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Antigone medea essay

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Last/Ats-W: How to Prepare for the Liberal Arts and Sciences Test Assessment of Teaching Skills-Written, with an Introduction to antigone, t (Barron#039;s NYSTCE) Book by Postman, Robert D. Essay! not at medea, all like the real LAST and full of egregious errors. A Customer on Nov 03, 1999. Pharmacy Admission Essay! I read every section of this book pertaining to the LAST exam and took all the practice quizzes and tests. Not only did I find the book frustrating (because of essay, numerous errors in the practices quizzes/tests and some truly absurd statements in the review material) but once I took the experience, actual exam I felt like I had wasted a whole lot of time using the antigone medea essay, book. The actual test is far more intense than any of the industry, sample questions in Postman's book would lead you to believe. I daresay the LAST is a test that you really can't study for -- you just have to have payed attention throughout all of your schooling and had better have a really good command of the English language in all its subtleties. Antigone Medea Essay! The LAST is, more than anything else, a test of your ability to read carefully and draw insightful, logical conclusions about a huge array of topics. All those high school math topics that I agonized over while studying this book didn't help me one iota when I took the test. Us History Regents Thematic Essay Questions! The brief test preparation guide that I ordered directly from the NYS Education Department was what really prepared me for antigone essay the type of questions I would see on the LAST. Us History Questions! (As for the kind of errors I found. see for antigone essay instance page 244: a piano is pharmacy admission a percussion instrument! like a symbol is!

I sincerely hope that, for the sake of their own credibility, Barron's will send this book back through the editorial process before publishing any further editions.) Pased with a Nearly Perfect Score. A Customer on Aug 10, 2001. I used this book to successfully pass the LAST with a nearly perfect score. The multiple choice part of the LAST is primarily a test of antigone medea, reading comprehension in subject areas like social studies and science, with some art, graphing and a great to visit a few other things thrown in. It is not test of your knowledge. The practice tests in the book were very much like the actual test I took. This book gives excellent study tips and antigone steps for writing the essay. The subject review chapters emphasize that they should be used to learn how to essay industry, read and answer questions in these subject areas. I think this is the key to this test. I recommend this book if you are preparing for the LAST.

By Deliutz on Sep 10, 2002. I used this book to prepare for medea essay LAST and ATS-W, and I passed with very good scores. It took me about a month to prepare for both at pharmacy admission essay, the same time. I liked especially the reviews and essay writing instructions - you have there everything you need to know, clearly stated, without unnecessary embellishments. Very easy to antigone medea essay, digest and memorize. The book also contains two practice LAST tests and two practice ATS-W tests (elementary and secondary, respectively). All tests have explained answers. The actual LAST test I took was very much like the practice tests in this book. The actual ATS-W test, however, differed from the practice test; it was more situation-oriented, and also harder. I knew immediately after I finished the LAST that I would pass comfortably.

However, after the ATS-W I found myself for the first time in the unenviable position of having no idea how I did: I wouldn't have been surprised by a score of 100, or 300. In order to prepare for the tests, I also used a second book called The best coaching study guide for the NYSTCE, ISBN 0-87891-404-8. The reviews in it were unnecessarily verbose and complicated, I think. That is essay why I didn't use them. It DOES have an advantage, though: the practice ATS-W tests are very much like the real thing. The ATS-W answer explanations are stated in a truly logical manner and are superior to those in the Barron's. The study guides from the essay, NY State Education Department are of NO value except for essay about infanticide the 5 sample questions you can find in there, and the essay examples and essay scoring explanations.

They offer no more than a tiny taste of the medea, real thing. In conclusion, Barron's is well worth buying if you want to us history regents thematic essay, study for these tests. This Book Nails the LAST ATS-W Teacher Tests. A Customer on Nov 27, 1998. I got this book just before the October test and antigone medea essay it was a life saver. It is the best book to prepare for the LAST ATS-W.

The practice tests are very realistic and you get just the right amount and pharmacy essay type of review. Antigone Essay! The steps for writing passing essays, and steps for answering the multiple choice questions are great. This book just nails these tests and the back of the book shows you how look for a job in New York State and lists EVERY school district in the state with the number of schools enrollment and phone numbers. Great Review for female infanticide the LAST and the ATSW. A Customer on Nov 01, 1999. Medea! I took the us history regents questions, LAST and the ATSW this past Saturday. This book has just the right amount of medea essay, review and a great fantastic tips for taking these tests. The practice tests in medea, the book were very similar to the real tests. Barrons must have a new printing or a new edition of the book because I did not find the errors mentioned by other reviewers. I recommend this as the best book for these tests.

Preparing for the LAST-Teacher Examinations by Postman. By Dr. Joseph S. Maresca on observation Apr 29, 2005. Overall, this work is understandable. The exam has a number of lengthy paragraphs followed by a single question. Such a format requires that you read the question first and then read the antigone, paragraph utilizing a highlighter. The visual questions aren't much different from a standard intelligence test on spatial forms. The math and experience science are very straight-forward.

The grammar can get confusing with the presentation of very awkward sentence structures requiring correction. Questions on antigone medea art and culture can get tricky with very discriminating differences between architectural forms. Some of the fine arts questions require that you be able to distinguish between classic forms; such as, Romanesque, Baroque, Byzantine, Greek etc. This test will measure very general knowledge in the arts and sciences. The format gets very awkward in pharmacy admission, spots. It will be necessary to do a fair number of problems to develop experience with the material. The Postman work is medea well organized.

The problems are challenging. A criticism of the work is that the problem sets are somewhat limited in number although the level of difficulty is appropriate. This book should be utilized in conjunction with others on the subject. I would utilize other review texts for weak areas in order to develop a representative set of problems in unfamiliar subject areas. Testing on amorphous spatial forms and observation experience essay problems contrasting classic architectural differences typify new or unfamiliar material for medea essay the candidate reviewing the material for the first time. The volume will benefit test candidates provided that they make a real attempt at the problems with a view toward studying very discriminating differences between the model answer and observation experience essay slight variations from it. This volume is not a reader. Antigone Medea Essay! It contains numerous problems which depict the material to regents thematic essay questions, be tested. Therefore; candidates must utilize the book as though it represented a series of medea, test problems to be encountered on the live examination. Thematic Essay Questions! Stick with the NYS Preparation Guides.

By Jennifer on May 09, 2001. The Barron's LAST and essay ATS-W book was not at all helpful in preparing for the exams. The questions on the exams were much more comprehension-based than content. Hotel Industry! The review books I ordered when signing up for the exams were much more useful in preparing me for the exams. Stick with those! Many errors detract from the usefulness of this book. A Customer on antigone essay Jul 22, 1999. I purchased this book in preparation for a great place essay the NYS Teacher Certification Exams.

I was hoping for it to be as good as the other reviewers said it was. The main reason I was disappointed in this book is medea essay due to the number or errors I found. A friend of mine, who was also taking the tests at the same time, found the same errors so I know it's not just me. Some of the errors are actual mistakes in computation while others are errors in logic. In some cases the answer given is correct but the school observation experience essay, explanation is wrong or vice versa. These errors made me doubt the type of preparation I was receiving for these tests.

Hopefully Barrons' will correct these errors and medea issue a new addition soon. A Customer on Jul 23, 1999. This book is well worth the pharmacy admission, money spent - but beware of mistakes in antigone medea essay, the answer keys! One blatant error is on school observation essay an art related question. Essay! There are five possible answers (a-e) but only four options (a-d). (e) is clearly the right answer, the written explanation even says so. I recommend purchasing this or any other study guide to prepare for the exams but don't expect an exact replication of the test. This study guide, aside from the mistakes, gives helpful general guidelines and informative practice tests. The actual tests, however, require you to essay, use the antigone medea essay, information gained from these practice exams in more abstract ways. A very good helpful book. By Ellen on essay about infanticide Sep 29, 2000. I used this book to successfully prtepare for thesew tests.

I gave that book away and I came back here to get new copy to work with a friend. This book deserves praise. The copies I have was error free. The two chapters in the Introductory section gave me all the strategies I needed to pass the tests. The Reading chapter shows a specific approach for answering reading questions and these tests are reading tests. The English and Writing chapter shows how to essay, write the essays. Essay! The Mathematics chapter in this new copy recommends a short cut review. The ATSW chapter gives a very good review for that test. There are four realistic practice tests. I found the chapter on getting a job very helpful with contact info for every public school in the state.

The only real weakness in my first copy of the book was the practice LASTs did not have the longer complex readings found on the actual test. Medea! The tests in this new copy include those longer readings. I like it that the essay about female infanticide, publisher keeps up with the tests and updated an already excellent book. A Customer on May 26, 2003. I got this book because the Education advisor said students who used this book did better on the tests than students who bought the Kaplan book and because the. salesperson said this book outsold the Kaplan book about 5 to 1. Still it ended up that I got both books.

I can see why this book sells better and why people do better. This book prepared me for the LAST and essay the Kaplan book did not. The ATSW tests in this book are as helpful as the tests in on brand loyalty, the Kaplan book. But the ATSW tests are not anywhere near as important as classroom experience and common sense. There is a very helpful review in the Barron's that shows you how to medea, prepare from just a little to a lot. But the hotel industry, Kaplan book has no review but and essay it is filled Internet links that do not work. My advice is that the Barrons is the only book you need. It is best for the LAST and just as good for ATSW.

This book with real classroom experience should get you through these tests. By Miss Felicity on Mar 29, 2005. A good education, a solid review of a great place to visit, this book and a dose of common sense should help you easily pass both tests on the first try. Antigone! Heed the advice about having an early night before the test date. Bring a bunch of #2 pencils, and us history dress very comfy in layers. These things make a big difference.

I saved about an hour for medea the essay, which I needed, and scored 300 on it. Use the first few hours going through the multiple choice questions. Pharmacy! No need to rush. I hope it goes well for you! I leave you with this quote: Chance favors the prepared mind.

Louis Pasteur. I WAS VERY HAPPY TO HAVE THIS BOOK. A Customer on Oct 29, 2003. I was very happy to have this book. The book says the test is mainly reading comprehension and that is antigone medea essay right.

The book did a good job preparing me to answer those types of questions and the tests in the book were a lot like the test I took. The book also has very clear steps for writing an essay that helped me prepare for that part of the test. Regents Essay! The test taking strategies were very good and very helpful. The book did not put an emphasis on knowing content. What the book did empasize was to learn how to read and answer questions about different subjects and NOT to learn the medea, subjects.

It says it right there in the book. A lot of the passages on a great to visit essay the test were in antigone essay, different subject areas and us history thematic essay questions that part of the book helped too. I almost completely sure I passed and medea I would not have done as well without this book. I think it will probably help you too if you follow the instructions in the book. LAST OK, but ATS-W far off base. A Customer on May 13, 2003. I just took the LAST exam and used this book as a review.

The LAST review was overly thorough but I guess better to be over prepared. The LAST is just reading comprehension. A Great Place Essay! There is no need to essay, retain information on social studies, math, or specific sciences. One problem is incorrect answers are not explained so if you get a practice answer wrong, tough. The BIG PROBLEM in this book is the ATS-W which I have yet to take, but I have heard from a great place to visit people who own the book that Barron's was so far off base it was like they never saw an ATS-W.

It was strongly suggested to me that I buy the Kaplan book which is much more specific, and especially helpful for the ATS-W. I wish I had know this before I bought the Barron's book because now I have to go purchase another book which I will do because I want to antigone, be prepared for this exam.

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Antigone vs Medea - 459 words | Study Guides and Book Summaries

Kulehull i pianoet. Medea? Et essay om musikken pa Utoya om fellesskap og om nye farger. Frank Havroy. 1 Kulehull i pianoet Et essay om musikken på Utøya om fellesskap og om nye farger Frank Havrøy Vi bestemmer oss for research on brand, å synge Bysjan, bysjan lite bån som ekstranummer. Antigone Essay? Den kan passe. Konserten er ferdig, vi har sunget oss gjennom et program med klagesanger og menneskelig lidelse. Paper On Brand? Det har vært en forferdelig påkjenning, mobiltelefonene våre ligger i garderoben og gløder av meldinger som tikker inn i ett sett, den ene meldingen mer uutholdelig enn den forrige. Antigone? Vi står ute i sakristiet et lite øyeblikk, puster ut og går inn i kirkeskipet igjen. School Observation Experience Essay? Jeg sier et par ord, ord jeg har glemt i det samme øyeblikk jeg har sagt dem.

Ord som har problemer med å passere svelget og tungen. Publikum er stille. Antigone? Alle vi seks sangerne i Nordic Voices plasserer oss rundt dem og begynner å synge denne norske vuggevisen. Industry? Vi omkranser vårt tyske publikum med overtonesang, naturtoner og norske ord om trøst og hvile. Våre ansikter er hovne, men vi synger. Medea? Vi synger og er ett med publikum. I denne situasjonen er vi ikke lenger artister og publikum er ikke lenger publikum. De er sammen med oss i denne stunden, vi er sammen med dem, og båndet mellom oss er sangen. A Great Place To Visit Essay? J eg lukker øynene et øyeblikk. Jeg har vært med på dette før.

Jeg har sunget om trøst og hvile og sett publikum smelte foran mine øyne. Antigone Essay? Det kunne ha vært innbilning den gangen for mange år siden, men det var noe som skjedde der jeg sto med gitaren rundt halsen og sang meg gjennom Night Vision av Suzanne Vega. Essay About Female Infanticide? Det var et av disse øyeblikkene som for antigone, alltid skulle forme meg som musiker, en av de første gangene jeg med sikkerhet kan si at research jeg følte at antigone medea jeg og publikum var ett. Essay? De var slitne, slitne etter en uke med politiske diskusjoner, teltliv, regnvær, sene kvelder i kafeen med kortspill MUSIKK ETTER 22. Antigone Medea Essay? JULI SKRIFTSERIE FRA SENTER FOR MUSIKK OG HELSE, VOL 7 NMH-PUBLIKASJONER 2014:5, SIDE 11 23. 2 frank havrøy og sang, alltid sang, nye vennskap, tapt kjærlighet, vunnet kjærlighet, og musikk.

Alltid musikk. Og der var det jeg sto og traff en nerve hos mitt publikum. To Visit Essay? I kafeen på Utøya. Medea Essay? Men nå er jeg her. Essay Hotel? I Tyskland. Essay? 1 Og jeg tenker at essay about female det går en lang linje fra musikeren som hadde sin spede karrièrestart i kafébygget på Utøya til musikeren som avslutter konserten han aldri kommer til å glemme. Antigone Medea? Det var på Utøya jeg for alvor fikk en scene og et publikum, et publikum som lot oss som kom dit med gitarer og et spedt repertoar få muligheten til å gi av oss selv og eksperimentere med våre egne musikalske krefter.

Utøya var teltliv, politikk, vennskap, kortspill i kafeen, fotballturneringer, Nakenodden (der jeg aldri helt turte å foreslå å skulle gå med noen), kjærlighet som kom og gikk og kom igjen (men for det meste gikk den), sentralstyrets underholdning, kursene, debattene. Og musikk. Alltid musikk. Essay Hotel Industry? Sang og musikk. Til enhver anledning. Medea Essay? Rundt bålene, i kafeen, ved ethvert arrangement, i Bakken, når Gro Harlem Brundtland kom, når Jens Stoltenberg talte, når kulturkursene presenterte sine produksjoner ved slutten av uka. Industry? Alltid sang, alltid musikk. Det var allsang: dette felles språket vi alle hadde. Antigone Medea Essay? Vi er auf ere. Us History Regents? Jeg kan fremdeles synge sangen, selv om det har gått over medea, 25 år siden jeg sang den sist. I siste vers reiste vi oss, tok hverandre i hendene og sang den litt stolprete lyrikken der hender og venner selvsagt rimte.

Alle var med, alle sang og ingen var i tvil om hvor de hørte hjemme. School Observation Essay? Selv våre fiender i Unge Høyre kunne til en viss grad av og til innrømme at de var misunnelige på sangen vår og det fellesskapet den bygget opp. Antigone Medea? Mine minner fra Utøya er sentrert rundt musikk. Essay Hotel Industry? Det var musikken som dro meg ut dit, år etter år. Musikken som tonsatte alt som skjedde der. Antigone Medea Essay? Vi visste ikke alltid hvem som skulle tale, ei heller hva som skulle debatteres, men vi visste at about infanticide det kom til å bli sang og allsang. Antigone Medea Essay? Det var noe besnærende med denne allsangen. Jeg kunne treffe på et menneske jeg aldri hadde møtt før, men i sangen fant vi en aktivitet vi kunne dele, en aktivitet vi begge kunne, der vi kjente reglene. Sangen bandt oss sammen i et fellesskap.

Der lå mine sterkeste minner fra Utøya, og jeg skjønte det der jeg sto og sang i Tyskland, på en kveld som var så svart som kvelder kan få blitt. Men disse var mine minner. Var det slik at school observation andre hadde musikalske minner fra Utøya som stemte overens med mine? Hvilken musikk var det som 1 Konserten det her er referert til var med vokalensemblet Nordic Voices i Evangelische Stadtkirche i Roth, Tyskland. 12. 3 kulehull i pianoet dannet lydsporet til vår tilstedeværelse der, hvilken funksjon hadde den og hvorfor er det slik at mennesker som søker sammen så ofte synger sammen? Lydspor fra Utøya I løpet av min tid i AUF hadde organisasjonen to essay, ledere. A Great Place Essay? Den ene var Turid Birkeland, den andre var Jens Stoltenberg. Jeg bestemte meg for antigone, å intervjue dem 2 for essay, å finne ut noe om deres forhold til musikken på Utøya.

Hvordan stilte de seg til de spørsmålene jeg hadde stilt meg selv om musikkens plass, om lydsporet til aktivitetene på Utøya? På spørsmål til Jens Stoltenberg om hva slags forhold han hadde til musikken på Utøya, svarer han: Mitt forhold til musikk på Utøya er allsang rundt bålet, hvor lyden fra sangen og gitarspillet blandes med bålets knitring. For meg fremstår dette som et ganske romantisk minne, men også et minne som stemmer godt overens med mitt eget. Antigone Essay? Det sier noe om stemningen, en atmosfære som musikken bygger opp under. Us History Thematic Essay? Og så er det allsang. Antigone Medea? Jens sitt minne om musikken er mennesker som synger sammen. Us History Thematic Essay Questions? Turid Birkeland 3 sin inngang til AUF var på mange måter musikken. Antigone Medea Essay? Noe av det første hun gjorde var å være med i en av de mange visegruppene AUF huset. On Brand Loyalty? Hun sier om musikken at: for medea, meg er ikke noen av de sterkeste minnene fra Utøya de såkalte politiske verkstedene eller de politiske debattene i Bakken 4, men det er faktisk musikken.

Når man tenker over about, de sakene som stod sentralt i den politiske hverdagen på Utøya, som for medea, eksempel EU-kampen, så finner jeg hennes minne nesten oppsiktsvekkende. Place To Visit? Samtidig beskriver Turid Birkeland, som Jens Stoltenberg, musikken som stemningsskaper: Hva er det som skaper stemningen på Utøya? Det er allsangen, og så er det de som sitter med gitar rundt bålene, og så er det kafeen hvor den ene etter 2 Denne teksten er blant annet basert på intervjuer med Turid Birkeland, Jens Stoltenberg og Renate Tårnes. 3 Turid Birkeland, tidligere leder av AUF, stortingsrepresentant for antigone essay, Arbeiderpartiet, og kulturminister Bakken på Utøya er den store uteplassen fra hovedhuset og opp mot kafébygget. Thematic? Denne bakken er det stedet der blant annet Arbeiderpartiets ledere i alle år har kommet for å tale til leirdeltakerne. 13. 4 frank havrøy den andre kom opp og sang. Antigone Medea Essay? Jeg husker Monica fra Vestfold som sang.

Jeg kan huske enkeltpersoner. School Observation Experience Essay? Det er musikk som tonefølge til menneskelige møter, og det er allsangen. Antigone Essay? Det stemningsskapende er i musikken rundt bålene, i kafeen, det er musikk som forsterkende element i det sosiale. Admission? Turid Birkeland innrømmer at antigone medea det kanskje er romantiserte minner, men hun beskriver også hvordan musikken var til stede nærmest ved alt som skjedde på øya: I enhver fylkesleir med respekt for hotel, seg selv, så var det en som satt og spilte gitar. Antigone Medea? Bolsjevika ville ikke vært Bolsjevika om det ikke hadde en som satt og spilte gitar, helst to. School Observation Experience? Selv de politiske møtene Det var jo ikke en debatt som ikke ble åpnet av allsang i bakken, ikke sant? Og vi hadde, i hvert fall i min tid, mange kulturverksteder i tillegg. Antigone Essay? Det vet jeg at det ikke alltid har vært, men i de årene jeg holdt på, så var det det alltid. Folk som kom inn og holdt teater- og musikkverksted, enten det var Trygve Hoff eller det var Tramteater-folk.

Turid Birkeland har alltid vært en politiker som har vært opptatt av kultur. Essay Female? Under hennes ledertid i AUF stod kulturen spesielt sterkt, noe som blant annet kunne ses i de mange organiserte kulturaktivitetene som ble gjennomført på leirene i hennes lederperiode. Men samtidig forteller hun også om spontane musikalske aktiviteter som utgjorde en felles plattform og et lydspor til alt det andre som foregikk på øya. Nå er Turid Birkeland og Jens Stoltenberg, sammen med meg, representanter for antigone medea, 80-tallets generasjon på Utøya. Us History Regents Thematic Essay Questions? Men også den generasjonen som var der i 2011, var opptatt av musikken.

I tiden etter 2011 ble jeg oppmerksom på et filmopptak av Gro Harlem Brundtlands tale den 22. juli. Før hun gikk på talerstolen, ledet Renate Tårnes publikum i allsang. Da jeg så henne, tenkte jeg med en gang at antigone medea essay hun hadde overtatt min rolle. On Brand Loyalty? Nå var det hun som sto foran og var trubadur, nå var det hun som ledet an antigone essay, allsangen. Hadde det skjedd en forandring siden Turid Birkelands, Jens Stoltenbergs og min tid? På spørsmål om hvilken rolle musikken spilte på Utøya i 2011, svarte Renate Tårnes: 5 Musikken spilte en stor rolle, slik jeg tror den spiller en stor rolle i alle slags sammenhenger. Essay Industry? Vi bruker sangen til å si et budskap, til å skape god stemning og ikke minst til å skape en fellesskapsfølelse. Antigone? Sånn tror jeg det har vært lenge, og slik er det ennå. School Observation Experience Essay? 5 Renate Tårnes (f. Essay? 1989), fra Bjugn, er tidligere leder av Sør-Trøndelag AUF og nåværende representant i Bjugn kommunestyre og i Sør-Trøndelag fylkesting.

14. 5 kulehull i pianoet Ifølge Renate Tårnes var musikken høyst viktig også i 2011, den var til stede, slik den var på 80-tallet, ved arrangementene, når hun, som hun sier var oppvarmer for about infanticide, publikum eller ledet dem i allsang. Renate Tårnes trekker også fram musikken på Utøya som fellesskapbygger, et lydspor som var til stede under enhver aktivitet. Hva slags musikk var det som utgjorde dette lydsporet? Både Turid Birkeland, Jens Stoltenberg og Renate Tårnes trekker fram allsangen, med andre ord de sangene som utgjør allsangtradisjonen i arbeiderbevegelsen. Antigone Essay? Men det var også, som Turid Birkeland sier, visetradisjonen som deltakerne på leiren på mange måter hadde arvet fra foreldrene sine.

Det var sanger som Kjærlighetsvisa (Halvdan Sivertsen) og You ve got a friend (Carole King), eller Postgirobyggets Idyll, sangen som Renate Tårnes sang fra scenen bare timer før angrepet. Essay Infanticide? Alle sangene er forholdsvis enkle å spille, enkle å improvisere andre- og tredjestemmer til, og enkle å få andre til å synge med på. Essay? Det er to pharmacy admission essay, funksjoner musikken hadde, og som de alle tre understreker: Det er musikken som stemningsskaper og det er musikken som fellesskapbygger. Hvorfor sang og hvorfor synge sammen? Under minnekonserten i Oslo Domkirke 30. juli 2011 introduserte Hilde Hummelvoll 6 sangen Til ungdommen 7 (Nordahl Grieg / Otto Mortensen) med å fortelle historien om ungdommene som svømte fra øya og som brukte sangen for medea, å finne styrke for å komme seg til fastlandet. Pharmacy? Tyrifjorden er lumsk, med sterke strømmer og en temperatur som aldri kommer opp på et behagelig nivå, i hvert fall ikke for antigone medea, en såpass lang svømmetur som denne. Men historien 8 til disse ungdommene handlet om hvordan de fant styrke i å søke sammen i denne sangen. Regents Thematic? Det var en overlevelsesstrategi, og det var sangen som ble verktøyet.

En sang som så til de grader representerer den allsangtradisjonen som var rotfestet i arbeiderbevegelsen og på Utøya. Antigone? På mange måter likner denne historien på Jon Roar Bjørkvolds innledning til boken Det musiske mennesket, der han forteller om sin egen historie om 6 Opptak av hennes introduksjon kan for eksempel finnes her: watch?v=d18fhlav3ua ( ) 7 Se sangtekster bakerst i boka. Infanticide? 8 Tønsberg Blad , nettutgaven: ( ) 15. 6 frank havrøy båtturen i storm som nesten gikk aldeles galt, men der hans datters sang ga ham tilgang til en egen styrke han ikke visste han hadde (Bjørkvold, 2007). Bjørkvolds bok handler om hvordan musikk utløser større krefter i oss, for essay, eksempel i møte med naturkrefter om bord i en liten båt, eller på svøm fra overhengende fare. At mennesker søker sammen for school observation experience, å synge sammen, er godt dokumentert. Antigone Essay? Det er anslått at research paper on brand cirka mennesker synger i kor i Norge 9, noe som i tilfelle gjør korbevegelsen til en av de større kulturinstitusjonene i Norge.

Anne Haugland Balsnes (2009) forteller i sin doktoravhandling om hvordan hennes kormedlemmer i Belcanto former sin identitet gjennom å synge og musisere sammen i et fellesskap og derved skaper sterke mellommenneskelige relasjoner. Medea Essay? Man kan selvsagt argumentere for at research paper on brand loyalty man vel så raskt kan bygge slike relasjoner i et fotballag, men det er altså noe med å bruke stemmen som gir noe spesielt. Allerede på fosterstadiet kan vi se hvordan barnet reagerer på mors stemme ved at medea essay hjerteaktiviteten går betydelig ned etter at paper moren har sunget for antigone essay, det (Myskja 1999, s. Us History Thematic Essay Questions? 37). Antigone Essay? Bradley (2009) hevder at også 9 måneder gamle mennesker er i stand til å koordinere en vokal musikalsk aktivitet (Bradley 2009, s. Regents Thematic Essay Questions? 277). Slike koordinasjonsprosesser finner vi også i kor. Müller og Lindenberger (2011) har vist at både pust og hjertets aktivitet synkroniseres når mennesker synger sammen, og at resultatene faktisk var klarest når forsøkspersonene sang unisont, altså som en allsang (Müller Lindeberger, 2011, s. Antigone? 1). Stemmen er en bærer av emosjoner, en av de kanaler der vi kommuniserer våre følelser til omverdenen. Alle mennesker er født med en trang og en evne til å forstå sin nestes lyder av skiftende følelser (Powers Trevarthen, 2009, s. Observation Essay? 232). Det er nok ikke veldig dristig å foreslå at en slik trang og evne til å forstå andre mennesker også er sentral for antigone medea essay, vår overlevelse som art. Us History Regents Thematic Essay Questions? I det hele tatt, å synge sammen har mange dokumenterte positive effekter, og det virker som om mennesker oppsøker unisone situasjoner helt spontant.

I en guide kalt Singing and Mental Health (2012) gjennomgår en gruppe forskere fra Canterbury Christ Church University en rekke studier og forskningsresultater som underbygger påstandene om at medea essay synging kan være velgjørende for essay hotel industry, menneskers mentale helse. Antigone? De oppsummerer med at sang i grupper kan generere positive følelser, skape grobunn for gode 9 Tallet er et anslag gjort i sin tid av Norges Korforbund, basert på Statistisk sentralbyrå sin undersøkelse Norsk kulturbarometer 2008 (se litteraturliste). Observation Essay? 16. 7 kulehull i pianoet forventninger, gi et bedre selvbilde, øke mestringsfølelse, samt skape sosiale nettverk og struktur (Morrison Clift 2012, s. 8). Antigone Medea Essay? Det er med andre ord godt dokumentert at essay industry sang er nærliggende for oss mennesker å bruke når vi vil oppnå fellesskapsfølelse med våre medmennesker og også for antigone medea essay, å rett og slett føle oss bedre. Pharmacy Admission Essay? Samtidig er sang en aktivitet vi alle kan bidra til. Essay? Instrumentet ligger der for hånden.

Vi trenger ikke lang trening i å synge unisont med andre, spesielt når målet ikke er skjønnsang, men kanskje heller handler om å vise fram en inkluderende kollektivitet. Som Turid Birkeland forteller da jeg spurte henne om hvorfor sangen og det å bruke stemmen sammen blir så sentralt for us history regents thematic essay questions, fellesskapet, slik som på Utøya: Hva skal vi ellers gripe til? [ ] Hva annet har vi som tusen mennesker kan gjøre samtidig? Det er ut i fra erkjennelsen av sang som fellesskapbygger og sangens funksjon som velgjører at arbeiderbevegelsens allsangtradisjon vokser fram. Antigone Essay? Det er også allsangtradisjonen som står sentralt når vi skal prøve å si noe om musikken på Utøya. Place Essay? Allsang for antigone, fellesskapet Allsangtradisjonen er sterk i arbeiderbevegelsen. Essay Industry? Den er til stede på stort sett ethvert arrangement, fra små medlemsmøter til store markeringer. Antigone? Men allsangen, altså den unisone sangen, er ikke noe fenomen som kun tilhører arbeiderbevegelsen.

I religiøse organisasjoner står allsangen også sterkt, den skaper et bånd mellom menneskene, på lik linje med sangen på et møte i Arbeiderpartiet eller LO. Paper? Det finnes teorier om at medea til og med grupper av neandertalere brukte en slags sang som et middel for å styrke gruppetilhørigheten, markere revir og som kommunikasjonsmiddel for infanticide, eksempel i jakt (Hagen Hammerstein 2009, s. Antigone Essay? 312). Essay About? John Potter nevner i sin bok Vocal Authority at antigone Homer og Athenaeus skriver om sanger som ble sunget av arbeidere (Potter, 1998, s. Essay Female Infanticide? 6). Antigone Medea Essay? Derfra går det en lang linje av kollektiv sang fram til i dag. Industry? Vi vet at bondehærene sang sammen da bøndene reiste seg mot adelen under bondekrigene i Tyskland i (Kjeldstadli, 2013, s. Medea Essay? 8) og at korsangen i Frankrike fikk et kraftig oppsving etter revolusjonen i 1789 (Lysdahl, 1995, s. Us History Questions? 176). Medea Essay? En av de mest kjente sangene som brukes i arbeiderbevegelsen, Din tanke er fri (oversatt av Alf Cranner fra Die Gedanken sind frei), finnes i tidlige versjoner som i 17. 8 frank havrøy sangboken Lieder der Brienzer Mädchen, trykket i Bern mellom 1810 og Allsang, det å synge sammen, har med andre ord vært brukt av mennesker helt siden de først befolket jorden og frem til i dag. Place? Det å gjøre musikk sammen, er viktig for essay, oss fordi musikken på mange måter ikke er et objekt vi observerer, men en aktivitet vi deltar i. Christopher Small introduserte begrepet to admission essay, music, og mener med det at antigone essay alle som involveres i en musikalsk prosess, gjør det han kaller musicking (Small, 1998, s. School Essay? 50), med andre ord er musikken ikke et objekt, men en prosess i oss og mellom oss. Musikken blir dermed viktig for medea essay, vår eksistens, eller som Balsnes trekker fram, at a great place to visit ved å delta i musikk spiller vi på våre relasjoner til hverandre og verden og får en følelse av hvordan verden er og hvordan man forholder seg til den (Balsnes, 2009, s. Essay? 288).

Det er en sosialisering som løper gjennom all musikalsk aktivitet; det er en aktivitet som også er grunnleggende sosial. Hotel? Selv om musikk ikke nødvendigvis er den eneste aktiviteten som binder folk sammen, så er ofte sosialt samhold et vanlig resultat av den (Finnegan, 1989, s. 329). Musikalsk aktivitet er sterkt knyttet opp mot utviklingen av identitet. Antigone Medea Essay? Det er ikke tilfeldig at essay man på Utøya blant annet finner innslag av visetradisjonen, kampsangene og de sosialt engasjerte tekstene. Medea Essay? Det er nok heller ikke tilfeldig at essay jeg aldri kan huske å ha hørt en klassisk konsert på Utøya noen gang. Medea Essay? Musikken kan virke som et speil på hvordan vi ser oss selv, som om vi finner oss selv bekreftet i musikken (DeNora, 2000, s. 68), men samtidig konstruerer vi vår identitet gjennom musikken vi oppsøker og opplever. Vi former vår identitet sammen med andre ved at regents questions vi lar musikkvalget danne inngangen til et større symbolsk verdifellesskap. Medea? Når dermed Utøyas musikk i sjangre dreier seg om visetradisjon, kampsang og sosialt engasjerte sangtekster, så blir disse musikalske valgene et speil som forteller om en identitet der sosialt engasjement er viktig, men der også avstand til borgerskapet står sentralt.

Musikken speiler en identitet som sier at industry man engasjerer seg for antigone medea, verdier som symboliserer fellesskap mer enn egoisme. Den første linjen i Vi er Auf ere, er ganske talende i så måte: Skal vi ha kaffe, wienerbrød og egoisme? Nei, røde faner, sang og sosialisme! Ved å avvise kaffe, wienerbrød og egoisme, som jo lett kan assosieres med borgerlige verdier, er det kanskje ikke så rart at den klassiske musikken ikke hørte hjemme på Utøya, og at female infanticide musikken dermed speiler en identitet 18. 9 kulehull i pianoet som handler om fellesskap, et fellesskap som kommer til uttrykk gjennom allsangen. Medea? Allsang binder mennesker sammen, den skaper et bånd mellom dem. Essay Hotel? Det er som Turid Birkeland sier: menneskene i organisasjonen kunne krangle så busta føyk i det ene øyeblikket, men deretter reise seg opp, holde naboens hender høyt i været og synge Stein Ove Bergs Ta hverandre i handa og hold av full hals. En slik musikalsk handling fungerte nærmest som en konfliktdemper. Antigone Essay? Samtidig er det tydelig at sangen har et budskap.

Allsangen i arbeiderbevegelsen springer ut fra arbeiderbevegelsens tankegods rundt det kollektive, der solidaritet er det store etiske ankeret (Kokkvold, 1981, s. Observation Experience? 14). Antigone? I motsetning til borgerskapets individfokus, ble det kollektive dyrket. A Great? Tilbake står fellesskapet, og tanken om allsang som møtested for å skape et fellesskap. Antigone Medea Essay? Samtidig skal det jo også sies at tanken om å viske ut det individuelle og å dyrke det kollektive, har vært utviklet til det ekstreme og utgjort tankegods som også har representert mørke samfunnskrefter. A Great? Allsang har vært ett av elementene som har vært brukt for essay, både å oppildne og indoktrinere mennesker. School Observation Experience? Men, allsangen og den felles sangtradisjonen som er i arbeiderbevegelsen og som preget Utøya, bærer med seg en aktivitet som alle kan delta i. Reglene er enkle, sangene bærer ikke med seg store estetiske krav, og alle bidrar med de kreftene de har. En allsangaktivitet bærer også med seg en form for essay, eksklusivitet. Industry? Det er sanger som i utgangspunktet kun de innvidde kan, og aktiviteten innebærer regler for fremføringen som utenforstående til en viss grad ikke har tilgang til. Essay? På den måten styrker den også båndene til de som er innenfor. Infanticide? Sangen på Utøya fellesskap, stemningsskaper og fortrøstning I 2010 deltok jeg på min siste organiserte samling på Utøya.

Sammen med mitt gamle kor fra AUF-tiden var jeg til stede under Veterantreffet som ble arrangert i forbindelse med 60-årsjubileet for overrekkelsen av Utøya fra fagbevegelsen til AUF. Antigone Medea Essay? Etter vår opptreden, sa Jens Stoltenberg: 19. 10 frank havrøy Jeg talte her i dag, og mange andre talte her i dag om alle minnene vi har, om vennskap og tilhørigheten vi har til Utøya. Paper Loyalty? Men jeg er redd for at medea det ikke er mine taler folk husker. Essay Infanticide? De husker ikke noen ting av hva jeg sa.

Men de husker sangene dere sang. Antigone? Rytmene og følelsene de utløste. School Experience? Så sangen dere formidlet til oss i dag er en viktig del av vår felles identitet (Moen Giske, 2012, s. 238) På mange måter sier Jens Stoltenberg noe av det samme som Turid Birkeland, at det er atmosfæren og musikken som sitter sterkest igjen i minnet. Antigone Medea Essay? Han er også tydelig på å understreke Utøya som politisk verksted, slik han sa det i NRK-dokumentaren Historien om en øy: Man kan bare forstå Utøya som et politisk sted, en politisk skolering og et sted der mennesker møtes, der det blir et fellesskap og der det menneskelige flyter sammen med det politiske. Experience? Det er ikke vanskelig å oppfatte musikken som en del av det Jens Stoltenberg kaller det menneskelige. Medea Essay? Både Turid Birkeland, Jens Stoltenberg og Renate Tårnes beskriver musikken på Utøya som en fellesskapbygger og stemningsskaper, enten den nå spilte sin rolle i allsangen, som kollektiv hukommelse eller som lydspor til samling rundt bålet i leirene eller ved stranden i Bolsjevika.

Det var allsangen, det var visetradisjonen, det var, som Turid Birkeland sier det, Dylan og Sivertsen, eller, som i 2011, Postgirobygget. School Observation Experience Essay? Alle disse sangene som lot seg synge med enkle gitargrep og unge stemmer. Antigone Medea? Moen og Giske skriver (ibid., s. About Infanticide? 204): Utøya har alltid hatt sine egne gitarhelter. Essay? Hver generasjon vil huske den eller de som enten fikk eller tok rollen som entertainer ved leirbålet, som ledet allsangen i Kafébygget og nederst i bakken. Research Paper On Brand Loyalty? Selv var jeg en av disse. Medea? Jeg var ingen retoriker, ingen politikerspire. Paper? For meg var det musikken på Utøya som lokket. Essay? For meg var det sjansen til å komme til et sted der jeg ble lyttet til som musiker, et sted der jeg fikk sjansen til å prøve ut mine egne krefter sammen med andre, og samtidig et sted der jeg fikk spille ut mitt beste sjekketriks med gitar på kneet rundt et leirbål.

Det var allsang, det var viser, det var en åpenhet for school experience essay, de som ville prøve seg som musikere for et velvillig og lyttende publikum. Antigone? Utøya var et bevis på at mennesker søker sammen i sang, et sted der sangen fungerte som et bånd mellom mennesker fra vidt forskjellige miljøer og steder i landet. Historien til Renate Tårnes forteller at dette musikalske limet var til stede også i Det går en lang linje fra den spede starten jeg som musiker opplevde på Utøya sent på 80-tallet til den musikeren som stod og sang for to visit, sitt tyske 20. 11 kulehull i pianoet publikum denne julidagen i Det var et stille publikum, et publikum som ble ett med oss i vår sang. Essay? Sangen fungerte som fortrøstning, som båndet mellom oss. Industry? Vi hadde aldri klart det samme om vi kun hadde snakket med publikummet vårt. Medea Essay? Vi mennesker søker sammen i sang. School Observation Experience Essay? Det er noe av det næreste i oss, det binder oss sammen på en grunnleggende måte. Når Turid Birkeland spør hva annet skal vi gripe til?, så har hun et poeng. Det er ikke tilfeldig at antigone vi griper til sangen i etterkant av det som skjedde. Regents Questions? Til ungdommen har fått en annen mening, på samme måte som jeg opplever Bysjan, bysjan lite bån annerledes etter å ha sunget den i Tyskland den 22. Antigone Medea? juli.

Jens Stoltenberg sier det samme til meg, at to visit essay mange av sangene har fått en sterkere betydning. Essay? Renate Tårnes ordlegger seg slik: En del av musikken vil aldri bli det samme igjen. Pharmacy Essay? Enkelte sanger er vanskelig å synge, andre gir meg stor glede og andre kan jeg ikke høre en tone av før jeg griner. Til ungdommen ble et sterkt symbol, både fordi den bar med seg en uhyre kraftfull historie fra den dagen og fordi den representerte Utøyas lange musikktradisjon; fra diktet ble skrevet som en protest mot forsøkene fra Nasjonal Samlings Ungdomsorganisasjon på å kaste styret i Norsk Studentforening i 1936 til den ble en av de viktigste allsangene på Utøya. Slik er sangene blitt forandret med tiden. Antigone Essay? Slik bærer Til ungdommen nå en ny farge, en ny dybde. Research Paper On Brand? Piano med kulehull På Utøya står det et piano. Jeg husker godt da det kom ut dit.

Vi hadde ønsket oss et piano lenge, men det fantes ikke økonomi til det. Antigone Medea Essay? Det viste seg vel at vi som maste ikke var høyt nok oppe i hierarkiet, for det var først da noen av de tilreisende musikkjendisene spurte om det samme, at pianoet ble fløyet ut til øya. School Essay? I april 2012 reiste jeg til Utøya igjen. I kafébygget sto det ennå, og jeg prøvde et par stille akkorder på instrumentet. Medea? En ting var at pharmacy admission essay det låt forferdelig ustemt. Noe helt annet var at medea instrumentet nå var preget av en rekke kulehull. Klangene jeg la var de samme som for thematic, 25 år siden, men det låt annerledes. Som Til ungdommen hadde pianoet nå en annen farge, en ny dybde og en annen mening. Essay? 21. 12 frank havrøy Musikken på Utøya har vært uhyre viktig for veldig mange mennesker. Us History Thematic? Den har vært bindemiddel for de mange tusener av ungdommer som har besøkt øya, den har løftet fram et fellesskap og en kollektivitet som har lange tradisjoner i arbeiderbevegelsen.

Den har virket som stemningsskaper og historieforteller. Antigone Medea? Musikken på Utøya og den rollen noen av disse sangene har fått i ettertid, sier noe om musikkens betydning for paper on brand loyalty, oss mennesker. Medea Essay? Den sier noe om hvordan musikk og kanskje spesielt sang, er så nærliggende å gripe til når vi ønsker å komme nærmere hverandre, oppleve fellesskap og skape nye farger og dypere samspill mellom oss. School Observation Experience Essay? Referanser Balsnes, A. Medea Essay? H. School Experience Essay? (2009). Medea? Å lære i kor. Place To Visit Essay? Belcanto som praksisfellesskap, Avhandling for graden PhD. Oslo: Norges musikkhøgskole. Medea Essay? Bjørkvold, J. R. On Brand? (2007). Antigone Medea Essay? Det musiske mennesket, Oslo: Freidig Forlag. Essay? Bradley, B. Antigone Medea Essay? S. (2009). Early Trios: Patterns of us history essay, sound and antigone medea, movement in essay female the genesis of meaning between infants. Medea? I S. Mallock C. Essay Infanticide? Trevarthen (Red.).

Communicative Musicality. Antigone Medea? Exploring the essay basis of antigone medea, human companionship (ss ). Oxford; Oxford University Press. DeNora, T. A Great Place Essay? (2000). Music in medea Everyday Life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Us History Thematic Essay? Finnegan, R. (1989).

The Hidden Musicians, Music-making in an English Town. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Antigone Medea Essay? Hagen, E. H. Hammerstein, P. (2009). Regents Thematic Questions? Did Neanderthals and antigone essay, other early humans sing? Seeking the biological roots of research on brand, music in medea essay the territorial advertisements of admission, primates, lions, hyenas, and antigone essay, wolves. About Female? Musicae Scientiae, special issue , Finland: University of antigone, Jyväskylä. Essay? Kjeldstadli, K. Antigone Medea? (2013). Essay? Fagbevegelsens sangbok, forord i Gå inn i din tid. Oslo: LO og Fagforbundet. Essay? Kokkvoll, A. A Great To Visit? (1981). Av og for det arbeidene folk: Streif i arbeiderbevegelsens kulturhistorie.

Oslo: Tiden. Antigone Medea Essay? Lysdahl, A. Thematic Essay Questions? J. Medea? K. Observation Experience? (1995). Medea? Sangen har lysning: Studentersang i Norge på tallet. Essay About Infanticide? Oslo: Solum. Antigone Medea? Moen, J. On Brand Loyalty? S. Giske, T. Antigone Medea? (2012). About? Utøya: en biografi. Antigone Essay? Oslo: Gyldendal. Regents Thematic Questions? 22. 13 kulehull i pianoet Morrison, I. Clift, S. Antigone? (2012).

Singing and Mental Health. Place? Kent: Canterbury Christ Church University Centre. Antigone? Müller, V. Research Paper On Brand? Lindenberger, U. Antigone? (2011). Essay Female Infanticide? Cardiac and essay, Respiratory Patterns Synchronize between persons during Choir Singing. PLOS One, 6 (9). Place Essay? San Fransisco: Myskja, A. (1999). Antigone? Den musiske medisin.

Lyd og musikk som terapi. Admission? Oslo: Grøndahl og Dreyer. Medea Essay? Potter, J. Us History Thematic Questions? (1998). Antigone Medea? Vocal Authority: Singing Style and about female infanticide, Ideology. Antigone Essay? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Powers, N. Pharmacy Admission Essay? Trevarthen, C. Medea? (2009). Voices of essay about female infanticide, shared emotions and meaning: Young infants and antigone, their mothers in Scotland and school experience essay, Japan. Antigone Medea? I S. Admission? Mallock C. Trevarthen (Red.). Antigone Essay? Communicative Musicality.

Exploring the essay basis of medea essay, human companionship, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Pharmacy Essay? Small, C. (1998). Musicking. The Meanings of Performing and antigone medea essay, Listening. Middletown: Wesleyan University Press. A Great Place To Visit? Vaage, O. F. Medea Essay? (2008). School Observation Experience? Norsk kulturbarometer Oslo: Statistisk sentralbyrå. Antigone? 23.

Redaktorer: Jan Sverre Knudsen Marie Strand Skanland Gro Trondalen Musikk etter 22. Essay About? juli Musikk etter 22. Medea? juli Skriftserie fra Senter for on brand, musikk og helse, vol. Medea Essay? 7 NMH-publikasjoner 2014:5 Musikk etter 22. Vurdering av prosjekt Musikk Ilsvika smabarn, 2015. Vurdering av prosjekt Musikk Ilsvika smabarn, 2015 Denne maneden vil vi vurdere prosjektet vart om musikk som vi startet i oktober. Place To Visit Essay? Malene med prosjektet var: Barna skal fa oppleve ulike rytmer a bevege. Arsplan for musikk 10-trinn, 2013/2014 L?rer: Erlend Alm Lerstad. ARSPLAN MUSIKK 10-TRINN Arsplan for essay, musikk 10-trinn, 2013/2014 L?rer: Erlend Alm Lerstad Grunnleggende ferdigheter i faget (fra Kunnskapsloftet) Grunnleggende ferdigheter er integrert i der de bidrar til. Musikkprosjekt Skytta demenssenter Rapport juni 2014 «Med sofaen som musikkscene» Musikkprosjekt Skytta demenssenter Rapport juni 2014 «Med sofaen som musikkscene» Juni 2014 Bente Sande Granberg, Trude Hande Hjelset og Heidi Mette Karlsnes Foto: Rita Romskaug 1 Innholdsfortegnelse Innledning.

Kim Trym. Regents Thematic Essay? med hjemlengsel og utferdstrang. Antigone? Konsert for 1. Place To Visit? - 7. Essay? arstrinn. Us History Thematic Essay Questions? Kim Andre Rysstad (sang) / Trym Bjonnes (sang, gitarer, perkusjon, loops) 2010 2011 Kim Trym med hjemlengsel og utferdstrang Kim Andre Rysstad (sang) / Trym Bjonnes (sang, gitarer, perkusjon, loops) Konsert for 1. - 7. Essay? arstrinn : Kim Trym programmet To unge musikere vokste. PEDAGOGISK TILBAKEBLIKK SOLJE, JANUAR, 2016. Admission Essay? Hei alle sammen og takk for medea essay, en fin start pa 2016. School Observation Experience? Det er noen herlige barn som gar pa Solje og vi er heldige som far tilbringe dagen sammen med dem. Medea Essay? Gjennom. Arsplan Musikk 1. kl Byskogen skole 2012/2013. Arsplan Musikk 1. kl Byskogen skole 2012/2013 Musikk Formal med faget Alle barn, unge og voksne i vart samfunn har et forhold til musikk.

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Fa forsoker a v?re helter, og de fleste forstar REAKSJONER ETTER SKYTINGEN. Gode melodier Ola Fjellvikas - sang Merethe Troan - sang. Gode melodier Ola Fjellvikas - sang Merethe Troan - sang Konsert for school observation, 1. Antigone? - 7. Pharmacy Essay? arstrinn PROGRAMMET Ola og Merethe er pa jakt etter den gode melodien. Antigone Medea? De har samlet ett knippe gode melodier som de vil spille. PEDAGOGISK TILBAKEBLIKK OKTOBER 2012 Hei alle sammen Tiden flyr og allerede er vi i november! Forst vil jeg takke for sa bra oppmote og for bidragene deres pa FN- dagen, haper dere hadde en trivelig ettermiddag. Det star skrevet i evangeliet etter Johannes i det 1. Kapittel: Preken 3 s i treenighet 14. juni 2015 Kapellan Elisabeth Lund Det star skrevet i evangeliet etter Johannes i det 1. Regents? Kapittel: Dagen etter sto Johannes der igjen sammen med to antigone essay, av disiplene sine.

Da Jesus. Carl-Johan Vallgren. Essay? Havmannen. Roman. Antigone Essay? Oversatt av Bjorn Alex Herrman. Carl-Johan Vallgren Havmannen Roman Oversatt av Bjorn Alex Herrman DET FINS INGEN begynnelse, og det fins ingen slutt. A Great Place To Visit Essay? Jeg vet det na. Medea Essay? For andre fins det kanskje fortellinger som forer noe sted, men ikke. 2. Regents Essay? sondag i fastetiden (16.mars) Hovedtekst: Matt 15,21-28.

GT tekst: 1 Mos 32,24-30. Essay? NT tekst: Jak 1,2-8. Industry? Barnas tekst: Joh 3,1-8. 2. Antigone Medea? sondag i fastetiden (16.mars) Hovedtekst: Matt 15,21-28 GT tekst: 1 Mos 32,24-30 NT tekst: Jak 1,2-8 Barnas tekst: Joh 3,1-8 Merket for livet 42 S o n d a g e n s t e k s t F OR V O K S N E: M A T T. KAPITTEL 2 KOPIERINGSORIGINAL 2.1 Informasjon om et politisk parti Nedenfor ser du en liste over paper on brand, de storste partiene i Norge. Antigone Essay? Finn hjemmesidene til disse partiene pa internett. Place? Velg et politisk parti som. Brosjyre basert pa Ung i Stavanger 2013. Antigone Medea Essay? Ved Silje Hartberg Kristinn Hegna. NOVA, 1.juni 2013.

Brosjyre basert pa Ung i Stavanger 2013 Ved Silje Hartberg Kristinn Hegna NOVA, 1.juni 2013 Dette horte vi da vi horte pa ungdommen! I mars 2013 svarte nesten 5000 ungdommer fra Stavanger pa sporsmal om. Etter at du bestemte deg for essay, a folge Jesus, pa hvilken mate har du/har du ikke folt det som en nyskapelse? Nytt liv i praksis 24/7/365 Gud er ikke bare interessert i gudstjenestelivet vart. Essay? Han er interessert i livet vart. Derfor er disippellivet noe som eksisterer 24 timer i dognet, 7 dager i uken og 365 dager.

LIKESTILLING OG LIKEVERD Oppsummering Kroppanmarka barnehagers Interne prosjekter 2009 2011 Resultatene er basert pa egne observasjoner som utgangspunkt for female infanticide, vare antagelser Er det forskjeller i samspill. ALF VAN DER HAGEN KJELL ASKILDSEN. Antigone Essay? ET LIV FORLAGET OKTOBER 2014. ALF VAN DER HAGEN KJELL ASKILDSEN. On Brand? ET LIV FORLAGET OKTOBER 2014 «Man trenger noen ganger a v?re alene, sa man slipper a gjore seg mindre enn man er.» KJELL ASKILDSEN, notatbok, 24. Antigone? februar 2007 INNHOLD. Omsorg til personer i sarbare situasjoner.

Omsorg til personer i sarbare situasjoner - Praksisfortellinger som inngang til forstaelse N?rv?r nar identitet er truet En phd. Regents Thematic? studie av god omsorg Pleiernes fortalte erfaringer med god omsorg fra egen. SONGS AND SWEET POTATOES Jeg tenker at antigone slik som livet er, slik er musikken. Research On Brand Loyalty? Musikken er full av stemninger, rytme og folelser. Den er noen ganger stillestaende som en gra hverdagsmandag. Antigone Medea? Andre ganger fnisete. Panamahatten. Pharmacy? En rytmisk fortelling. Artist - instrument. Essay? Konsert for place essay, 8. Antigone Medea? - 10. arstrinn. 2010 2011 Panamahatten En rytmisk fortelling Artist - instrument Konsert for school, 8. Antigone Essay? - 10. arstrinn : Panamahatten programmet Roald Dahl (1916-1990) ble fodt i Wales av norske foreldre.

Han vokste opp i Storbritannia, ARSPLAN I MUSIKK FOR 4. Regents Thematic Essay Questions? TRINN HOSTEN 2015. ARSPLAN I MUSIKK FOR 4. TRINN HOSTEN 2015 Fagl?rer: Anne Marte Urdal/Ruben Elias Austnes Uke MAL (K06) TEMA ARBEIDSFORM VURDERING 35-37 Kunne framfore sang, spill og dans i samhandling med Kunne beherske. DAG SOLSTAD Artikler 2005 2014 FORLAGET OKTOBER 2015 INNHOLD Forord Gombrowicz forever Arena: Folkets stadion, Bislet. Antigone? (Selvbiografi 2.1.1950 13.2.1983) Jakten pa den historiske Ibsen. Essay Industry? (Om Ivo de Figueiredos.

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adorno essay on jazz Theodor Adorno and the Culture Industry, presented to the Annual Meeting of the medea essay, Popular Culture Association, Toronto (March 30, 1984) by pharmacy admission, Gordon Welty. Wright State University. Dayton, OH 45435 USA. Theodor Adorno was one of the more important philosophers of the Institute for Social Research, the Frankfurt School, which flourished in medea essay, Weimar Germany. A friend and essay hotel industry student of the Viennese composer Alban Berg, Adorno was a musicologist as well. Along with many members of the Institute, he emigrated to the United States during the Nazi era. He continued his critique of bourgeois culture, contributing to the Authoritarian Personality in 1950. He and his friend and collaborator, Max Horkheimer, returned to Frankfurt in 1953 and antigone essay reestablished the pharmacy essay, Institute. His last major writing, Negative Dialektik , was published in 1966. He died in 1969.

I want to review Adorno's conception of the culture industry as it is found in three writings. The first is the essay On Popular Music, which was published in the Institute's organ, Studies in Philosophy and Social Sciences , Vol. IX, No. Medea. 1. This essay both summarized Adorno's studies of popular music and immediately prefigured the emergence of the a great place, theory of the culture industry. In 1944, Horkheimer and Adorno completed writing Dialektik der Aufklarung . This manuscript remained unpublished until 1947, when it came out under the imprint of Querido in medea essay, Amsterdam. As the authors later indicated, the book made its reputation only by degrees.

It became better known after 1969, when it was republished by Fischer Verlag in Frankfurt am Main. A chapter in school observation experience essay, the book entitled The Culture Industry: Enlightenment as Mass Deception is the antigone, second item of interest to us. The third is Culture Industry Reconsidered. In 1963, Adorno gave a lecture in the International Radio University Program over the Hessian Broadcasting System which was published in 1967. This has been translated in New German Critique , No. 6. Essay Infanticide. All human artifacts consist of materializations of labor; they incorporate labor and realize its intentions./1/ Thus they have two interrelated but analytically distinct aspects.

On the one side a materialization of labor, a product of labor, is a use value. Antigone Essay. As such, an artifact has utility for someone, i.e. Essay. it can serve a need of individual or collective practical reason. The exchange value of antigone, a commodity depends upon its utility, as well as upon industry, the institutional conditions of the market. On the other side, a materialization of labor is an objectivization or embodiment of meaning or significance. As such, an artifact articulates with individual or collective theoretical reason or aesthetic sense. The monopolistic rental value of an artifact depends upon its significance, as well as the institutional conditions which preserve the monopoly (e.g. copyright privileges). Artifacts can be arrayed across a continuum from those where utility predominates to those where significance predominates.

A piece of firewood illustrates the former, a book of poetry, the latter. It would be unusual but not inconceivable to foreground the significance, say the artistic significance, of the firewood. And one could always start a fire with a page of poetry, highlighting its utility rather than its poetic significance. We will call all artifacts where significance predominates over utility, cultural products. In particular, we are concerned here with the antigone, cultural products which made up popular culture in Adorno's conception, including film, horoscope, jazz, magazines, radio, soap operas, television serials, etc. As cultural objects become more interchangeable, each one declines in significance, loses its aura, hence declines in monopolistic rent. Since the value of the cultural object is based on the monopolistic rent or, to a subordinate degree, on the object's utility, the value of the cultural object should decline as well. This doesn't occur under late capitalism, however.

As Horkheimer and Adorno have put it, what might be called use value in the reception of cultural commodities is replaced by exchange value./2/ Replaced by exchange value! How can exchange value come to attain such autonomy in the sphere cultural production? Only through a widespread process of fetishization. The consumer is hotel industry paying, not for the product but for the packaging. Rather than assessments of value based on antigone essay, the qualities of the industry, product, judgments about the qualities of the product are based upon its exchange value, its price, its top-ten rating. This is the height of antigone essay, commodity fetishism. As Horkheimer and Adorno stressed, the essential characteristic of the culture industry is essay repetition./3/ Adorno illustrates this by contrasting popular and serious music. As early as his 1936 essay On Jazz, Adorno had argued that an medea essay, essential characteristic of popular music was its standardization. On Popular Music, written in 1941 with the assistance of George Simpson, repeats this point.

The whole structure of popular music is standardized, even where the attempt is made to circumvent standardization. Standardization extends from the most general features to the most specific ones./4/ Standardization implies the us history regents essay, interchangeability, the substitutability of antigone medea essay, parts. By contrast, serious music is a concrete totality for Adorno, whereby every detail derives its musical sense from the essay, concrete totality of the piece. This is a dialectical relationship, whereby the totality is constituted of the organic interrelation of the medea, particulars. In the case of serious music, interchangeability is not possible; if a detail is omitted, all is lost./5/ Other illustrations could be given, such as the soap operas with their substitutable episodes, horror films with their formulas, etc. This repetition is due to research paper loyalty the reflection in the sphere of cultural production of the standardized and repetitive processes of monopoly capitalist industry. Under late capitalism, what happens at antigone essay work, in the factory, or in the office can only be escaped by approximating it in one's leisure time.

This sets the terms for cultural products: no independent thinking must be expected from the audiences instead, the product prescribes every reaction./6/ The standardization of the paper, cultural product leads to the standardization of the audience. Man as a member of a species has been made a reality by the culture industry. Now any person signifies only those attributes by which he can replace everybody else; he is interchangeable./7/ Standardization, says Adorno, divests the listener of his spontaneity and medea promotes conditioned reflexes./8/ To this point, the research paper on brand loyalty, argument suggests that both popular culture and its audience suffer a radical loss of significance under late capitalism. It might be argued that the standardization of the cultural product under late capitalism is medea technologically determined, the same as an industrial product such as a can of green beans. Research On Brand Loyalty. Horkheimer and Adorno begin by considering, and medea essay dismissing, the claim that the paper loyalty, standardization, the identity of mass culture, can be explained in technological terms. Technology attains its power, they argue, only antigone medea, through the power of hotel industry, monopolies and medea great corporations./9/ The most powerful industries, viz. banks, chemicals, electricity, petroleum, steel, control the culture monopolies, which are weak and dependent in comparison./10/ The latter produce and market the mass culture. As Stuart Ewen has pointed out, mass society has two aspects, mass production and mass consumption./11/ Adorno stresses that the standardization of the cultural product is not a consequence of mass production. He states that the expression 'industry' [in the concept 'culture industry'] is not to about be taken literally.

It refers to the standardization of the thing itself -- such as the Western, familiar to every movie-goer -- and to the rationalization of distribution techniques, but not strictly to the production process./12/ Earlier, he had been even more specific. The production of popular music can be called 'industrial' only in its promotion and distribution, whereas the act of producing a song-hit still remains in a handicraft stage. It is still 'individualistic' in its social mode of production./13/ Rather, standardization is a necessity of mass consumption. Popular music must simultaneously meet two demands. One is for stimuli that provoke the listener's attention . by deviating in some way from the established 'natural' [music]. The other is for material to fall within the medea, category of what the musically untrained listener would call 'natural' music . that it maintain the supremacy of the research on brand, natural against such deviations./14/ Adorno continues that the paradox in the desiderata -- stimulatory and natural -- accounts for essay the dual character of standardization itself. Stylization of the ever identical framework is only one aspect of standardization./15/ The necessary correlate of musical standardization is pseudo-individualization [i.e.] endowing cultural mass production with the halo of free choice or open market on school experience essay, the basis of standardization itself. Pseudo-individualization, for its part, prevents the listener from resisting the standardization which is reducing him to the animalistic level by making him forget that the music was standardized./16/ This dual characteristic of popular music also proves to be significant for purposes of marketing it.

In order to antigone medea essay be mass marketed, a song-hit must have at least one feature by which it can be distinguished from industry any other, and yet possess the complete conventionality and triviality of all others./17/ Without pseudo-individualization, what the marketing industry calls product differentiation, the song could not be successfully marketed. Without standardisation, it could not be sold automatically, without requiring any effort on the part of the customer; it could not be mass-marketed at all./18/ As Horkheimer and Adorno point out, modern communications media have an isolating effect./19/ This includes both social and physical isolation. The modern administration of capitalist society, with its effective means of communication, keeps people from gregarious interaction. Automobiles facilitate travel of people in antigone essay, complete isolation from each other. They continue that communication establishes uniformity among men by isolating them./20/ Let us consider how this uniformity is generated by popular music. Popular music either promotes the thoughtlessness of the research, masses or else provides the content of their thought. Medea Essay. Regarding the first of essay, these, Adorno invokes the Distraction Thesis. Distraction is a correlate of capitalism; this mode of production, which engenders fears and anxiety about unemployment, loss of income, war, has its 'non-productive' correlate in entertainment; that is, relaxation which does not involve the medea essay, effort of concentration at essay all./21/ Thus, distraction is a presupposition of popular music.

It is medea also a product of that music; the tunes lull the listener to inattention./22/ Regarding the next of these, Adorno suggests that popular music serves an ideological function for its listeners. About. Popular music is above all a means by which they achieve some psychical adjustment to the mechanisms of present day life. There are two major types of mass response to popular music, that of the medea, rhythmically obedient type and that of the emotional type./23/ Listeners of the rhythmically obedient type are particularly susceptible to paper on brand masochistic adjustment to authoritarian collectivism./24/ Listeners of the emotional type consume music in order to be allowed to weep. Antigone Essay. They are taken in by the musical expression of frustration rather than by that of happiness. Adorno continues: Music that permits its listeners the confession of their unhappiness reconciles them, by means of essay, this 'release,' to their social dependence./25/ In sum, Adorno has provided a theory of the nature of the cultural product and its valuation at antigone medea an appropriate level of discourse.

The standardization and pharmacy interchangeability of cultural products under late capitalism leads to the interchangeability of persons in the audience. Stylization has its counterpart, the pseudo-individualization of the culture product as well as the members of the audience. Both stylization and antigone medea pseudo-individualization contribute to the possibilities of regents thematic questions, mass marketing. The consequences for the audience in late capitalism are distraction on the one hand, and a means of medea, ensuring the audience's adjustment -- whether fascistic or sorrowful accommodation -- to dependency on admission essay, the other. The significance for our times of Adorno's thought on the culture industry is becoming increasingly apparent. Essay. On the one hand, the analysis of mass culture, mass society, and the like has proven less than satisfactory. It is necessary critically to delve into the material basis of the cultural apparatus which has ensnared the thinking, attitudes, and cultural practices of vast numbers of the populace. On the other hand, the manipulative power of that cultural industry grows day by day. The accession of a B-grade movie actor to the presidency, the advent of the Age of the Great Communicator -- an age revolving about the personality of a man bordering on the dementia of Alzheimer's disease -- only stresses the need for a radical critique of the cultural apparatus that has created this age and props up the chief character of this age's tragic farce. 1. Cf. Gordon Welty, The Materialist Science of Culture and the Critique of Ideology, Quarterly Journal of essay, Ideology (1981), Vol.

V, No. 2. 2. Max Horkheimer and Theodor Adorno, Dialectic of Enlightenment , New York: Herder and Herder (1972), p. 158. 4. Antigone Essay. Theodor Adorno, On Popular Music, Studies in Philosophy and Social Sciences (1941), Vol. IX, No. 1, pp. 17-18. 6. Horkheimer and Adorno, Dialectic of essay infanticide, Enlightenment, p. 137.

8. Adorno, On Popular Music, p. 22. 9. Horkheimer and Adorno, Dialectic of Enlightenment , p. 121. 10. Horkheimer and Adorno, Dialectic of Enlightenment , p. 122. 11.

Stuart Ewen, Captains of Consciousness, New York: McGraw-Hill (1976), pp. 24-26. Essay. 12. Theodor Adorno, Culture Industry Reconsidered, New German Critique (1975) No. 6, p. 14. 13. Adorno, On Popular Music, p. Research Paper On Brand Loyalty. 23. 19. Horkheimer and antigone essay Adorno, Dialectic of Enlightenment , p. 121.

20. Horkheimer and Adorno, Dialectic of Enlightenment , p. 122.

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essays of elias Norbert Elias: On the Monopoly Mechanism. By Frank W. Elwell. There is antigone essay, a parallel structural process at work that, beginning in the Middle Ages, led to the formation of states and the eventual monopoly of experience these states over the means of violence and antigone medea essay taxation. Research Paper Loyalty. The rise of the state brings about a dramatic change in social structure that has far reaching consequences upon social life. Before the medea essay state, the individual had to place to visit essay be constantly fearful of physical attack, destruction, or confiscation of property. With the establishment of a stable monopoly of force and taxation, life becomes more predictable for antigone medea the individual, more amenable to planning, deferred gratification, and rational conduct. Elias believes that it is the rise of the monetary economy that gives kings and princes a gradually growing advantage in their struggles to wrest power from petty feudal lords. And this gradual centralization, bringing more and more territory, wealth, and power to an increasing absolutist monarchy, eventually transforms the West, bringing about the on brand rise of civilization (188).

Under feudal conditions, the upper class consisted of independent warrior knights on their own estates who owed but loose allegiance to any central authority. In the course of time, these independent warriors situated on manors and estates gradually lost their independence and were reduced to dependent courtiers. That this was a structural process and not the result of historical accident is attested to by the fact that it occurs across Europe at roughly the same time; that we speak of the “age of absolutism” (188). Nor is it a coincidence, Elias says, that it roughly parallels the civilization process itself, which was closely “linked to the formation of the hierarchical social order with the antigone essay absolute ruler and, more broadly, his court at its head” (188). For the formation of the absolutist court demanded a change in the behavior, drives, and emotions of former warrior nobility; to retain standing, successful nobility had to civilize their behavior to come into line with their dependence on essay hotel, the central ruler.

How did this increased constraint and dependence come about? How was an upper class of relatively independent warriors or knights supplanted by antigone essay a more or less pacified upper class of courtiers? Why was the influence of the thematic essay questions estates progressively reduced in the course of the Middle Ages and the early modern period, and why, sooner or later, was the dictatorial “absolute” rule of a single figure, and medea with it the observation experience essay compulsion of courtly etiquette, the pacification of essay large or smaller territories from a single centre, established for a greater or lesser period of time in all the countries of Europe? The sociogenesis [social origin] of absolutism indeed occupies a key position in essay, the overall process of civilization. The civilizing of conduct and the corresponding transformation of the structure of mental and emotional life cannot be understood without tracing the process of state-formation, and essay within it the advancing centralization of society which first found particularly visible expression in us history regents thematic, the absolutist form of rule (191). Like a true Weberian, Elias believes that there are a number of factors behind the rise of the medea essay state. First and foremost, he believes the rise of the money economy at the expense of barter is the most important factor.

This weakened the feudal lords who existed on fixed rents, and essay hotel industry strengthened the middle class merchants and artisans who produced and traded wealth as well as the antigone medea essay central ruler whose tax system gave him a share in the growing economy (192). A second structural change that favors centralization concerns changes in military power. Under feudalism, you will recall, vassals (including the nobility) were obligated to give the central ruler military service in return for their estates. As the economy grew, central rulers had funds to raise, equip, and maintain armies, growing less and less dependent upon the services of their feudal warriors (192). At the same time, there were changes in military techniques that changed the character of warfare and further devalued the services of the nobility. These techniques included the research paper on brand loyalty development of mass infantry which again was advantageous to the central ruler (192-193). Medea. The nobility, Elias reports, lost their monopoly on weapons and soldiering, and this monopoly passed into the hands of a single ruler (193). In addition to these structural developments that promoted the rise of the state, there is one other that Elias believes is important enough to describe in some detail. On Brand Loyalty. This is the essay rise of the bourgeois classes. The wealth and power of these classes was also dependent upon regents essay questions the rise of the money economy.

There was constant tension between the traditional nobility and these classes. While the tensions and conflicts varied between societies and over antigone medea essay time, centralized rulers quickly learned to essay hotel industry exploit these tensions and interest groups, supporting one for a time and then the antigone medea other, to neutralize and prevent either from gaining too much power and becoming a true rival to the ruler and the absolute state (194). Finally, there were several developments in technology that also promoted centralization and the rise of the research state. These technological changes included the slow development of firearms that gave massed infantry advantage over a few nobles fighting on horseback (192); advances in bureaucratic organization that enabled efficient rule (239); and advances in communication and transportation which allowed centralized authority to effectively rule over ever larger areas (238-239). Another way of looking at these technological and structural factors that promoted the rise of the state is to look at them as factors that change the balance between the forces of antigone medea essay centralization and decentralization. Essay Female Infanticide. The rise of the monetary economy promotes centralization by replacing land ownership as the dominant form of wealth. As long as land is wealth, processes of centralization and essay decentralization (feudalization) alternate: military competition among small estates in a given region for dominance (more land, wealth, and power), eventual supremacy by one lord who then dominates many warriors, and then a wave of decentralization as that lord and about female his descendants allocate estates to their supporters and warriors to start the process anew (313). The rise of a monetary economy, and medea essay the creation of wealth from manufacture and trade, breaks this cycle. The development of firearms and questions mass armies, bureaucracy, transportation, and communication has a similar effect on the forces of centralization versus decentralization, allowing kingdoms and states to grow ever larger and more powerful. This is the heart of Elias’s theory—the engine of social change that has been operating throughout history but has been finally unleashed by this change in the balance of forces between centralization and decentralization: the monopoly mechanism.

The Monopoly Mechanism. In attempting to grasp the general monopoly mechanism, readers should keep in mind the discussion of state formation appearing above, or, alternatively, the formation of economic monopolies under capitalism. As previously stated, with the evolution of modernity, the nation state has achieved a monopoly on antigone essay, the tax monies and the use of force within a given area—in fact the modern state can be defined as just such a monopoly over a given area (268). The formation of the state with its monopoly on force makes possible restricted economic competition within its area of control, which makes the operation of the monopoly mechanism among economic units inevitable (277; 303-304). Though the resulting competition is constrained and excludes the use of force, the mechanism itself works the a great same. The mechanism of monopoly, according to Elias, operates whenever there are a number of social units of roughly equal social power competing for antigone essay scarce resources—usually, Elias adds, the means of production. Hotel. In such a competitive situation, it is inevitable that there will eventually be winners and losers. The winners will then dominate more of these resources and continue to compete with other units that have won their struggles; the losers will be eliminated from the competition, eventually becoming dependent upon the ever-decreasing number of victors. Eventually as the struggle continues, there will be single winner or unit upon which all are dependent, a system of free competition will have been replaced by a monopoly which then allocates all opportunities and resources (269). Now, Elias continues, in the course of this movement, the monopoly mechanism transforms relatively independent social positions into highly dependent positions—free knights and warriors into courtiers, or independent merchants into medea, employees [or in regents, the case of Wal-Mart, associates] (270). In this process, the personality and affect structure of these people—their emotions, drives, attitudes, and essay beliefs—are also transformed. Industry. [1] The attitudes, emotions, beliefs, skills, and drives that make a knight successful in medieval society are far different from those of a courtier.

Rather than physical strength and antigone essay combat skills, his success is now dependent upon resources and opportunities to be dispensed from the prince; he must now practice restraint, and subordinate his own desires and needs to his lords’. To Visit. “The means of struggle have been refined or sublimated. The restraint of the affects imposed on antigone essay, the individual by paper on brand his dependence on the monopoly ruler has increased” (274). The civilizing process has been advanced. And this is true for those who dominate as well as those who have become dependent (270). For the monopoly mechanism does not stop here. It is not the case that the monopoly evolves to a point of absolute rule by a single unit or individual and all change then ceases to operate. As the number of dependent individuals rises, their power vis--vis the monopolist increases.

This occurs both because of their sheer numbers and antigone because the monopolist must employ people to help fully exploit their monopoly position. “The more comprehensive the monopolized power potential, the larger the web of functionaries administering it and the greater the division of labour among them; in short, the more people on whose work or function the monopoly is in any way dependent, the more strongly does this whole field controlled by the monopolist assert its own weight and its own inner regularities” (270-271). As the monopoly continues to develop over the centuries, there is a concurrent increase in the division of labor and the monopolist comes to coordinate the actions of many functionaries; he becomes almost as dependent on these other functionaries as they are on him. Over time, resources are increasingly distributed on a more egalitarian basis to these functionaries—first, say, to observation experience administrators, then to lower strata functionaries of the organization. The private monopoly becomes one that serves a far broader social stratum (271). And this movement, Elias claims, “…is nothing other than a function of social interdependence” (273). Medea Essay. A monopoly with a high division of labor, he believes, will inevitably move toward a state of industry equilibrium in which income and advantages from the monopoly will have to be distributed on medea essay, a more equitable basis than to just those at the top—even to the “advantage” of the whole figuration. Again, this is true of the state as well as economic monopolies; Elias does not detail any possible limits to the process.

Restricted conflict and competition over the distribution of resources within the monopoly occurs. Sometimes the place essay process is reversed for a time, but the long-term process is toward an equitable distribution of resources for all (273-274). This can be seen, Elias says, with the state and its passage from the medea rule of absolute monarchs to place to visit essay democracy, as well as the evolution of single-owner economic concerns and their passage to antigone corporate structures which allocate their resources now to essay infanticide numerous groups of stockholders, corporate officers, administrators, employed professionals, and medea eventually to skilled and unskilled workers. Within a monopoly, distribution changes from a private affair in which the vast majority of us history regents resources of the figuration go to the monopolist, into a public monopoly in which resources are allocated to the figuration as a whole. This can only medea essay reach its full development, Elias adds, in societies with a high division of labor (276). Elias details some change in the institutions by which the civilizing process is industry, accomplished. The civilizing process first occurs through the pressure of those of upper class rank on their contemporaries and then on their inferiors. In this stage, the rules of basic conduct were often written in etiquette books or repeated in aphorisms and doggerel, becoming a more or less conscious part of court society.

The rules of medea conduct were transmitted from essay above to the classes below. With the rise of the middle classes, this courtly behavior lost some of its force, and some of the behavior patterns of the bourgeoisie (particularly those involving money and sex) were merged with courtly behavior codes to become the new standard (440). As the middle and industrial classes gained ascendancy, the civilization process was accomplished through gradual changes in the socialization of antigone medea youth that would instill a sense of personal shame and essay embarrassment regarding socially proscribed behavior (116-117). It is not until this second stage, when the family becomes the dominant institution responsible for civilizing the child, that such rules of conduct are internalized at an early age, often thought of (if at all) as “second nature.” But it is not the case that the socialization process itself was changed, Elias states. The family was and remained the essay primary socialization agent for children, and the supervision of youth became no more rigorous as we approach modern times. Nor has the process itself been reconstituted along rational or more deliberative lines. It is still accomplished in the same haphazard manner, where the socially patterned habits and rules of the parents passed early on to the children, with only research slight modification over antigone the generations (159). But through the years, the civilized rules and behaviors instilled through the socialization of children incrementally changed to incorporate the new civilized standards of behavior, as well as the feelings of shame, embarrassment, satisfaction, and pleasure associated with these standards (109). Elias seems to be is ignoring the role of the school here. Regents Thematic Questions. Arising in the Middle Ages, mass education has increasingly expanded its role in the socialization process, now including sex education, nutrition, driver education, and a host of attitudes and behaviors that used to be the medea exclusive province of the family.

As the family is a very conservative institution highly resistant to change, and the schools are very responsive to research paper on brand loyalty government regulation as well as other formal institutions that make up the essay structure of any society, one would expect the civilizing process to a great to visit advance rapidly as schools took over more and antigone medea more of the socialization function. Elias remarks that because the essay female infanticide civilizing process is now accomplished through childhood socialization, a large gulf now exists between the behavior of adults and children. This gulf did not exist in medieval times. He points out that even though they were economically and socially dependent upon adults, children’s habits, dress, emotional life, and behavior were far closer to adult standards (and adult standards closer to the child’s). Further, adults did not attempt to protect children from the antigone medea essay ways of the world to the same degree. In keeping with the state of the a great place to visit civilizing process itself, sex, violence, and intimacy were more freely expressed and thus more open for children to see (147-148). Consequently, as the civilizing process changes social structures, it becomes internalized in individuals through consequent socialization, and there is a growing gap between the antigone behavior and a great place affects (emotions) of adults and children through time, and there is an increasing segregation and a lengthening of childhood as well. Recognition of these changes is critical in understanding earlier personality structure as well as those in our own time (148).

Individuals have not developed in the same manner through history; the socialization process varies across societies and through time (153-154). Postman picks up on this theme from Elias and cites his work approvingly. Unlike Elias, however, Postman attributes the antigone essay increasing gulf between adults and children since Medieval society to the spread of literacy, thus enabling adults to essay about keep secrets from children—sexuality, violence, human deprivation—until they are old enough to master complex literacy skills. He also believes that television and other forms of graphic media are increasingly closing this gap (and consequently changing what it is to be an adult as well). As we approach modernity, more and more of the civilizing process is given over to early childhood socialization. Consequently, children have to internalize the complex standards of medea essay behavior within a very short period of time. Essay. Their drives and urges must be channeled into the socially approved forms of expression; their behavior molded, shame and revulsion associated with their ability to uphold these standards (as well as the ability of those around them) and made part of the self. “In this the parents are only the antigone medea (often inadequate) instruments, the primary agents of conditioning; through them and thousands of to visit other instruments it is always society as a whole, the entire figuration of human beings, that exerts its pressure on the new generation, forming them more or less perfectly” (119). It is through this process that the distance between the behavior of adults and children is increased, to the point that “only children were still allowed…to behave as adults did in the Middle Ages” (124). The primary mechanism for molding the child is antigone essay, fear. As the source of fears within a society change, so changes the code of conduct demanded of its members (441-442). Essay. The dominant fear in Western societies was of antigone medea one person for another.

As the state gains a monopoly on questions, physical violence, this fear diminishes and antigone medea essay “indirect or internalized fears increase proportionately” (442). Not only does the type of fear change, Elias claims, but also the frequency, oscillation, and intensity of that fear. Here as everywhere, the structure of fears and anxieties is nothing other than the psychological counterpart of the constraints which people exert on place, one another through the intertwining of their activities. Fears form one of the channels—and one of the most important—through which the structure of society is transmitted to individual psychological functions. The driving force underlying the antigone medea essay change in drive economy, in industry, the structure of fears and anxieties, is a very specific change in the social constraints acting on the individual, a specific transformation of the antigone whole web of relationships, above all the school observation essay organization of force (442). Again, these fears are not inborn; they are determined by the social structure and the individual’s role within that structure, by the web of relationships in which the individual is entwined. As the social structure changes, social constraints change as does the individual. These fears are instilled within the child during the socialization process. They are indispensable in antigone essay, guiding human behavior; they are indispensable in becoming human.

Once instilled in childhood they are internalized and us history regents thematic essay questions function automatically (442-443). Children come into the world as malleable, and their personalities and medea behaviors are molded through fear to conform with prevailing social standards. “And human-made fears and anxieties from within or without finally hold even the adult in their power. Shame, fear of essay war and essay fear of God, guilt, fear of punishment or of loss of social prestige, man’s fear of us history regents essay questions himself, of being overcome by his own affective impulses, all these are directly or indirectly induced in a person by other people. Their strength, their form and antigone essay the role they play in the individual’s personality depend on regents essay, the structure of his society and his or her fate within it” (443). The civilizing process is antigone medea essay, ongoing, the direction set by state formation, economic concentration, and essay hotel the consequent division of labor. With the formation of the state, a monopoly on violence and taxation is gained, thus setting the stage for economic competition free from raw aggression and confiscation. Economic competition, of medea essay course, leads to concentration and eventual monopoly, causing the masses to become dependent upon huge organizations for their livelihoods, and the skills, attitudes, and behavior needed to become successful become refined and restrained.

Economic and political monopoly leads to the growth in the division of labor and school observation experience a greater dependence of individuals upon one another. “As more and more people must attune their conduct to that of others, the web of action must be organized more and more strictly and accurately, if each individual action is to fulfill its social function. Individuals are compelled to regulate their conduct in an increasingly differentiated, more even and more stable manner” (367). For this reason, social control becomes internalized, surrounded by shame and fear (367-368). The structural changes of political and economic concentration combine to cause a comprehensive change in the character of the antigone essay men and women who inhabit the society, a change in drive structure and us history regents thematic affect, a change in the whole personality. The competition among states and medea essay economic units within states continues to essay industry fuel the monopoly mechanism, with the division of labor a consequence of organizational growth. Elias is emphatic that one cannot reduce the process to “economic” or “political” motivation alone.

Rather, monopolies of political and economic power are intertwined, sometimes explicitly coordinated, sometimes not. Medea. Elias rejects the Marxist interpretation that all can be reduced to an economic infrastructure, but he does not believe it is purely political either. It is the same monopoly mechanism that is transforming economic and political organizations; it is the growth of paper on brand these monopolies that are transforming social structures and thus social life (437). Merchants and medea corporations are driven to expand their enterprise both for economic gain and fear that competing firms will grow larger and essay hotel eventually put them out of business. In the same manner, Elias claims, competing states are driven to expand their power and influence, despite the good will and yearnings for peace of many individuals (437). “The competitive tension between states, given the pressures which our social structure brings with it, can be resolved only after a long series of violent or non-violent trials of strength have established monopolies of force, and central organizations for larger dominions, within which many smaller ones, ‘states’, can grow together in a more balanced unit. Here, indeed, the compelling forces of social interweaving have led the transformation of Western society in one and the same direction from the time of utmost feudal disintegration to the present” (438).

And it shows no sign of antigone medea stopping in the foreseeable future. But recall, the monopoly mechanism does not stop with the establishment of the monopoly. Research On Brand Loyalty. While the monopoly begins by granting all benefits to a few based on hereditary connections, this allocation of resources creates tensions and pressures for a more equitable redistribution of monopoly benefits. Monopolies also bring in their wake a more refined division of labor; functionaries and professionals are needed to essay administer and coordinate the activities. Experience. As the division of labor increases, societies become much more sensitive to these inequalities, and the functionaries become more numerous and more powerful. Tension and eventually conflict between the monopolist and the many continue to grow. Ultimately, these tensions can only be resolved by breaking the medea essay control of the monopolist in the name of the admission essay many (439). And this, according to Elias, is true for both political (states) and economic monopolies. Monopoly formation will continue well into the foreseeable future. States will continue to engage in wars in the struggle to establish monopolies of force over ever larger areas of the earth (445).

The process will necessarily continue until the struggle is for the establishment of a global monopoly of force, a single world government (445-446). And then the process continues, as the struggle for state monopoly benefits shift from the arena of physical force to the more controlled and refined competition of the civilized. And the same holds true for the economic order as well. Economic monopolies will continue to enlarge and centralize; struggles for their benefits will escalate between functionaries within these organizations, as well as between the medea rest of society and the organization itself. In both economic and essay industry political spheres, the monopoly mechanism is inexorable, moving toward expansion and centralization, and then toward consolidation, democracy, and equality. “What cannot be decided in medea, advance, however, is how long the ensuing struggle will take” (439).

[1] Mills also makes this point regarding the transition of professionals and independent merchants to employees quite forcefully ([1951] 1973, x-xiii). For a more extensive discussion of Elias’s theories refer to Macro Social Theory by Frank W. Elwell. Also see Sociocultural Systems: Principles of Structure and Change to learn how his insights contribute to a more complete understanding of modern societies. Elias, N. (1968/2000). Postscript. In N. Elias, The Civilizing Process (pp. 449-483).

Malden: Blackwell Publishing. Elias, N. Female Infanticide. (1939/2000). The Civilizing Process. (E. Dunning, J. Goudsblom, S. Antigone Essay. Mennel, Eds., E. Jephcott, Trans.) Malden: Blackwell Publishing. Elias, N. (1998). The Norbert Elias Reader. (J. Goudsblom, S. Mennell, Eds., E. Jephcott, R. van Krieken, J. Goudsblom, S. Mennel, Trans.) Malden: Blackwell Publishing. Elias, N. (1970/1978). What is Sociology? New York: Columbia University. Elwell, F. W. 2009.

Macrosociology: The Study of Sociocultural Systems . To Visit Essay. Lewiston: Edwin Mellen Press. Elwell, F. W. 2006. Macrosociology: Four Modern Theorists. Antigone Essay. Boulder: Paradigm Publishers. Elwell, F. About Infanticide. W. 2013. Sociocultural Systems: Principles of Structure and Change.

Alberta: Athabasca University Press. To reference The Sociology of Norbert Elias you should use the following format:

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Chapter 1 Pt 2: Essay writing stages overview. A free guide from Essay UK. This section gives you an overview of what stages go into the essay writing process. Antigone Medea Essay? After all, it is not as easy as just sitting down, typing out the words, and printing it out or sending the send button. There are eight different stages to your essay writing process, which you will need to remember because this will be your framework going forward on essay about, each and every essay you do throughout your university career.

There are places, of course, which may require modification based on the type of essay you are doing or because your professor or tutor has some preferences, but this is an excellent framework to use so that you make sure you approach every aspect of the essay correctly every time. 1.3 Essay writing stages overview 1.3.1 Title and question 1.3.2 Data 1.3.3 Planning and timetable 1.3.4 Creative process 1.3.5 First draft 1.3.6 Essay revisions 1.3.7 Spit and polish 1.3.8 Handing your essay in 1.4 What defines a successful essay writer? 1.4.1 Write – let it flow 1.4.2 Time – it’s not always on antigone essay, your side 1.4.3 Attitude – take a positive approach. The first stage may sound easy, but it is one where often the most mistakes are made, which is that so many students make a mistake in not answering the essay question, prompt, or title correctly. There is no reason to not understand it because, unlike an exam, you have the time to ask for clarification as well as carefully think about what it means. Besides asking for further assistance, here are some other tips you can employ:

Look for keywords in the title or essay prompt that describe the topic, including subject matter, concepts, and the like. See how these relate to the concepts and subject matter you have from lectures, notes, and reading. Pharmacy? Identify any function words that are used in antigone medea essay the essay title or prompt, including compare and contrast, discuss, and analyse. Back to contents. Gathering considerable data and research – and, more importantly, locating the most appropriate research and data – is a significant stage in the essay writing process. There are often questions about the places to admission get the essay, research – library, books, articles, notes and/or online evidence. Here are some ideas to about female infanticide help you: Your library at university and in your city will have a librarian who has been trained to understand different subjects and the kind of medea research material that could help you with your essay.

All you need to about female do is go and ask! You may not realise the kind of resources you already have at your disposal from classes, including books, papers, notes and assignments that contain key information, statistics, data or findings that could help you write your essay. While many assignments may not approve of essay certain online sources, there are numerous scholarly databases available on the Internet that you could also use as well as news websites and essay industry, sites like Google Scholar and antigone, Google Books to access what might not otherwise be available. When you do have your research, be sure to take notes on essay, the information that ties to those keywords to make sure you stay on topic with what you write in the essay. As you take notes, be sure to essay mark down source information and essay, page numbers.

This will help you later on ensure you properly attribute the ideas and words to the right source as well as save you time from essay, having to look it up again later. You will also want to make sure you get website links down as well that will be necessary for the reference list on the essay. Upcoming chapters will provide you with additional information on pharmacy, collecting research, reading and what to look for, and taking notes. Essay? Back to contents. While it often seems like you have weeks or even longer to write your essay, time quickly passes before you realise it and paper on brand, suddenly you find yourself writing the essay the night before it is due. This drastically reduces your chances to get the grade you are aiming for, so it is important to medea essay create a timetable and plan to work on your essay a little bit each week. Industry? Here are some great tips to follow to keep you on essay, track to meet your essay deadline:

Prioritise what assignments you have so that you spend the most time on those that are worth the pharmacy admission essay, most to your overall grade, and this most likely means your essay or series of essays. Check that you have all the information you need to get started, including notes and instructions. Mark down all your obligations on a calendar for the coming weeks and block out time each day to spend on your essay even if means only carving out a 30-minute period. This will mean you have made an appointment with yourself to sit down and do something related to your essay. For more information on how to do this, refer to later on in the book where we discuss time budgeting in greater detail.

When budgeting your time, remember that certain stages of the essay will require more time than others, including researching, reviewing, and revising. Be sure to still insert fun and antigone essay, rest into your study schedule. This will provide you with time to relax and regents questions, unwind so that you can recharge your brain and feel energised to think deeply about your essay subject matter. If your class does not require interim deadlines on certain aspects of the essay, create your own so that you make sure you stick to your schedule and meet that deadline. Antigone Medea? Post your timetable somewhere so you can see it and us history regents, be reminded of what you need to medea essay stick to and help you see just how quickly time passes – even if it seems like you are not really having fun! Back to contents. While we termed this section the 'creative' process, it is really about brainstorming ideas rather than stretching your imagination through creative writing. This process involves taking all that you learned from your notes and reading and dumping it onto a document and then grouping the ideas into concepts that can frame an outline for essay female, your essay. Of course, some of antigone essay you may still prefer to do this with paper and pencil, using diagrams, linear notes, or even index cards with colour coding. This is regents thematic essay, where you can then create groups of ideas that are similar and begin to slot them into an outline for the essay. Once all the main points are there, see which ones actually tie to that essay title, prompt, or question.

If something you have down does not seem to logically apply, then there is no reason to antigone medea keep it. Essay About Infanticide? Once you have this creative process in a framed outline, you can jump to medea essay the next stage. Be sure to consult our table of contents so you can jump forward and read more about this stage later on in the book. Now is the time to put meat on those bones by paper, trying your hand at the first draft of the essay. Antigone? You will not only use the pharmacy essay, outline you created, but you will also benefit from any other notes and ideas that resulted from antigone medea essay, further reading or reflection on the essay topic. This is the point in the essay process where you are now creating a public piece of writing that someone else will be reading, so it is important to have the perspective that you are writing for paper on brand loyalty, an audience and no longer for you alone. This means ensuring that what you write will resonate with others and not skipping over medea essay, anything because you know what you are trying to pharmacy admission say. Medea? It also means that you should provide specific examples to help the reader understand what you are trying to argue. Because the public is involved, you need to help them navigate through the essay so that they understand how to follow along through the argument. You can never assume that they will just get what you are trying to us history regents do or say.

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This will build your confidence and help you tackle the more challenging sections of the essay female, essay. From there, you can bring the sections together and antigone essay, create linkages between the sections. Take your outline as the basis of the essay and fill in that way, making the main sections of the essay outline into subheads so you can map where you are going. If the essay is long enough and it is approved by a great place to visit essay, your professor or tutor, you might even want to leave these headings in there to antigone essay help guide the reader and break up the thematic essay questions, essay text. However, in some cases, you may need to take these subheads out of the essay before you submit it for marking. Check the other chapters that specifically cover first drafts later on in the book. There is no hard and essay, fast rule about how many essay revisions you should do.

Much of it depends on us history regents thematic questions, how much time you have left to make essay revisions and what feedback you might have received from anyone else who reviewed it. Here are some steps for medea, revising an essay: Always read it out loud to a great place to visit essay yourself so you can hear how the words, sentences, and antigone medea, ideas sound. Paper On Brand? That often changes it for antigone medea essay, you in essay terms of seeing more clearly how disorganised or confusing it might be if someone else was to read it. Medea? Do not just rely on looking at the essay on your computer screen or tablet. Print it out.

Seeing a hard copy often also helps you catch things you might not have otherwise spotted. A Great Place Essay? Call out your changes in red so you can see where they need to be made on the computer version. Always make a new version of the essay on antigone medea, your computer in case you want to go back and school, use something you deleted in one of the drafts. That way you do not have to recreate it but can easily transfer it back into antigone medea, the new essay draft. Put the essay draft aside for awhile so that you do not become blind to any mistakes because you have looked it at it too many times. Also, this may be a good time to have another pair of eyes study it for things you might have missed. It is easy to keep on making changes as all writing can always be improved as you think of things over a great, time and reflect on what could be said differently. If your timetable is on schedule, you may have still to make further changes that help to polish the final version of the essay.

At this stage, it is important to focus on presentation and overall content. Here are some areas that can be fixed as you ready the essay for submission: Check every point you make as part of your argument to make sure it adds to what you are trying to prove in relation to that essay title or prompt. Medea? Do not be afraid to pull anything out that you feel is not adding to the argument. Check spelling, punctuation, and grammar one more time. They say the devil is in the details and essay, these are areas where you can quickly lose points with the person reading and marking your essay if you have been sloppy. Review all essay instructions to ensure you have followed the format in terms of font, spacing, indentation and medea, quotations just to name a few examples.

The final stage is the essay infanticide, point at which you hand in the essay for a grade. Medea? This is where you may be able to start breathing again and let some of that stress disappear. Us History? You have handed it in and put it in your tutor or professor's hand to mark. There is nothing else you can do but wait for the grade. Take this time to decompress before the next essay comes up in essay the year. Then, you know that these stages of an essay will all begin again.

Each time, though, your confidence and skill level will grow if you take the advice we have laid out us history regents thematic essay here to heart. 1.4: What defines a successful essay writer? While there are many talented writers out there many of whom we have worked with, if you were to ask them about success, they would all tell you the same thing – being a great essay writer did not happen overnight. It takes much practice, skill development, and mistakes along the way to medea essay get there. Many people fear writing when they do not have to – it will not bite. Plus, it is a necessity now as part of university life and essay, throughout any type of antigone medea job or career. The first step you need to do toward being successful as an essay writer is to get over the fear, doubt, and dread about writing. Ignore the idea that anything is 'written in stone.' That is why they invented the delete button. Use it.

Just start writing – anything – and let it flow out of you. It does not have to essay industry be perfect from the antigone, get-go; change it later. Just practice writing. Like anything that you practice each day and hotel industry, devote effort to, you see improvements whether it is antigone medea, running, cooking, and, yes, even writing. Here's what you can do to essay hotel make sure you write regularly so that it becomes more of a natural process for antigone medea, you: Keep a journal and pen close by, or, in this digital age, you can type notes onto your smartphone or tablet PC. Write down thoughts and impressions throughout the day about anything and experience, everything. This will stimulate your brain to regularly transfer thoughts into words that then encourage the writing process.

Tell yourself you can write. Antigone Medea Essay? Positive affirmation does wonders for confidence and opens the mind to focus more on actually doing something than making up reasons as to essay why you cannot write. Medea Essay? Do not give up. Keep at it and it will flow. The writers behind this book can you ensure you that this works. 1.4.2: Time - it's not always on your side.

Procrastination does not breed success when it comes to essay writing or much else for that matter. Research Paper Loyalty? Having said that, you will see this same advice time and time again throughout this book – do not leave your essay to medea essay the last minute or burn the midnight oil to get it done. School Observation Essay? It will not be great let alone even good. Sure, we have all been guilty of procrastination – there are no perfect students. We are, after all, human! University is about learning and antigone essay, deepening your knowledge rather than scraping by. The same can be said for the work you produce while there. Make the most of your time and manage it appropriately.

As the years progress, the regents thematic essay questions, essay assignments will only become longer and more complex. Until that happens, do not be discouraged if essay writing seems to come easier to your friends; they are different and may even be studying a different area that requires different levels of knowledge and antigone essay, writing. Observation? Also, it is easy to feel overwhelmed as the word count of each project grows; simply break it down into digestible chunks that do not seem as overwhelming to keep the antigone, motivation working for you. If writing is not coming easily to you yet, then that means you need to allot even more time to the process of essay writing. As you go and us history regents essay questions, the writing seems to flow, then you can pick up speed and shorten your timetable. 1.4.3: Attitude - take a positive approach. What it all comes down to antigone medea essay is your mindset and how gaining a positive approach will become an integral part of essay your success as an essay writer at antigone medea, university.

Everyone has fears about essay hotel, writing essays and whether they will do well while at university. Just remember that you were accepted there on your own merit, which means you had to antigone medea have some talent and regents thematic questions, ability or the university never would have accepted you. While it may seem lonely writing, you have a whole world of friends, colleagues, and mentors to interact with whether that is in essay person or through social networking circles. If you are afraid you will not think of anything to write and that it has all been done before, you must remember that no one else thinks exactly like you so you are bound to hotel put your own spin on antigone medea essay, the essay material and pharmacy admission essay, create your own voice through your essay writing – just embrace it! You may have moments where you fall back into a negative frame of mind, especially if you have had a bad day, not gotten enough sleep, or been struck with something that makes you sad. All you can do is pick up and try again to focus on the positive and reframe your mind around what you can do and what is medea essay, possible. After all, you have made a great first step by getting this book and aiming to be successful at essay writing while you are at university. Now, it is time to keep the momentum going by turning to the next chapter about getting going and staying the course through your essay writing project.

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