home from school, I had to take care of the kid, which didn’t last long because he would fall asleep pretty quickly. The first month of this new person in paper questions cancer my life wasn’t too bad because I still remained the dentaire, same as before, just with a few more responsibilities. Fast track six months, my life has really changed dramatically. Research! My nephew got older, so I had to learn more responsibilities and this meant I had less free time. As soon as I came home from school, my sister went to work, so I had to take care of the ecole, kid as usual.
It was different though. Research Paper! Now he didn’t fall asleep as fast, which meant I couldn’t do what I usually did. I also didn’t have much time to do my homework. This was a tough time because I spent my free time doing nothing but staring at the TV. I wasn’t getting enough sleep so I couldn’t keep my eyes open during class. My grades dropped in my second semester and ecole dentaire, my parents were kind of mad about that. If that wasn’t bad enough, during the une couleur de cheveux virtuellement, middle of the night when I’m asleep, the baby usually wakes up so I have to feed him for at least 20 minutes because my sister is ecole, either tired from 6 stages of critical work or she is doing her college homework. Then I go to sleep and wake up tired and my cycle repeats. De Prothesiste! I felt like I wanted to give up. I thought to research term paper, myself, “I need to change my habits if I want to succeed in life and be a good role model for ecole dentaire him.” I began to essayer une couleur de cheveux, use my free time during class to do my homework early instead of ecole de prothesiste, dozing off into research about cancer, space.
As soon as I came home from ecole dentaire school, I’d take care of my nephew and as he fell to sleep, I’d rapidly do my homework. I still had some missing assignments here and there, but I improved my grades. Une Couleur! Now I had more free time and more time to sleep. Ecole! I did all this because when you care about someone so much, you’re willing to do anything for them. Although I had a tough time with my nephew, it was worth it because I learned not to of critical, be a lazy kid anymore and ecole dentaire, grow up. Having my nephew was great because he brought joy to my whole family and nothing is greater than that. He also gave me a great life lesson. In life you may feel like you just want to give up, but you need to realize the prize is much greater than you can imagine. Next essay contest: A moral dilemma.
When we’re young the difference between right and wrong is clear: respect your parents, always tell the truth. But as we get older it becomes harder to preventing cyber bullying, do the right thing, and we may even begin to question whether something is really that bad. Tell us about a time when you faced a moral dilemma. Maybe a classmate asked if they could cheat off your test, or you were out with friends who started shoplifting or someone offered you drugs at ecole dentaire a party. Describe the situation and explain why it was hard to know what to do, like maybe you felt the pressure to de cheveux, fit in.
What decision did you ultimately make and ecole dentaire, how did it affect you?