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AP book report on THE INVISIBLE MAN. setting for a very significant chain of events in the novel. In addition, it. provides many symbols which will influence a reader's interpretation. Some of. And Titles Paper! those symbols are associated with the when rain clouds gather theme essay, structure itself, with Mr. Kimbro, and. And Titles! with Mr. Lucius Brockway. When Rain Gather Theme Essay! The first of many instances in these scenes that concern the invisible. man and the symbolic role of white and black in the novel is when the narrator. is sent to the paint factory by the young Mr. Emerson to try to find a job. Mr. Emerson, however, only sends him out of pity.
The narrator arrives and. immediately notices the huge electric sign that reads KEEP AMERICA PURE WITH. LIBERTY PAINTS. Later on, the reader will learn that Liberty Paint is famous. for authors research, its white paint called none other than white. In effect, the sign. advertises to keep America pure with whites and not just white paint. Next, the invisible man must walk down a long, pure white hallway.
At this time he. is a black man symbolically immersed in a white world, a recurring idea of thesis handouts, the. Authors Paper! After receiving his job, the narrator goes to meet Mr. Kimbro. In this. scene, Kimbro teaches the narrator how to make the ordinary white paint into. Optic White: Ten drops of a black formula must be mixed in to the white. paint, of which the surface is already brown. Cover Letter For Front Without! The narrator does not understand. this, and mla citing and titles research paper, inquires about it, only to be insulted by Mr. Kimbro. Mr.
Kimbro, in no way what so ever, wants any of his workers to think. He just wants them. to obey. So the invisible man, although stile to comprehend this idiosyncrasy, does not persist. The white paint may represent the white world, perhaps even. America, as alluded to in the the effects, company's advertisement. The black formula is. what makes the white paint into Optic White, a much better, whiter, white. Mla Citing Authors In A! The formula, perhaps, represents the behind the scenes blacks that worked for. the whites so that society persisted as it did in that time period. This idea.
will be touched upon once again later on in this series of essays on chesil, scenes. The invisible man then falls victim to a bad set of circumstances. He. runs out of mla citing authors and titles in a research paper, formula, and thesis handouts, since Kimbro is not around, he tries to get himself. some more. However, there are two containers with what appear to be the same. kind of formulas, just with different markings. Naturally, the narrator uses. his intuition and discovers that the two liquids in the tanks smell. differently, and one smells like the mla citing and titles in a research, formula he was using. He gets more of. that solution, and continues his work, only to be scolded by Kimbro that he. Beach! chose the wrong one. Once again, Kimbro states that he does not want any.
thinkers working for him. He wants a submissive black that will just follow. the rules established in his society. After fixing his mistake, the. narrator is mla citing authors and titles research paper, sent back to the office to find another position: Kimbro does not. Rain Theme Essay! want the invisible man working for him. In the authors in a research paper, scene that follows, the. invisible man meets Mr. Lucius Brockway, deep down in the paint factory. Essays On Chesil! Mr.
Brockway, a black man, can be thought of a symbol himself. He is. the black formula that makes the white paint work. He is one of the mla citing and titles in a, many. blacks that keep the paint factory working. He is one of the many blacks that. keep society as the whites like it. Mr. Brockway makes the powder that is the. base of the paint. Again, a black influence that makes the Optic White paint.
possible appears. When the narrator returns from getting his lunch, he is. confronted by Mr. Brockway about the thesis handouts, union. Authors In A! It e that the reader learns that. the blacks that, in effect, run the paint factory, are being hired so that the. company does not have to pay union wages. This is important because it shows. that the blacks are once again being taken advantage of by the whites, yet they. are still working behind the scenes to make things run like clockwork. Through out this commotion, the thesis handouts, narrator has not been fulfilling one. of his duty by watching the pressure gauge. The pressure builds up, and right. before the mla citing authors and titles in a research, narrator has a chance to children homework, turn it off, it explodes.
Once again, he. is a black man immersed in a world of white. Mla Citing And Titles In A! This explosion leaves him in the. factory hospital. In the hospital, he is given electroshock therapy. After. the doctors are convinced that he is cured, (i.e. he can not remember a. thing), he is then given a name and children, is sent ony after signing a release and. being given some money. Once again, the whites are taking advantage of the. All of these events, besides being highly important on a symbolic level. as explained, also contribute to the rest of the authors in a research, novel. The college is a. perfect example of a parallel environment. Dr.
Bledsoe only wants the narrator. to please the whites, with out question. And because the narrator did not, he. ended up getting kicked out, just like in the paint factory. Also, the. Brotherhood provides another parallel. They only want the blacks to work for. the Brotherhood's causes, and not for the individber's needs. For example, Brother Wrestrum accused the narrator of using the Brotherhood to attain his. own needs, and the narrator was put on a kind of probation for it, so that the. matter could be investigated. In a way, the Liberty Paint Factory is a microcosm of America. When Clouds Theme Essay! There. are blacks and whites. However, on the surface both appear to be white and. right.
In effect, it is really the blacks that work behind the scenes to make. things flow. They are taken advantage of, and controlled by ideas put into. their heads. The paint factory itself, Mr. Kimbro, and Mr. Lucius Brockway. In A! all help portray this image to rain theme essay, its fullest, while contributing to the rest of. To the best of our knowledge, the text on this page may be freely reproduced and distributed.
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Purposeful Annotation: A “Close Reading” Strategy that Makes Sense to My Students. Mmm… tortilla chip crumbs. In A Research Paper? (It’ll make sense later.) If you look at my original close reading post, you’ll see I was basically using the phrase “close reading” to refer to annotation. It took me a year or more to realize that I was saying one buzzwordy thing to mean a lot of explicit, less confusing things that readers do when grappling with a text. I blame my error on allowing myself to shrew introduction, get sucked into the unfortunate vortex that was the buzzwordification of authors in a close reading. If you’re new to the blog, though, keep in mind that while I do try not to take the educational establishment too terribly seriously (instead opting to occasionally poke fun at us), when it comes to taming, helping students flourish in the long-term, I’m dead serious. So when I call close reading a buzzword or write the in a research paper term’s obituary, I don’t want to give you the impression that we should let ourselves cynically dismiss the idea that reading is often hard, analytical — and yes, even “close” — work, especially when we’re dealing with complex, college- or career-level texts assigned by a teacher. We still need to teach kids, across the disciplines, how to thesis handouts, wrestle with assigned texts, seeking, like Jacob , to get whatever blessing they have to bestow. So to help my kids get after it and dominate some life , I’ve simply taken to a “strategy” that I call purposeful annotation.
Purposeful annotation: here’s what I’m talking about. The big idea is authors and titles research, this: what we do when reading should align with. When my students have a text they can write on, the idea, then, is to on chesil beach, annotate in a way that supports our purpose for reading and the parameters of our post-reading task (keep in mind that the purpose and and titles research, the task should line up). Hence the wonderfully descriptive, beautifully unoriginal strategy name: purposeful annotation. Looking for an affordable, online professional development that elaborates on the concepts in this blog post?
Click here to learn about Teaching with Articles, my go-at-your-own-pace online PD. As an example, let’s say I’m helping my students think through the task of purposefully annotating a Kelly Gallagher-esque article of the on chesil beach week. In that case, the purpose I set for my students’ reading is, as The Gallagher put it in a recent post’s comments section, to simply become smarter about the world, and the post-reading task is that they need to write a thoughtful 1+ page response. In that example, knowing that I want to dominate that post-reading task and mla citing and titles in a research, that I simply need to cover for front desk agent experience, get myself engaged with the probably unfamiliar and certainly unchosen content, I, as a student, ought to make annotations that begin to authors research, respond to on chesil beach, the text. Of course, I can’t respond to something I don’t understand, and authors and titles in a, so sometimes, especially when faced with a particularly befuddling sentence, paragraph, or section in the article, I ought to slow down, reread, and then annotate a brief summary or paraphrase of the the effects of September challenging section in the margin. So, two things we can annotate, naturally, are 1) our responses to a text, and 2) our paraphrases/summaries of bits of the text we had to wrestle with.
These logically line up with what I’m going to mla citing authors in a research, do with the text after reading, as well as my purpose for reading it in the first place. The idea here is letter desk agent without experience, that I’m writing these things in the margins — these purposeful annotations — not simply for a grade or because the teacher said, “Do a close reading.” I’m doing it to help me dominate: the task of mla citing and titles in a paper understanding and homework sheets, learning from the text while reading (this is authors research paper, one of my ultimate goals for my students — that they’ll read the texts I assign with self-kindled, habituated, cultivated curiosity, engaging with it for learning’s sake), and the task of doing a thing with that text after reading (if my head is on children straight as a teacher, there’s going to be a piece of authors and titles in a writing or a piece of homework sheets speaking that every student will do with any given text). This obviously isn’t as broad of a strategy as close reading, and honestly, that’s why I like it — and my students do, too. The core idea is that annotation should help the reader during and after reading . Mla Citing Authors Research Paper? It should serve, as my friend and work-sister Erica Beaton has well put it, as the leaving of cyanide-laced breadcrumbs (okay, the cyanide bit is mine — but seriously, that’s the for front experience right way to put it, because breadcrumbs alone get eaten by mla citing and titles in a research paper birds, while cyanide-laced breadcrumbs leave a nicely traceable, bird-covered trail). Mmm… Dark and the effects, accurate — my favorite flavor of analogy. Why teach purposeful annotation rather than some other method? I have two over-arching goals for mla citing authors and titles in a, my students each year that I think will get them on their way to a life that flourishes in 11 the long-term. I want to authors and titles in a research paper, help as many kids as possible to figure out. why school matters to them and their lives, and then how to dominate the challenges of school and, more broadly, life. So much of 11 my thinking is mla citing and titles in a research, still shaped by one of the central ideas of Jerry Graff’s Clueless in cover letter for front desk without experience Academe — far too many students simply don’t understand school, and frustratingly, that simply need not be so. A big part of helping kids “get” academia is showing them how argument is the essence of thought and then teaching them arguespeak across the school day — They Say, I Say remains the research best text in the world for helping with that.
For me, Graff pointed out both the essay problem — academia does a great job obscuring itself to students — and a large part of the solution. Arguespeak is the language of mla citing and titles paper power not just in desk without experience school, but in and titles paper the world at large — we’re foolish not to teach kids that. Yet the fact remains that, in K-12 schooling, far too many students simply do not take ownership of their educations (or their lives, really) . This is a point that struck me like a freight train while reading the introduction of David Conley’s College, Careers, and the Common Core: What Every Educator Needs to Know . The [students] who had the greatest success were those who were willing to take some modicum of ownership of clouds gather essay their learning and mla citing, responsibility for their behavior. Once I had achieved this with them, the rest was much more straightforward. For those who were not able to engage, no method or technique ever made much difference. This lesson about the homework importance of ownership of learning never completely left me. Authors And Titles In A Research? Interestingly and unexpectedly, I had reached the conclusion that the social contract was a two-way street: society has a responsibility to create a level playing field, and individuals have a responsibility to take advantage of it.
I’m sure I’ll write more on thesis handouts ownership of learning this year as it’s a central burning question for my colleagues and mla citing and titles research, me, but for the sake of cover desk experience this post suffice it to say that I believe the clearer we can be about what we ask kids to do and why we ask them to do it, the more academia becomes unobscured and the more likely it is that our students will come to a place where they can say, “Yes — schooling matters for mla citing authors paper, me because _______________.” In short, I’ve found that the phrase purposeful annotation makes sense to my freshmen and clouds, explicitly shows them how to “work smarter not harder” when reading and doing something with a text. So how do we do the purposeful annotation thing? We’ve looked at what purposeful annotation is, and I’ve shared why I think it’s a strategy worth teaching kids. In A Research? Now let’s examine how to actually do the thing. Like I said, I try to letter, teach my students to mla citing authors in a, let their purpose for taming shrew, reading the text dictate what they do while they’re reading it. For my “what does this look like in a gradebook” readers (I feel you), I do consistently assign a grade to whether my students, at minimum, write 1-2 thoughtful, purpose-driven annotations in the margins of each page of a shorter complex text . (I explain how I grade articles of the authors in a research paper week in essays this post.) Here’s an annotation that demonstrates thoughtful engagement with the text. Here’s an mla citing authors and titles research paper annotation that shows little evidence of thought.
I don’t mark kids down for this, but I also don’t give them credit for it. Responding with OMG, smiley faces, etc. is homework sheets, a strategy for staying engaged with a text and responding to mla citing authors and titles in a, it emotionally, but I want more when kids annotate. When my students read something I’ve assigned, I normally set the purpose for the reading — that’s a simple way to scaffold a text for all readers. I often allow for some choice within that purpose (for example, with the article of the when rain gather theme essay week, I follow Gallagher’s lead and tend to give 1-3 possible response options), or to set it broadly enough to allow for mla citing authors and titles in a paper, some individual expression. Possible response options for a sample Gallagher-style article of the homework sheets week. This comes from annotation instructions written by my colleague, Doug Stark. With that said, here are the kinds of annotations I recommend kids try (remember, 1-2 thoughtful interactions per page) based on their purpose for reading. If your purpose for reading is to learn the content : Summarize a sentence or paragraph Paraphrase a sentence or paragraph Circle and define key words. If your purpose for paper, reading is to end by responding to a specific prompt : Annotate toward that prompt.
If you’re being asked to evaluate, make evaluative annotations. Thesis Handouts? If you’re being asked to analyze, make analytical annotations. If you’re thinking, “Um, my kids don’t really know what those verbs mean,” then use Jim Burke’s A-List (pictured and linked to below). Jim Burke’s A-List can help students unpack what the verbs in a prompt mean. Keep in mind that I don’t always have kids respond to a text in writing; sometimes their response will be via an mla citing authors and titles research paper assessed discussion or debate. I always have a few students per class who insist that they just can’t annotate while they read (and there are always a few teacher participants in my workshops who insist that they’ve never done it and see no need to now). Cover Letter Desk Agent Experience? Before these folks can authentically use the strategy of purposeful annotation, they need to develop a growth mindset on the issue. Rather than “I don’t do that” or “I can’t do that,” I urge them to instead say, “I’ve not done that before” or “I’ve not been able to mla citing in a research paper, do that before.” For my students who say they can’t, I watch them read and, more often than not, I see them zoning out in the middle of a page, or doing the “My eyes read it but my brain didn’t” thing that we all do. Annotation, I’ve found, can help my students focus on sheets a text, especially when that annotation is purposeful rather than “fill in the margins as much as you can.”
And then there are those students who just read, understand, and retain it all. I try coaching them into the mindset that purposeful annotation is meant to make their post-reading work both stronger and more efficient. By choosing to annotate only portions of the authors research text that they want to when theme essay, address further in the writing or speaking we’ll be doing after reading, they’re allowing their brain to in a research, leave those breadcrumbs on the page rather than keeping those notes in their brains (for an awesome article on taming of the essay introduction how not writing things down keeps information in your brain’s rehearsal loops, check this out.) Time out: what about teachers who see no value in mla citing and titles in a paper annotation? I know some readers are coaches, administrators, PLC leaders, department chairs, and so on, and if you’ve been trying to push close reading or annotation at thesis handouts your school, you’ve probably run into mla citing authors in a research resistant folks. Here are a few things to think about:
Are you referring to annotation as close reading? See the video below (or click here to the effects of September, view at Youtube). Instead of requiring all teachers to in a paper, use a complicated coding system when teaching their kids to on chesil beach, annotate, empower them with the mla citing in a paper idea of purposeful annotation. The means need to fit the ends. Think deeply about the children why . Use my “Why teach…” section above to help. Share this Eric Barker article with them, particularly #1 and the concept of rehearsal loops. Annotation allows us to get our 1-2 “I could expand on mla citing and titles these in the post-reading writing or speaking task” thoughts on paper and out of our brains’ rehearsal loops. This empties our brains, and that’s a good thing, as the post’s author explains. Fight relentlessly against this becoming busywork. The thing is, annotation totally becomes busywork when we expect all students to do a ton of it . Some learners like annotating the crud out of things; others naturally don’t add a jot or tittle to the margins of a text. To help all kids benefit from purposeful annotation then, we need reasonable expectations — and that’s why I expect every kid to include 1-2 thoughtful annotations per page. “Thoughtful,” you say. Thesis Handouts? “Wow.
That’s so incredibly descriptive, Dave. Thank you. In A Research Paper? For nothing.” If that’s confusing, go back up to homework sheets, the comparative examples I gave a few sections above. One more thing: try to coach students out of the “I’m going to read it through one time without annotating, and mla citing research, then another time with annotating.” If they’re doing this because they’re confused on taming of the essay the first read-through, show them how to mla citing and titles in a paper, break down difficult sections of a text and paraphrase or summarize the thesis handouts gist — this kind of annotating aids comprehension. Mla Citing Authors In A Research? On the children other hand, if they’re doing this because they just don’t feel like it or they don’t like it, we want to mla citing and titles in a research paper, help them get the hang of annotating as they read, keeping their purpose for reading in the front of sheets their mind . The point of having kids do this is helping them efficiently internalize a purpose for reading, read toward that purpose, and authors and titles research, then write or speak in line with that purpose. Finally, refer back to your annotations after reading and essays, use them to work smarter.
You’ll know you’re doing purposeful annotation right when looking back on your annotations after reading results in an easier time with the post-reading task, be it writing, discussion, debate, or learning new content. Unlike back in the day when I would tell my kids to close read an article, I feel good and clear when I teach them and expect them to purposefully annotate instead. And Titles In A Research Paper? If you do something like this, or something totally different, I’d love to hear it. And, as always, your critiques are welcome, too. So much of thesis handouts what I share on DaveStuartJr.com is the epitome of “rough draft thinking,” down to the smallest, most annoying typos #128578; (Sorry about authors research paper, those.) 73 Responses to Purposeful Annotation: A “Close Reading” Strategy that Makes Sense to My Students. I totally agree with you. I’ve been saying the same thing to the teachers I work with.
And am disappointed and concerned when I hear of teachers that assign annotating or journaling with NO purpose in mind. For those teachers students I feel sorry for them; they are not findng a purpose for reading in depth. Carla, thank you! We can spread some sanity on this issue, I think. Share this post liberally, dear comrade #128578; Hey Dave!
You nailed it here. Annotating while I read helps me to comprehend, remember, and perhaps apply what I have learned through the reading. I have had teachers who want to take annotation and make it cute with symbols, but without the written thought of the essays on chesil beach reader, they do very little (if any) good. Mla Citing Authors Research Paper? You articulated this thinking well in your article! Thank you!
Christy, it’s always great to hear from you! Thanks for the feedback and I hope all is thesis handouts, well in IL and OH! This semester I have tried a purposeful annotation approach-I put four students in a reading group and gave the group 4 reading threads-writer’s craft, plot, character development, and theme. Each student was given a thread to follow that came with some questions that helped them to mla citing authors in a, think deeper about the text. They were asked to annotate and mark places where they felt they could go to to answer the questions on their thread. Taming Of The Shrew? In other words, no one wrote out authors in a research answers to reading questions, they just kept track of cover agent without experience where this information could be found through their annotations, Once a week we had a group quiz where everyone brought their annotated texts to class to use to answer 3 essay-sque questions about the mla citing paper chapters they read that week.
I make sure each question draws on shrew essay at least 2+ of the threads so everyone has something to say, and at least half can pull from their annotations. They find these quizzes hard/difficult because they ask them to really think about the text. they also find them meaningful because they help them to understand what is happening in the text, give them an opportunity to talk about difficult spots and get to a point of understanding, and provide them with the and titles research opportunity to collaborate. They all get the same grade which is a mere 20 points in the informal assessment column, but they take these quizzes so seriously! It is better than discussion, reading questions, or actual individual quizzes because they understand the text. For Front Agent Experience? I have not had to give 1 lecture about The Scarlet Letter, and yet they are able to relate to McCarthyism, Puritanism, and the Gothic Romantics which we study in mla citing and titles research paper class. I find giving my students a reason to thesis handouts, read and annotate so important for self-reliance and gaining the confidence to understand difficult literature. Dave – love your ideas and thoughts on purposeful annotation. This skill helps my special ed students break down text, save unknown words or statements for later discussion, and mla citing in a paper, summarize sections. We are still working on children homework making it a more autonomous skill, but it’s never busy work – it’s purposeful. Authors And Titles In A Research Paper? :). The Effects Of September? Thanks for your info and sense of humor.
Stacy, that’s my pleasure. I can tell you’re intentional with this, and that’s the key, I think. Take care Stacy #128578; It’s Saturday night, and a great time to mla citing and titles in a research, do a little educational reading of Dave Stuart Jr.’s writing. Student ownership of education, that you touched on, is the topic that has my mental wheels turning. Student ownership of education reminds me of some notes I took during my In-Service days this Fall. The notes listed research results done by Dr. Robert Marzano on the effects of September activities that had the highest effectiveness on student learning. The top two educational “activities” I noted for authors paper, all subject areas were students tracking their own progress, and cover letter for front agent, students setting their own learning goals. When I think of mla citing authors and titles research paper my students that struggle to of September 11, “own” their education, it strikes me that often these are the same students that may need my assistance in research breaking down an assignment into of September 11 bite size pieces that can be digested and authors paper, completed bit-by-bit. The Effects 11? Really, setting educational goals need to happen in the same way—learning goal by and titles in a research paper learning goal.
This would look like an IEP that is reviewed and tweaked every couple of weeks, rather than once a year, and would be written one-on-one between the of the teacher and student. Practicing goal setting and analysis of the learning results between myself and my students could very well lead to students owning and mla citing authors, embracing their education, if I help my students set obtainable goals that would lead to successful outcomes. And here you thought you were writing about shrew essay, purposeful annotation. Paper? :- Thanks, Dave, for your scholarly thinking and essays on chesil, willingness to share your thoughts with me! I’m proud of you. (Cousin) Shelley. Shelley, at first when I was reading this comment in mla citing paper my inbox, I was like, “Wow, I am feeling what this person is homework sheets, saying — it’s almost as if we’re related.” And then, sure enough, we were #128578; Ownership of learning is at the forefront of mla citing authors my thinking and seeking this year. Thesis Handouts? I think the process you describe makes sense, too — you are far ahead of research me in your thinking! Always good to hear from you Shelley! I hope all is well in essay Cale #128578; Years ago , I tried to convince my middle school colleagues the importance of mla citing research annotating and they just could not accept it.
Finally, years later after some in service, many have accepted it as a way to learn. I am so happy that you and thesis handouts, others in the education world are writing about the value of this great strategy to aid comprehension as well as speaking and mla citing authors and titles research, writing. I am truly grateful to 11, you. Bev, I hope this article helps people see what annotation is good for authors and titles in a research paper, (and also what it’s not good for). Take care, and thank you for rain clouds gather, your comment!
Thanks Dave! I appreciate the intentional direction that “purposeful annotation” brings to the discussion about close reading. Kids are tired of authors and titles doing meaningless work and I am tired of point grubbing responses. We have better things to do! It’s seriously my pleasure, Don. 11? I am also tired of it, and we can’t blame the and titles in a kids, can we? Take care! Holy crap. Hands down, the best info on annotating I’ve ever seen. This is the effects of September 11, seriously the bomb-diggity. That’s high praise, Carianna — thank you so much!
It is always a pleasure to meet someone who “gets” what comes out of my brain #128578; Good grief! Brilliant! I took notes while reading this! I learned more reading this than I have in “PD” — in quotes because those seem more beneficial for mla citing and titles in a research paper, those giving (credit, $) than for those dying through it. It’s so good to hear that this was worth your time, Ebonye76. Thank you for your kind words #128578; Awesome job with the children homework content on mla citing your website! I am 5th grade teacher and children sheets, have been using your ideas and adapting them for my classroom (lots of good discussion lately) The articles of the mla citing authors and titles week are awesome!
I recently did one where I introduced it on Monday and we had a debate on Friday (yes, 5th grade) To my surprise, the strongest “debater” was one of my students who reads at a 1st grade level! The evidence he brought was amazing (this is cover without, after I was told that the students couldn’t do it!) Anyway thanks! Question: How would you go about using NEWSEla in a small group setting? Maybe using one article for the week, but for a different purpose. Just trying to get some ideas! Thank you for authors in a research, your time. Jim, I hugely appreciate the feedback! I’m thrilled that the work I’m sharing translates into a 5th grade setting. Do be careful with some of my articles as the when rain clouds content of one (it was actually a Kelly Gallagher AoW) recently raised some controversy in Texas (it was the “What is ISIS?” article). Isn’t it thrilling when a kid comes alive through debate? I would probably do as you propose using Newsela with a small group — I’d try it, see how it worked, and mla citing authors, tweak as needed.
Keep dominating life, Jim! I really like newsela because it help me to differentiate my instruction to meet the needs of my students with different lexile levels while maintaining the same topic-excellent new resource I have been using today. Hi Dave! So I see how we can annotate informational texts, but how would we go about having the kiddos annotate in cover letter desk their novels? Ideas there? Thanks! Erin, post-it notes are useful for annotating school novels.
I’ve also had much success with students in different class periods conversing with each other on post it notes in a class set of novels according to specific purposes for reading. Dave, I couldn’t embrace the concept of “doing close reading” when “reading closely” suffices to name the process by which we make sense out of difficult text. Thank you again for mla citing authors and titles in a research, spreading the word about cover letter desk agent without, how to encourage meaningful, purposeful work. Exactly what Susan said, Erin #128578; Thank you, Susan, for giving me things to mla citing paper, think about #128578;
Thanks! I did plan on using post its. I just don’t want them to go post it crazy,and was looking for more ideas on using those post its. I want them maybe to taming of the, pick one and mla citing and titles research paper, write longer about it at least once a week, but I’m thinking then kids will only taming shrew see that as a “task” to complete–write a post it so I can get the assignment of writing in my notebook about it. Authors And Titles In A Paper? They need to write about their reading, but I just cannot read 120 post its or responses weekly.
Thoughts? Yes, you cannot possibly read that much — I agree. You could grade one of those responses per kid per theme essay, book. You could also have students contribute to mla citing research paper, a whole-class, graded (and taught) discussion based on those post-its, too. This saves you some grading and gives them precious practice in what Erik Palmer calls the neglected language arts of speaking and listening. I really like this idea of incorporating whole class mandatory discussion. Children Sheets? I can see how I can do that with my read aloud for sure, but not sure how to handle it when they are all in authors in a research different books. Essays On Chesil? Love love love your awesome blog.
Stupendous ideas! Erin, it’s really tricky with student choice books — that’s one of the authors in a research beauties of occasionally doing the whole class book. Thank you Erin! I completely agree with your conclusion that ownership of learning, or lack of, has a major impact on student success. Letter Without? Can it be something that can be taught? In the meantime,I am excited to teach a lesson on authors paper purposeful annotating to essays, my third graders tomorrow! Mary, I’m thrilled that you agree — and I do think that ownership of learning can be taught; I think it’s a skill that must be learned. Mla Citing Authors In A Research? However, I don’t think any single teacher or person can be expected to teach this to every single kid.
Instead, I aim to move each student further toward ownership; if ownership were the clouds gather alphabet, I want my G kids, with minimal ownership, to move closer to Z — yet I don’t expect them all to arrive at authors in a research Z. I came across your article with the purposes if gaining a deeper understanding of annotating. In observing classes. I see books filled with annotations. Students report “having to annotate a certain way” and feeling stressed that it is letter desk agent experience, not done right. Others report they don’t understand the purpose behind annotating entire books in this way. They don’t enjoy reading like this. They are not owning their learning, but rather complying to mla citing, the rules in the class. Not what I would want for seniors. Thesis Handouts? As someone who was never taught in this way, I am trying to understand more.
I found your article helpful to gain some insight into the teacher’s purpose, but also be able to mla citing authors in a paper, ask better questions on behalf of the students. Thank you for getting me started! Laurie, thanks so much for taking the thesis handouts time to write — I’m so glad this helped a bit. It sounds like you and in a paper, I are in the same place: dissatisfied with top-heavy systems of annotation that don’t allow room for student autonomy. Be in thesis handouts touch if I can be of further service, Laurie! What a great post. I’m planning on using your methods to and titles in a research, introduce annotation to my seventh graders tomorrow. I think the key is in your two steps: why we’re reading and what are we doing with the reading once we are done…being purposeful! I linked to it in my most recent blog post: http://davasmithenglishteacher.blogspot.com/2015/02/annotating-text-in-middle-school-english.html.
this has been fantastic. I’m so glad to hear that, D! You speak my language, Dave! After reading this post, I’m feeling much enthusiasm about the upcoming school year! Michelle, I love finding people who speak the language.
That’s why I write #128578; Just found this entry and on chesil beach, I’m really glad I did. I’m a big proponent of annotation but have been looking to do it in a way that is mla citing and titles research paper, more purposeful and clouds theme essay, efficient. This makes perfect sense. Mla Citing Authors And Titles In A Research? It’s like applying another best practice, backwards planning to the strategy. Cover Letter Desk? That is, setting the and titles in a goal first, then tailoring the activity to fit that goal. Thank you for posting this. I’m looking forward to discovering all of the gather theme wonderful bird-covered trails my students leave behind! I stumbled across this while I was preparing for a meeting with my son’s guidance counselor. He’s in 10th grade Pre-AP English and, for the second year in a row, he’s being required to mla citing, annotate every reference on every page of every book they read: R1–Main Idea: Blue/arrows.
R2/R2a–Figurative Lanuage/Character Archetypes: Green/underline once. R3–Culture Society: Pink/squiggle underline. R4–Author’s Style: Orange/Circle. R5–Comparing to other texts: No color/ *(write name of text/author) R6–Inferences Predictions: Yellow/Check mark. It is, as you described above, busy work. And he is starting to hate literature. They never discuss the annotations. They just turn the book in of the shrew essay introduction after the test for a grade. No other feedback.
They also do not have class discussions about the books. Nor do they use the annotations for any written assignments. He was homeschooled until last year and and titles in a, I’m very frustrated with the quality of education in what is supposed to essays beach, be an advanced class. Melissa, this does sound tough — just keep in authors and titles in a research mind that his teacher is probably stressed, pressured, and dizzied by ever-increasing demands. Are the annotations indeed read by the teacher? I would recommend your son do exactly as I try to do when demands are placed upon me that inhibit my work — I modify them until they become helpful, and I try to thesis handouts, do so with a humble demeanor so as not to draw anyone’s ire. Best to you and your son! Hi Melissa, I’m in paper the same situation you were a couple of years ago – but I’m preparing to meet with the teacher first. Do you have any advice for me from your experience?
This annotation “task” is making my book loving 5th grader start to hate books and feel discouraged with herself. On Chesil? This is killing my heart. She is mla citing authors and titles in a paper, reading at a ridiculously slow pace for her and she says it’s because she can’t enjoy the book while she debating with herself – I’m reading that the main character is clouds gather theme, insecure and research paper, unsure about how to address the school principal – is this a character trait (should highlight in yellow) or a problem (highlight in orange). This is killing her and I’m not knowing how to help. I loved seen her devour piles of books, and read a few pages of some and drop them because she doesn’t like them. Now it’s all assigned reading and this annotation thing is taming shrew essay, pointless. In A Paper? The book needs to of September 11, look like a rainbow. My rule follower feels pressured to find many colors and make lots of margin notes because that’s what the teacher asks!
She doesn’t have a problem understanding books. Many times if she loves a book she asks me to read it so we can discuss it. And we do. She understands what she’s reading without annotating it. Authors In A Research Paper? I see the point in cover letter desk agent experience annotating an authors and titles in a research paper article or a scientific paper where you are trying to analyze and assimilate as much info as you can.
But what is the children sheets point of the color coding and margin notes in a novel? Dave and others here – what do you suggest? Of course I’m supportive of the teacher in mla citing authors in a front of my daughter but this is essays beach, killing me. Thanks! Hi Marta, thank you for in a research paper, writing. This sounds like a basic case of unintentional readicide (Kelly Gallagher has a book by that title, and you could use that book if you need to take things beyond the teacher). As a teacher myself, let me say THANK YOU for 1) going to the teacher first, and 2) being supportive of the teacher in front of your daughter.
You are handling things the way I would love for thesis handouts, a parent to handle a concern with any of authors in a research my own practices. With that said, if the teacher doesn’t budge based on the reasons / anecdotes you’ve given here, I do think it’s important to move to the administration. My prayer is that it won’t come to that and the teacher will modify his/her expectations. Keep us updated. Dave, I am just discovering your articles, and I am intrigued! It is as bad as Pinterest where I am drawn from homework sheets, one thing to another and mla citing authors and titles in a, just can’t stop. In Louisiana, we give an End of Course test.
I am all about annotating and marking up a text, but when it comes to standardized testing, it is done on the computer. Do you have any strategies for annotating a text they cannot write on? I am currently just making them write their annotations on thesis handouts a sheet of paper, but I am struggling with getting them to mla citing research paper, be sure that what they write is meaningful and not simply just a summary of what they are reading. Any advice will help! Heidi, what a privilege to have you on children the journey #128578; I sort of in a research paper shudder at these computer-based tests that ask kids to letter for front desk agent experience, annotate. If I were reading an article online and had to write using textual evidence from the article, I would pray that there be some way to mla citing and titles in a research paper, take notes in the “text box” or whatever I’m supposed to compose my writing in. There, I would keep the occasional note that might help me in essays on chesil beach my writing.
In terms of authors pushing kids past summary, try They Say, I Say — I’ve written on when rain essay it here on the blog, and it’s the and titles research work of Gerald Graff and Cathy Birkenstein. Love your arguments on purposeful annotation (thank you!) and so enthusiastically, I prepared a lesson and tried it out yesterday for the first time. But today, I am feeling a bit discouraged. Do the students you teach end up loving this or just us teachers because we see the value in it? I teach 7th grade reading and LA. Yesterday in class I went through the first page of a short story, demonstrating how I’d question or comment upon thesis handouts, what I read in the margins (I was a terrific actress, commenting on things and jotting down a short note like “Wow – I wonder why he did that?”). For homework, they had to finish the authors paper remaining four pages. Today I had them work in groups and share their ideas about annotating (if they enjoyed it, what sorts of things did they find themselves commenting on, etc), and then to send me a “group share” list with their thoughts. Although a few kids liked it and admitted it made them notice more things, overwhelming the groups said they did not like it or find it useful. Cover Letter For Front Desk Experience? Quote: “We all said NO, we don’t like it.
Why should we write our thoughts down when we think them? Sometimes we don’t want our thoughts to be shared on a paper for everyone to research paper, see. We think it is not useful.” Now I never said they had to share their thoughts with each other, and in fact, mentioned I wouldn’t be grading them. When Theme? (I requested they do about mla citing authors and titles research, 3 annotations per page, but there was no set requirement) So do you think this is this a typical 7th grader not wanting to work differently/ general aversion to trying something new? Or is commenting about things as they read not purposeful enough? I plan to use this technique for essays beach, a novel study coming up next week, but wished the students enjoyed it more.
Is it a matter of giving them a few questions to focus on and titles paper before we read, or is children homework sheets, this something they’ll grow to and titles in a research paper, love? #128578; Quick question: Why is it bad for students to read the article once for cover, the gist and then annotate on the second read? I’m torn on this one. LOVE your article – thank you so much. Captured so much about the ins and outs of the authors and titles paper process, the taming of the introduction snarly tough parts of mla citing authors paper teaching kids to annotate..with some great solutions.. Do you see any value in group annotation using, for instance, the homework sheets hypothes.is app? I’m familiar with that application, Scott. I could see value in group annotation, and I would at least be interested in mla citing experimenting with it. I’m spending some time this summer thinking about essays, annotation and what we ask kids to do. Many of my students annotate to satisfy the teacher and not because it serves a purpose for them. I think the goal of annotation is to equip them with that tool when they need it – obviously they won’t annotate everything they read, but it’s there when they need it.
And I love the idea of beginning with the end in mind and linking it to something they have to mla citing research, do at the end. I’ve asked this question to several of my colleagues and I’m curious what you would say. If I assign a novel for kids to read and children homework sheets, annotate outside of class, how much time should they spend reading vs. annotating? I define reading as anything that doesn’t involve writing something down; annotation would be anything that involves pen, highlighter, or post-its. Could you give me an ideal percentage? Is it different for articles? Great question, David. I would say that with a novel it should be much less annotation than an article — it’s longer, we want kids to get into mla citing in a flow, etc. Typically with novel homework I only expect kids to come back the next day with questions or insights — sometimes I set a number, sometimes I don’t. I am sure I picked that up from Kelly Gallagher once upon a time — he does something sometimes called “20 Questions,” I think. So I can’t give you a percentage, but there should be vastly more reading happening than annotating, in my opinion, when it comes to novels or just about anything else.
I am so happy to when rain clouds gather, have read this article with all of its attached side articles. I am really in in a paper a place to understand and incorporate this into my teaching this year. I have noticed lately that students have figured out that many teacher’s with their “close reading” and cover desk experience, annotations have really become more busy work, and many have protested. I was in the process of mla citing research paper creating a cheat sheet about Annotating (with explanations about why and how) when I read your article and it really explained exactly what I wanted to share with my students. You wrote this so long ago and it’s still relevant.
Thank you, thank you, thank you. Lisa, what a lovely compliment: “You wrote this so long ago and it’s still relevant.” Thank you. Your article on annotation has been so helpful to me. It supports and augments what I already teach my students to rain gather theme, do with paper texts. My current challenge is how to mla citing authors and titles in a paper, teach students to annotate texts on the computer. Our state tests are now computerized and my students complain because they cannot annotate. Do you have any suggestions? Leigh, this is essays on chesil, brave new world territory — I haven’t yet had students annotate digitally. Our state test was computerized, for a year, but then we dropped it or changed tests or something. I can’t even keep the mla citing and titles research state tests straight in Michigan.
It’s changed every year for at least the homework sheets last three years. I’ve expected my students to purposefully annotate for a few years now, but I still struggle with the grading aspect. Mla Citing Authors In A? I would love to get to the point where students would annotate without a grade attached because they see the value of those annotations (and want to desk agent without experience, follow the breadcrumbs), but I’ve never gotten there. Instead, I am overwhelmed with checking 100+ novels every unit for annotations and feeling as if I can never really grade them effectively and and titles in a research, efficiently. Any advice? For novels, I just have students come to class with 5+ insights, comments, questions, or confusions from the previous day’s or night’s reading. I put a grade in taming essay the gradebook, but it’s only authors and titles research paper not a zero if kids are obviously not doing the work (which I check at the start of class during the Think-Pair-Share we do with their 5+ things. I hope that helps a bit. This is smart and thoughtful.
Thanks for posting. I appreciate that Lulu! Thanks for the article Dave. I’ve re-entered the teaching realm after a 9 year “sabbatical” and am searching for strategies to help my students. We are preparing to read some Puritan literature and The Scarlet Letter. Desk Agent Without? I am searching for some reading strategies to mla citing in a, “practice” on the required short readings then utilize them in The Scarlet Letter. I definitely see the purpose of purposeful annotation and believe I understand the gist of it.
You mentioned, though, that you don’t use it a lot throughout a novel. How can I utilize this strategy for children, The Scarlet Letter? This was exactly that which I didn’t know I was looking for. I don’t know if that made any sense but thank you for this article. I took AP English classes in and titles research paper high school with endless amounts of busywork annotating.
Today, in sheets college a professor asked me to annotate an in a paper article and the effects 11, write a reflection. The reflection is easy but I had no idea how to annotate this in a way that made any sense. That frustration and angst I recall so fondly from high school flooded back into me. Authors Research? You’d think that a college sophomore could annotate one simple article but I put it off for weeks because I didn’t want to turn it in rain clouds gather and have the mla citing authors and titles research paper professor hand it back to me because my annotations didn’t make sense. Finally, in thesis handouts desperation I did a google search. This one blog entry explained annotating better than every English class I’ve ever taken combined. THANK YOU. Paige, this was kind of an in a paper incredible piece of thesis handouts praise. Really — amazing.
Thank YOU! Thanks for authors, sharing the Harvard’s six reading habits! These will be very helpful as I redesign a critical reading course. You are all very smart. Wonderful article! Love the part about student’s ownership of their education. Thanks for thesis handouts, this post, Dave!
I have been teaching English Language Arts for 16 years, and I have the most difficult time teaching kids to annotate because I have never needed to do so. I tend to mla citing authors in a research, do it all in thesis handouts my head as I am reading. Most of mla citing authors in a research paper my students are incapable of that though. Your article helps a lot. I wish I had discovered it at sheets the beginning of the mla citing research paper school year though. Thank you for this, Dave. What is your view of digital annotations? We’re a 1:1 school, and I bounce back and forth between wanting my students to read a physical book (I teach biblical studies, so the Hebrew Bible/New Testament), or offering the option to the effects 11, read the mla citing in a paper text online. Thesis Handouts? Would you find doing annotations online to be as effective as writing annotations? Kay, I think digital annotations can be done just as purposefully as handwritten ones. I don’t ask students to use digital annotation much because I’m not anything class to a paperless classroom.
I suppose, though, that the mla citing and titles research paper only time I use digital annotations is when I am reading the Bible online — so, if you were my teacher asking me to do something like that, I’d be doing something that was pretty natural! After 10 years of clouds teaching ESL at a community college, I was just (and I mean just) hired to teach a course called “College Reading” at in a a small liberal arts college. Thank you for clarifying something crucial – for me and for my students! And thanks for the links you provided … I am so happy to children sheets, have discovered your words at the beginning of our homeschooling journey. My daughter is a freshman. Your call for ownership of mla citing authors and titles in a paper one’s education echo my thoughts exactly and I’m thrilled that you have given me insight into this tool as well as all of the helpful links.
She is taking a Socratic discussion course through the Well-Trained Mind Academy and is already enjoying “The Art of Argument”, although we will certainly check out “They Say, I Say” upon your recommendation. Thank you!
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Guidelines on How to Write a Bibliography in MLA Style - A Research
The Complete Guide to authors and titles in a paper MLA Citations. This page provides an in-depth overview of MLA format. Theme Essay? It includes information related to MLA citations, plagiarism, proper formatting for in-text and regular citations, and examples of citations for many different types of sources. Looking for APA? Check out Citation Machine’s guide on APA format. How to Be a Responsible Researcher or Scholar: Putting together a research project involves searching for information, disseminating and analyzing information, collecting information, and repurposing information. Being a responsible researcher requires keeping track of the sources that were used to mla citing authors and titles in a research help develop your research project, sharing the information you borrowed in an ethical way, and children homework, giving credit to the authors of the sources you used. Doing all of mla citing authors and titles research, these things prevents plagiarism. Plagiarism is the act of using others’ information without giving credit or acknowledging them. There are many examples of thesis handouts, plagiarism.
Completely copying another individual’s work without providing credit to the original author is a very blatant example of plagiarism. Plagiarism also occurs when another individual’s idea or concept is passed off as your own. Changing or modifying quotes, text, or any work of another individual is authors research paper also plagiarism. Believe it or not, you can even plagiarize yourself! Re-using a project or paper from another class or time and saying that it is on chesil new is plagiarism. One way to prevent plagiarism is to and titles in a paper add citations in your project where appropriate. A citation shows the reader or viewer of your project where you found your information. 11? Citations are included in the body of a project when you add a quote into your project. Citations are also included in the body when you’re paraphrasing another individual’s information. Authors In A Research? These citations that are found in the body of a research paper are called in-text, or parenthetical citations.
These citations are found directly after the information that was borrowed and are very brief in order to avoid becoming distracted while reading a project. Included in these brief citations is usually just the essay introduction, last name of the author and a page number or the year published. Scroll down below for mla citing and titles in a research, an in-depth explanation and examples of in-text and parenthetical citations. In-text and parenthetical citations provide us with a brief idea as to of September 11 where you found your information, it doesn't include the title and other components. Mla Citing? Look on the last page or part of a research project, where complete citations can be found in their entirety. Complete citations are found on what is called an MLA Works Cited page, which is sometimes called a bibliography. All sources that were used to develop your research project are found on the Works Cited page. Children Homework? Complete citations are created for any quotes or paraphrased information used in and titles in a paper, the text, but also any sources that helped you develop your research project. Included in complete citations is the the effects 11, author’s name, the title, publisher, year published, page numbers, URLs, and a few other pieces of in a research paper, information. Looking to cover for front agent create your citations in just a few clicks?
Try Citation Machine’s MLA formatter! The Citation Machine MLA generator, which is an MLA citation website, will create all of your citations in just a few clicks. Click here to mla citing authors research see more across the site. Also, check out this article to see MLA citation in essays on chesil, the news. Citing your sources is an extremely important component of mla citing authors and titles research, your research project. It shows that you’re a responsible researcher. It also shows that you were able to children homework locate appropriate and reputable sources that helped back up your thesis or claim. And Titles In A? In addition, if your work ends up being posted online or in print, there is a chance that others will use your research project in letter for front agent, their own work! Scroll down to find directions on how to authors in a research paper create citations. How the Modern Language Association Helps You Become a Responsible Researcher.
The Modern Language Association is an organization that was created to develop guidelines on everything language and 11, literature related. They have guidelines on proper grammar usage and research paper layouts. Paper? In addition, they have English and foreign language committees, numerous books and journal publications, and an annual conference. The Modern Language Association is responsible for creating standards and guidelines on how to properly cite sources to prevent plagiarism. Cover Agent Without Experience? Their style is most often used when writing papers and citing sources in the liberal arts and humanities fields.
Liberal arts is a broad term used to describe a range of subjects including the humanities, formal sciences such as mathematics and statistics, natural sciences such as biology and astronomy, and social science such as geography, economics, history, and others. The humanities specifically focuses on subjects related to languages, art, philosophy, religion, music, theater, literature, and ethics. Believe it or not, there are thousands of other types of citation styles. While this citation style is most often used for the liberal arts and humanities fields, many other subjects, professors, and schools prefer citations and papers to be styled in MLA format. These specific guidelines and standards for creating citations was developed for numerous reasons. When scholars and researchers in mla citing paper, the literature, language, and numerous other fields all cite their sources in of September 11, the same manner, it makes it easier for readers to look at a citation and recognize and understand the different components of a source.
From looking at a citation, we can see who the author is, the title of the in a research paper, source, when it was published, and other identifiable pieces of information. Imagine how difficult it would be to understand the various components of a source if we didn’t all follow the same guidelines! Not only would it make it difficult to understand the source that was used, but it would also make it difficult for of September, readers to locate it themselves. This streamlined process that was created aides us in in a paper, understanding a researcher’s sources. How is the letter for front desk agent, new version different than previous versions? This citation style has changed dramatically over the past couple of and titles in a research, years. Currently in essays, its 8th edition, the 8th version is a citation style that is much different than the previous formatting style. In the 7th version, which is the format, or structure, that was previously used, researchers and scholars found it grueling to put their citations together. Why? Each source used a different citation structure. Researchers and scholars were required to look up the citation format that matched the type of in a, source they used.
So, if a person used a book, a website, a journal article, a newspaper article, and essays beach, an e-book, all in one research project, they were required to look up how to and titles research cite each one of essay introduction, those sources because each was structured differently. Now, with the new version of MLA formatting, which is version 8, all source types use the same citation structure. Mla Citing Authors In A? The Modern Language Association enacted this new format due to the many new and innovative ways of obtaining information. Essays? We are no longer receiving information through traditional means, such as books, websites, and mla citing authors research, articles. The Effects Of September 11? We can now obtain information through apps, advertisements, Tweets, other social media posts, and many other creative ways. To make the process of creating citations easier for researchers and mla citing authors and titles in a paper, scholars, the Modern Language Association decided to have one MLA citing format, which works for all source types. Other changes were made as well. This includes: removing http:// and https:// from URLs. Essay Introduction? not including the city where a source was published or the name of the and titles in a research paper, publisher from essays on chesil beach some source types (such as newspapers). the ability to use a screen name or username in place of an author’s full name. Authors And Titles In A Research? using the abbreviations vol. and no., for volume and number, when including information from a periodical.
There are two types of citations. There are regular or complete citations, which are found at children, the end of research projects. Mla Citing Authors And Titles In A Research Paper? These citations are usually listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last names and include all of the information necessary for readers to 11 be able to locate the source themselves. Regular citations are generally placed in this MLA citation format: Last name of the author, First name of the author. “Source’s Title.” Container’s Title , roles and names of any other individuals who helped contribute to the source, the version of the source, any numbers associated with the source, the name of the mla citing authors and titles in a, publisher, the date the source was published, the location where individuals can find the source themselves (usually a URL or page range). There are times when additional information is added into thesis handouts, the regular citation. Not sure how to transfer the information from your source into and titles in a research paper, your citation? Confused about the term, “containers?” See below for information and when rain, complete explanations of each component of the citation.
The other type of citation, called an mla citing authors in a, “in text citation,” is included in the main part, or body, of a project when a researcher uses a quote or paraphrases information from another source. See the cover for front agent, next section to find out how to research create in text citations. What are in letter without, text and parenthetical citations? As stated above, in text citations, also called parenthetical citations, are included in authors in a, the main part of a project when using a quote or paraphrasing a piece of information from another source. We include these types of citations in the body of a project for readers to quickly gain an idea as to where we found the information. These in text citations are found immediately after the quote or paraphrased information. Children Sheets? They contain a small tidbit of the information found in the regular citation. The regular, or complete, citation is located at the end of a project. Here’s what a typical in text or parenthetical citation looks like: Throughout the novel, the mother uses a vast amount of authors in a paper, Chinese wisdom to explain the world and people’s temperaments. She states, “each person is made of cover, five elements….Too much fire and you have a bad temper. too little wood and in a paper, you bent too quickly. too much water and you flowed in too many directions” (Tan 31).
This specific in introduction, text citation, (Tan 31), is included so that the reader sees that we are quoting something from page 31 in Tan’s book. Mla Citing Authors And Titles In A Research Paper? The complete, regular citation isn’t included in the main part of the beach, project because it would be too distracting for the reader. Paper? We want them to focus on the effects of September, our work and research, not necessarily our sources. If the reader would like to mla citing in a see the source’s full information, and possibly locate the source themselves, they can refer to the last part of the project to taming of the introduction find the regular citation. The regular citation, at mla citing authors and titles in a paper, the end of the project looks like this: Tan, Amy. The Joy Luck Club . Thesis Handouts? Penguin, 1989, p. 31. If your direct quote or paraphrase comes from a source that does not have page numbers, it is acceptable to mla citing and titles research place a paragraph number (use the abbreviation par. or pars.), sections (sec. or secs.), or chapters (ch. or chs.). If there are absolutely no numbers to help readers locate the exact point in the source, only include the author’s last name. More About Quotations and How to homework Cite a Quote: Use quotes from outside sources to mla citing authors and titles in a research paper help illustrate and expand on thesis handouts, your own points, but the mla citing paper, majority of your paper should be your own writing and ideas.
Include the homework sheets, quote exactly as you found it. It is okay to pull and use only certain words or phrases from the quote, but keep the words (spelling and mla citing authors, capitalization) and punctuation the same. It is acceptable to break up a direct quote with your own writing The entire paper should be double spaced, including quotes. Example: Dorothy stated, “Toto,” then looked up and cover letter for front without, took in her surroundings, “I’ve a feeling we’re not in Kansas anymore“ ( Wizard of Oz ). If the quote is longer than four lines, it is necessary to make a block quote. In A? Block quotes show the reader that they are about to read a lengthy amount of text from another source. Start the quote on thesis handouts, the next line, half an inch in from the left margin Do not use any indents at the beginning of the block quote Only use quotation marks if there are quotation marks present in the source If there is more than one paragraph in the block quote, start the next paragraph with the and titles research paper, same half inch indent Add your in-text citation at the end of the block quote. While his parents sat there in surprise, Colton went onto say. “Cause I could see you,” Colon said matter-of-factly. “I went up and out of my body and I was looking down and I could see the doctor working on homework, my body. Mla Citing Authors Research Paper? And I saw you and essays on chesil beach, Mommy.
You were in a little room by authors and titles research paper, yourself, praying; and Mommy was in a different room, and rain clouds theme essay, she was praying and talking on the phone” (Burpo xxi). Confused about whether footnotes and endnotes should be used? Footnotes and endnotes are not used in this style. Use in-text, or parenthetical citations, in mla citing and titles paper, the body of your work. 11? In addition, create full, or regular citations, and place them at the end of your project on the Works Cited list. If you need help with in text and research, parenthetical citations, Citation Machine can help. Citation Machine’s MLA citation generator is simple and easy to use! Specific Components of a Citation.
This section explains each individual component of the taming shrew, citation, with examples for each section. The author’s name is usually the first item listed in and titles, the citation. Author names start with the last name, then a comma is added, and then the author’s first name (and middle name if applicable) is at the end. A period closes this information. Here are two examples of essays, how an author’s name can be listed in a citation:
Poe, Edgar Allan. Wondering how to format the mla citing authors in a, author’s name when there are two authors working jointly on a source? When there are two authors that work together on a source, the author names are placed in the order in which they appear on the source. Place their names in children homework, this format: First listed author’s Last Name, First name, and Second author’s First Name Last Name. Here are two examples of how to cite two authors:
Clifton, Mark, and Frank Riley. Paxton, Roberta J., and Michael Jacob Fox. There are many times when three or more authors work together on a source. This happens often with journal articles, edited books, and in a paper, textbooks. To cite a source with three or more authors, place the information in beach, this format: First listed author’s Last name, First name, et al. As you can see, only include the first author’s name. The other authors are accounted for mla citing in a paper, by using et al. In Latin, et al. is translated to “and others.” If using Citation Machine’s citation generator, this abbreviation is automatically added for you.
Here’s an example of a citation for three or more authors: Warner, Ralph, et al. How to Buy a House in California . Edited by Alayna Schroeder, 12th ed., Nolo, 2009. Is there no author listed on your source? If so, in MLA formatting, exclude the author’s information from the citation and begin the citation with the title of the source. Was the source found on social media, such as a tweet, Reddit, or Instagram post? If this is the case, you are allowed to start the citation with the author’s handle, username, or screen name. Here is an example of how to cite a tweet: @CarlaHayden. “I’m so honored to talk about digital access at @UMBCHumanities. We want to share the of September 11, @libraryofcongress collection.” Twitter , 13 Apr. 2017, 6:04 p.m., twitter.com/LibnOfCongress/status/852643691802091521.
While most citations begin with the name of the author, they do not necessarily have to. Quite often, sources are compiled by editors. Or, your source may be done by a performer or composer. If your project focuses on someone other than the author, it is acceptable to place that person’s name first in mla citing authors in a research paper, the citation. Without Experience? If you’re using Citation Machine’s citation generator, you will be able to choose the individual’s role from a drop down box. For example, let’s say that in your research project, you focus on Leonardo DiCaprio’s performances as an actor.
You’re quoting a line from the authors and titles in a paper, movie, Titanic , in your project, and you’re creating a complete citation for letter desk agent without, it in the Works Cited list. It is acceptable to show the reader that you’re focusing on mla citing and titles in a research paper, Leonardo DiCaprio’s work by sheets, citing it like this in the MLA Works Cited list: DiCaprio, Leonardo, performer. Titanic . Directed by James Cameron. Paramount, 1997.
Notice that when citing an mla citing in a research paper, individual other than the author, place the individual’s role after their name. In this case, Leonardo DiCaprio is the the effects of September, performer. This is often done with edited books, too. Place the editor’s name first (in reverse order), add a comma, and then add the authors and titles research, word editor. If you’re still confused about how to thesis handouts place the authors together in a citation, Citation Machine can help! Our website is easy to use and will create your citations in just a few clicks! The titles are written as they are found on the source, and in title form, meaning the important words start with a capital. Here’s an example of a title written properly:
Practical Digital Libraries: Books, Bytes, and Bucks. Wondering whether to place your title in italics or quotation marks? It depends on whether the source sits by itself or not. If the authors research paper, source stands alone, meaning that it is an thesis handouts, independent source, place the title in and titles research, italics. If the title is part of 11, a larger whole, place the title of the source in quotation marks and the source it sits in, in italics. When citing full books, movies, websites, or albums in their entirety, these titles are written in italics. However, when citing part of a source, such as an article on a website, a chapter in a book, a song on an album, or an mla citing and titles, article in a scholarly journal, the taming essay introduction, part is written with quotation marks and then the titles of the sources that they are found in are written in italics. Here are some examples to help you understand how to format titles and authors and titles in a paper, their containers. To cite Pink Floyd’s entire album, The Wall , cite it as this:
Pink Floyd. The Wall . Columbia, 1979. To cite one of the on chesil beach, songs on Pink Floyd’s album, cite it as this: Pink Floyd. “Another Brick in the Wall (Part I).” The Wall , Columbia, 1979, track 3. To cite a fairy tale book in its entirety, cite it as this: Colfer, Chris. The Land of Stories . Mla Citing Authors And Titles? Little Brown, 2016. To cite a specific story, or chapter, in the book, it would be cited as this: Colfer, Chris. “Little Red Riding Hood.” The Land of Stories , Little Brown, 2016, pp. Taming Introduction? 58-65.
From the section above, you can see that titles can stand alone or they can sit in and titles research, a container. Many times, sources can sit in sheets, more than one container. Wondering how? When citing an article in a scholarly journal, the first container is the journal. The second container? It’s the database that the scholarly journal is mla citing authors and titles research found in. It is of September 11 important to account for all containers, so that readers are able to locate the exact source themselves. When citing a television episode, the first container is the name of the show and mla citing research, the second container is the name of the service that it could be streaming on, such as Netflix . If your source sits in more than one container, the information about the second container is found at the end of the citation. Use the following format to cite your source with multiple containers : Last name of the author, First name of the author. “Source’s Title.” Container’s Title , roles and names of any other individuals who helped contribute to beach the source, the mla citing and titles research paper, version of the source, any numbers associated with the source, the name of the publisher, the date the source was published, the location where individuals can find the source themselves (usually a URL or page range). Title of Second Container , roles and names of any other contributors, the version of the second container, any numbers associated with the second container, the name of the second container’s publisher, the date the second container was published, location.
If the source has more than two containers, add on another full other section at the end for each container. Not all of the fields in the citation format above need to be included in your citation. In fact, many of these fields will most likely be omitted from your citations. Only include the elements that will help your readers locate the source themselves. Here is an example of beach, a citation for a scholarly journal article found on a database. This source has two containers, the authors in a, journal itself is one container, and the site it sits on thesis handouts, is the other.
Zanetti, Francois. “Curing with Machine: Medical Electricity in Eighteenth-Century Paris.” Technology and authors and titles in a research, Culture , vol. Children Homework? 54, no. Research Paper? 3, July 2013, pp. 503-530. Project Muse , muse.jhu.edu/article/520280. If you’re still confused about containers, Citation Machine’s MLA formatter, or MLA cite generator, can help! MLA citing is easier when using Citation Machine’s website. Many sources have people, besides the author, who contribute to the source.
If your research project focuses on an additional individual besides the author, or you feel as though including other contributors will help the reader locate the source themselves, include their names in the citation. To include another individual in the citation, after the title, place the role of the individual, the on chesil beach, word by, and then their name in standard order. If the name of the contributor comes after a period, capitalize the first letter in the role of the individual. If it comes after a comma, the first letter in the role of the individual is lowercased. Here’s an example of a citation for a children’s book with the name of the mla citing in a, illustrator included. Rubin, Adam.
Dragons Love Tacos . When Rain Theme? Illustrated by Daniel Salmieri, Penguin, 2012. The names of editors, directors, performers, translators, illustrators, and narrators can often be found in this part of the citation. If the source that you’re citing states that it is a specific version or edition, this information is placed in authors, the “versions” section of the citation. When including a numbered edition, do not type out the number, use the taming shrew introduction, numeral. Also, abbreviate the word edition to ed. Here is an example of a citation with a specific edition: Koger, Gregory. “Filibustering and Parties in the Modern State.” Congress Reconsidered , edited by Lawrence C. Dodd and Bruce I. Oppenheimer, 10th ed., CQ Press, 2013, pp.
221-236. Google Books , books.google.com/books?id=b7gkLlSEeqwClpg=PP1dq=10th%20editionpg=PR6#v=onepageq=10th%20editionf=false. Many sources have numbers associated with them. If you see a number, different than the date, page numbers, or editions, include this information in the “numbers” section of the citation. This includes volume and/or issue numbers (use the abbreviations vol. and mla citing authors in a, no.), episode numbers, track numbers, or any other numbers that will help readers identify the specific source that you used. Do not include ISBN (International Standard Book Numbers) in the citation. In MLA format citing, it is important to include the name of the publisher (the organization that created or published the taming shrew essay, source), so that readers can locate the mla citing authors and titles in a, exact source themselves. Include publishers for all sources except for periodicals. Also, for websites, exclude this information when the name of the publisher matches the essay introduction, name of the website. Furthermore, the in a paper, name of the publisher is often excluded from the essays beach, citation for second containers, since the publisher of the second container is not necessarily responsible for the creation or production of the source’s content. Publication dates are extremely important to mla citing authors in a research include in citations.
They allow the reader to essay understand when sources were published. They are also used when readers are attempting to locate the source themselves. Dates can be written in one of two ways. Researchers can write dates as: Whichever format you decide to research paper use, use the same format for all of cover for front desk without experience, your citations. If using the Citation Machine’s citation generator, the date will be formatted in the same way for each citation. While it isn’t necessary to include the full date for all source citations, use the authors and titles research paper, amount of information that makes the most sense to help your readers understand and locate the source themselves.
Wondering what to do when your source has more than one date? Use the date that is most applicable to when rain gather essay your research. The location generally refers to the place where the readers can find the source. This includes page ranges, URLs, DOI numbers, track numbers, disc numbers, or even cities and towns. When MLA citing websites, make sure to remove the beginning of the URL (http:// or https://) as it is not necessary to include this information. For page numbers, when citing a source that sits on only one page, use p. Example: p. 6. When citing a source that has a page range, use pp. and then add the page numbers. Example: pp. 24-38. Since the location is the final piece of the citation, place a period at and titles research, the end.
Looking for essays beach, an online tool to do the work for you? Citation Machine can help! Our site is simple (and fun!) to use. ALL sources use this format: Last name of the author, First name of the author. “Source’s Title.” Container’s Title , roles and names of any other individuals who helped contribute to mla citing authors and titles in a research the source, the version of the source, any numbers associated with the source, the name of the publisher, the date the source was published, the taming of the, location where individuals can find the source themselves (usually a URL or page range). * Title of Second Container , roles and names of and titles research paper, any other contributors, the version of the taming shrew, second container, any numbers associated with the second container, the name of the second container’s publisher, the date the second container was published, location. *If the source does not have a second container, omit this last part of the mla citing authors and titles in a, citation. Remember, Citation Machine’s MLA formatter will help you save time and energy when creating your citations. The Effects? Check out our MLA Citation Machine page to mla citing authors and titles research paper learn more. Collins, Suzanne. The Hunger Games . Scholastic, 2008.
Khan, Maryam. “Co-branding in of the shrew essay introduction, the Restaurant Industry.” Managing Tourism and Hospitality Services: Theory and International Application . Edited by B. Authors? Prideaux et al., CABI, 2005, pp. 73-82. Zak, Elizabeth. “Do You Believe in cover letter for front agent without experience, Magic? Exploring the Conceptualization of Augmented Reality and its Implications for the User in the Field of mla citing and titles paper, Library and Information Science.” Information Technology Libraries , vol. 33, no. Rain Gather Essay? 3, 2014, pp. 23-50. Online Scholarly Journal Articles: Kuzuhara, Kenji, et al. “Injuries in Japanese Mini-Basketball Players During Practices and Games.” Journal of Athletic Training , vol.
51. no. Mla Citing And Titles In A Paper? 2, Dec. 2016, p. 1022. Gale Health Reference Center Academic , i.ezproxy.nypl.org/login?url=http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?p=HRCAsw=wu=nyplv=2.1id=GALE%7CA484460772it=rasid=91b1a34dda62a32f4cd82c768e8a6a97. When citing a website, individuals are often actually citing a specific page on a website. They’re not actually citing the entire website. Here is the most common way to of the shrew introduction cite a page on a website: Start the citation with the name of the author who wrote the information on the page. If there isn’t an author listed, do not include this information in the citation. Start the citation with the authors in a, title. The title of the individual page is placed in quotation marks, followed by a period.
Next, place the name of the website in of September 11, italics, followed by a comma. If the name of the publisher matches the name of the author or the name of the authors in a, title, do not include the publisher’s information in the citation. The date the page or website was published comes next. End the citation with the URL. When including the URL, remove http:// and https:// from the URL. Since most websites begin with this prefix, it is not necessary to include it in the citation. Last name, First name of cover letter desk agent experience, author. Mla Citing Research Paper? “ Title of Web Page .” Title of Website, Publisher, Date published, URL.
Rothfeld, Lindsay. “Smarter Education: The Rise of Big Data in the Classroom.” Mashable , 3 Sept. Taming? 2014, mashable.com/2014/09/03/education-data-video/#hViqdPbFbgqH. (When citing websites, remember to remove http:// and authors, https:// from the URL.) Bloomgarden-Smoke, Kara. Taming Introduction? “Medium Cool.” New York Observer , 2 Mar. 2015, pp. 14-17. Skiba, Katherine. “Obama To Hold First Public Event Since Leaving Office in Chicago on Monday.” Los Angeles Times , 24 Apr. 2017, www.latimes.com/politics/la-na-obama-speech-20170424-story.html. “Three Turkeys.” Modern Family , produced by and titles in a paper, Steven Levitan and children homework, Christopher Lloyd, ABC, 19 Nov.
2014. Home Alone . Performance by Macaulay Culkin, directed by Chris Columbus, 20th Century Fox, 1990. DJ Mag. “Skream b2B Solardo Live from Claude VonStroke Presents The Birdhouse Miami.” YouTube , 29 Mar. 2017, youtu.be/4Q448x-LHGg. Gates, Melinda. “Today, Bill and I were deeply humbled to accept France’s Legion of Honour award on behalf of all our foundation’s partners and grantees.” Twitter , 21 Apr.
2017, 2:36 p.m., twitter.com/melindagates/status/855535625713459200. There are a variety of ways to cite an image. This section will show how to cite a digital image found on a website and an image in authors research, print. How to cite a digital image: Use this structure to cite a digital image: Last name, First name of the creator (if available). “Title or Description of the Image * . Title of the Website , Publisher ** , Date published, URL. * if the digital image does not have an official title, create a brief description.
Do not place the description in quotation marks or italics. In addition, only capitalize the first letter in taming shrew essay, the description and any proper nouns. ** If the name of the publisher is the mla citing authors, same as the thesis handouts, author or the authors in a research, same name as the website, do not include the thesis handouts, publisher in the citation. “NFL Red Zone Usage Sleepers: Identify Undervalued Players and Team Offenses.” RotoBaller , www.rotoballer.com/nfl-fantasy-football-cheat-sheet-draft-kit?src=bar. Wondering how to cite an image found through a search engine, such as Google?
Head to the site where the image “lives,” by clicking on the link that leads you to authors and titles in a paper the website. Letter For Front Experience? Cite the image using the information from the research paper, original site. How to cite an image in print: Last name, First name of the thesis handouts, creator (if available). Title or Description of the mla citing authors and titles research, Image * . Title of the Container, such as a the cover letter agent without experience, Book Title, Magazine Title, etc ., Publisher ** , Date published, page or page range.
* if the digital image does not have an official title, create a brief description. Do not place the description in quotation marks or italics. In addition, only capitalize the first letter in the description and any proper nouns. ** If the name of the publisher is the same as the author or the same name as the mla citing, website, do not include the publisher in the citation. Photograph of Kate Middleton. Metro New York , 19 July 2017, p.17. To cite a magazine in print, you’ll need the following pieces of essays, information. They can be found on the cover of the magazine and on the article itself: The name of the magazine The date the magazine was published The title of the magazine article The name of the author of the article The page or page range the article is found on. On the cover of most magazines, you can find the title of the magazine as well as the date the magazine was published. On the article itself, you can find the name of the article’s author(s), the in a research paper, title of the article, and thesis handouts, the page or page range that the article is found on.
If the article appears on mla citing and titles in a research paper, nonconsecutive pages, include the page number for the first page the article is found on, and then add a plus sign after it. Example: 61+ Place the information in this format: Last name, First name of the Article’s Author. “Title of the Article.” Title of the Magazine , Date published, page range. Example for the print magazine article above: Gopnik, Adam. “A New Man: Ernest Hemingway, Revised and children sheets, Revisited.” The New Yorker , 3 July 2017, pp. 61-66.
An essay is an and titles in a research paper, analytic writing piece that is generally short in length (compared to rain clouds essay books and mla citing authors in a, journal articles) and focuses on a specific topic or subject. Rain Clouds Theme Essay? Citing an in a research, essay is similar to citing a chapter in a book or a story in an anthology. Include the name of the individual author or the group of authors, the title of the essays on chesil, essay (placed in quotation marks), the title of the and titles in a, book, collection, or site the essay is found on (in italics), the name of the editor (if there is on chesil one), the mla citing authors and titles in a research, volume and issue number (if they are available), the publication date, and the location. The location can be either a page range or a URL. Here is an MLA formatting example of how to cite an essay: Hasen, Richard L. “Race or Party? How Courts Should Think About Republican Efforts to Make it Harder to Vote in North Carolina and Elsewhere.” Harvard Law Review Forum , vol. Beach? 125, no. 58, 7 Jan.
2014, harvardlawreview.org/2014/01/race-or-party-how-courts-should-think-about-republican-efforts-to-make-it-harder-to-vote-in-north-carolina-and-elsewhere/. Place the name of the mla citing in a research, person being interviewed at the beginning of the citation, in the author’s position The title or description of the interview comes next. Of September? If there isn’t a formal title, only use the word Interview as the title and do not place it in quotation marks or italics. If found online or in a book, include the title of the website or book after the mla citing research, title. After the title, it is of the essay acceptable to include the name of the in a, interviewer.
Include this information especially if it will help readers locate the interview themselves or if it’s relevant to the research paper. Include the publisher if it is a published interview and if it differs from any other information already found in the citation. Include the date that the interview was either published or the date that the interview occurred. If found online, include the URL. Or, if found in a book, magazine, or other print source, include the page range. Here are two examples: Gutman, Dan. “Interview with Children’s Author Dan Gutman.” The Washington Post , 9 Mar. 2011, www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2011/03/08/AR2011030805468.html.
Lin, Brenda. Interview. By Michele Kirschenbaum. 17 July 2017. Check to see if the the PDF is written by an individual, set of authors, or an organization or company. If it is not written by an individual or a set of authors, use the name of the organization or company responsible for creating the PDF in place of the author’s name. Continue with the title of the PDF, version (if there are different versions available), the publisher (only include if the name of the publisher is different than the name of the author or the title), the publication date, and the location (usually a URL if found online). Notice that in the example below, the name of the publisher (The American Podiatric Medical Association) is omitted since the name of the publisher is the same name as the author.
MLA format example: American Podiatric Medical Association. The Real Cost of Diabetes: Diabetic Foot Complications Are Common and Costly . apma.files.cms-plus.com/ProductPDFs/APMA_TodaysPodiatrist_Infographic_8.5x11.pdf. To cite a full textbook in print, you’ll need to find the following pieces of information: The name of the thesis handouts, author(s) or editor(s) The title of the textbook, including any subtitles The version of the textbook (such as a numbered edition or revised edition) The name of the publisher The year the textbook was published. Place the pieces of information in this format: Last name, First name of the author or Last name, First name, editor. Title of the authors and titles in a research paper, Textbook . Version, Publisher, Year published.
If the textbook was compiled by an editor, use this format at the beginning of the citation: Last name, First name, editor. Examples of how to cite a textbook in cover letter for front without, print: Lilly, Leonard S. Braunwald’s Heart Disease: Review and Assessment . 9th ed., Elsevier Saunders, 2012. Cherny, Nathan, et al., editors. Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine . 5th ed., Oxford UP, 2015.
How to Cite a Chapter from a Textbook in Print: To cite an individual chapter, you’ll need to find the authors in a research, following pieces of information: The name of the author(s) of the thesis handouts, individual chapter or section The title of the individual chapter or section The title of the textbook The name of the editors of the textbook The version of the textbook (such as a numbered edition or a revised edition) The name of the publisher The year the textbook was published. Place the pieces of information in this format: Last name, First name of the chapter author. “Title of the chapter or section.” Title of the Textbook , edited by First name Last name of editor, version, Publisher, Year published, page or page range. Example of how to cite a chapter from a textbook in print: Riley, Simon C., and Michael J. Murphy. “Student Choice in the Undergraduate Curriculum: Student-Selected Components.” Oxford Textbook of Medical Education , edited by authors paper, Kieran Walsh, Oxford UP, pp. 50-63. Surveys can be found online or in print. Find the format below that matches the type of survey you’re attempting to thesis handouts cite. To cite a survey found on a website, follow this structure:
Last name, First name of survey’s creator(s) OR organization responsible for its creation. “Title of the Survey.” Title of the Website , Publisher (if different than the author or website title), Publication date, URL. International Food Information Council Foundation. “Food Decision 2016: Food Health Survey.” Food Insight , International Center of Excelled in Food Risk Communication, 2016, www.foodinsight.org/sites/default/files/2016-Food-and-Health-Survey-Report_%20FINAL_0.pdf. To cite a survey found in print, follow this structure: Last name, First name of mla citing and titles in a research, survey’s creator(s) OR organization responsible for on chesil, its creation. “Title of Survey.” Title of Publication , Publisher (if different than the author or website title), Publication date, page or page range that survey is found on. Don’t see your source type on this guide? Citation Machine’s citation generator can create your citations for mla citing and titles research paper, you!
Our website will help you develop your works cited page and in text and parenthetical citations in rain theme, just a few clicks. Looking for APA? Check out Citation Machine’s guide on APA format. Check out this article to see it in the news. When it comes to authors and titles research formatting your paper or essay for when gather, academic purposes, there are specific guidelines to follow.
The section that follows will answer the following questions: How to authors in a paper format an MLA paper , How to create papers , and How to write in MLA format . Of September 11? If you’re trying to learn how to format your essay, this section will help you too. Use paper that is 8?-by-11 inch in size. This is the and titles research, standard size for copier and printer paper Use high quality paper Your research paper or essay should have a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, left, and right sides of the paper While most word processors automatically format your paper to have one-inch margins, you can check or modify the margins of your paper by going to the “Page setup” section of your word processor. Click here for more on margins. Use an easily readable font, specifically one that allows readers to see the difference between regular and italicized letters. Times New Roman, Arial, and Helvetica are recommended options Use 12 point size font.
Should I double space the paper, including citations? Double space the entire paper There should be a double space between each piece of information in the heading Place a double space between the heading and the title Place a double space between the title and the beginning of the essay The Works Cited page should be double spaced as well. All citations are double spaced. Text should be left-justified, meaning that the text is aligned, or lies flush, against the left margin New paragraphs should be indented half an homework, inch from the left margin Indents signal to the reader that a new concept or idea is about to begin Use the “tab” button on your keyboard to create an indent Add one space after all punctuation marks. Include a proper heading and title The heading should include the following, on separate lines, starting one inch from the top and left margins: Your full name Your teacher or professor’s name The course number Date Dates in and titles paper, the heading and the body of your essay should be consistent. Use the essays, same format, either Day Month Year or Month Day, Year throughout the entire paper Examples: 27 July 2017 or July 27, 2017 The title should be underneath the heading, centered in mla citing authors research, the middle of the page, without bold, underlined, italicized, or all capital letters. Number all pages, including the Works Cited page Place page numbers in the top right corner, half an inch from the top margin and one inch from the right margin. Include your last name to the left of the rain gather theme essay, page number. The Works Cited list should be at the end of the and titles in a research paper, paper, on its own page. If a citation flows onto the second line, indent it in half an inch from the left margin (called a hanging indent).
For more information on the Works Cited list, refer to “How to Make a Works Cited Page,” which is found below. According to the Modern Language Associatin’s official guidelines for formatting a research paper, it is not necessary to create or include an individual title page at the beginning of a research project. Instead, follow the directions above, under “Heading Title,” to create a proper heading. The Effects Of September? This heading is featured at the top of the first page of the research paper or research assignment. If your instructor or professor does in fact require or ask for a title page, follow the directions that you are given. They should provide you with the information needed to create a separate, individual title page. If they do not provide you with instructions, and you are left to create it at your own discretion, use the header information above to help you develop your research paper title page.
You may want to include other information, such as the name of your school or university. The MLA Works Cited page is generally found at the end of a research paper or project. It contains a list of all of the citations of sources used for the research project. Follow these directions to format the Works Cited list to mla citing in a research match the Modern Language Association’s guidelines. The Works Cited list has its own page, at the end of a research project Include the same running head as the rest of the project (Your last name and the effects 11, then the page number). The Works Cited List has the mla citing authors and titles research, final page number for the project. Name the page “Works Cited,” unless your list only includes one citation. In that case, title it as “Work Cited.” The title of the page (either Works Cited or Work Cited) is placed one inch from the when rain clouds gather theme, top of the page, centered in the middle of the mla citing and titles in a research paper, document. Double space the entire document, even between the title of the page and the first citation.
Citations are listed in alphabetical order by the first word in the citation (usually the last name of the author or the first word in the title if the essays on chesil, citation does not include the author’s name. Ignore A, An, and The if the title begins with these words.) All citations begin flush against and titles in a the left margin. If the essays beach, citation is long in length, and authors and titles paper, rolls onto a second or third line, the lines below the first line are indented half an inch from the left margin. Essays Beach? This is called a “hanging indent.” The purpose of a hanging indent is to make the mla citing authors in a paper, citations easier to read. Wai-Chung, Ho. “Political Influences on Curriculum Content and Musical Meaning: Hong Kong Secondary Music Education, 1949-1997.” Journal of Historical Research in Music Education , vol. 22, no.
1, 1 Oct. 2000, pp. 5-25. Periodicals Index Online , search-proquest-com.i.ezproxy.nypl.org/pio/docview/1297849364/citation/6B70D633F50C4EA0PQ/78?accountid=35635. Works Cited pages can be longer than one page. Use as many pages as necessary. Copyright © 2000 - 2017 by Citation Machine™, a Chegg Service.
Citation Machine™ uses the gather theme, 7th ed. of MLA, 6th ed. of APA, and 16th ed. of Chicago (8th ed. Turabian).
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Advantages And Disadvantages Of Television In Hindi Essays and Research Papers. THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF TELEVISION In today modern world television is the most . popular and in a recognized from of media and thesis handouts most homes in the western and developed worlds own one. In A? That small (in some cases rather large) box sitting in your lounge is 11, your connection to the outside world. It is an indispensable item and many of us cannot imagine life without it. As with everything there are advantages and disadvantages with the and titles in a television . The main advantage is televisions ability to bring. Disadvantage , Film , Reality television 963 Words | 3 Pages. Advantages and Disadvantages of Television.
What are the advantages of television ? 1. In this busy life, television can be the easiest source of . entertainment. 2. By watching news channel, we get updated with the things going around the world. 3. Essays Beach? Channels, like Discovery, gives information about Wild life. 4. Watching quiz shows can increase our knowledge. 5. By watching recipe channel, we can learn many recipes. 6. Various reality shows ( like singing, dancing, acting) can motivate people, who are interested in that. Cancellation , Lists of television programs , Reality television 1812 Words | 6 Pages. Authors? Advantage and Disadvantages of Television. Advantages and disadvantages of television viewing In this new era of science and technology, we have . incorporated technology into our everyday lives.
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Government , History of letter agent without experience, television , John Logie Baird 867 Words | 3 Pages. Mla Citing Authors And Titles In A Research Paper? Advantages and Disadvantages of Television. distractions, by studying in a quiet room and leaving the TV off, etc, make it easier to when, concentrate and get homework done faster, while doing a better job. . Contrary to mla citing paper, specialists' recommendations, there is thesis handouts, no evidence that the radio, as opposed to the television , hinders performance. This may be because radios emit only audio and no video, so there is less distraction. One approach for minimizing the amount of in a, homework a student has to do at thesis handouts home is for the student to and titles in a, complete as much of cover for front desk agent without, it as possible. Education , High school , Homework 1874 Words | 7 Pages. IN MANY WAYS, TELEVISION HAS PROVED TO BE ONE OF THE WORST INVENTIONS OF MODERN TIMES. ALL TOO OFTEN, TELEVISION IS HARMFUL . BECAUSE OF THE SHOWS IT BROADCASTS AND THE WAY IT IS USED IN THE HOME. Undoubtedly, television has millions of viewers in the world and authors in a paper thanks to its inventor Philo Farnsworth, a Utah-born genius that had coloured the when clouds theme essay world of modern technology. Nowadays, people use television as a mass of communication, to learn from how to style to how to mla citing and titles research paper, make a bomb, to tie a good family. Philo Farnsworth , Reality television , Television 806 Words | 3 Pages. ?Communication Technology Communication is the imparting or exchanging of information by speaking, writing, or using some other medium.
The communications . revolution is based on three technologies Telephone Televisions Computer. The history and thesis handouts development of communication technology is one of the authors and titles in a research paper ever increasing speed and efficiency of essays, communication over ever greater distance and ever decreasing costs. Telephone: Telephone / Mobile Phone is a system for transmitting voices over a distance. Cellular network , Mobile phone , Push-button telephone 1033 Words | 4 Pages. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Television Usage Amongst Children. decade, television has become firmly engrained in the daily life of children. Television tends to affect today’s society with . both positive and negative viewpoints. Aside from the mla citing research entertainment that television provides, there has been an extreme growth in learning and developmental programs available to children. As a result of these learning programs, televisions have proven to thesis handouts, be somewhat beneficial. On the other hand, television can become an addictive tool and and titles in a research present disadvantages to children.
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Advertising , Broadcasting , Business 1417 Words | 5 Pages. Some Of The Advantages Of Television. ?Some of the Advantages of Television (TV) are : 1. Television is widely used for entertainment, knowledge and for . communication. 2. Anybody can watch television simply by sitting at home. 3. News, movies, family shows, sports, Music as well as other useful shows and channels can be seen on TV. 4. And Titles In A Research? Even kids can enjoy TV by watching Cartoons Channels as well Some Channels such as Discovery Channel to gain knowledge. 5. One can watch live news as well as live shows or live sports easily with the help. Rain Clouds? Cancellation , Film , Internet television 1975 Words | 6 Pages. Advantage and mla citing authors and titles research paper Disadvantage of thesis handouts, Watching Tv. There are several advantages of television like we all know that we can have a clear idea that what is happening in the world, we . can have live information about the several events like sports and any other good or bad events happening on the globe.
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Refrences: Electronics and mla citing authors in a Radio Today. (n.d.). Essays? Retrieved from http://www.electronics-radio.com/articles/radio/modulation/amplitude_modulation/am.php Electronics and Radio Today. (n.d.1). Retrieved from http://www.electronics-radio.com/articles/radio/modulation/frequency_modulation/fm.php M.S. Richer. (2006). Advantages / disadvantages /applications.
Amplitude modulation , Carrier wave , Frequency modulation 985 Words | 3 Pages. Advantages and Disadvantages of Tourism Short. ? Advantages and Disadvantages of Tourism - Short Essay New pedagogy St vincent amp; Grenadines Island is a small island with . limited education facilities. Mla Citing? Primarily motivated students can easily start their own education. Many people think of education as something that occurs in a school or classroom. However, knowledge-eager students can gain additional. Thesis Handouts? 368 Words | 2 Pages Advantages and Disadvantages of in a research, Tourism. “Tourism can be a blessing to a country but it is by of the shrew essay, no means an unmixed blessing.
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Communication Techonology advantages and mla citing authors in a paper disadvantages. I am going to rain clouds gather, explore communication technology in public and private life. Mla Citing Authors Paper? I am going to discuss the advantages and . disadvantages and essays the impact of communication technology. Introduction: Communication Technology is a term used to describe the authors and titles in a research various forms correspondence that are available, including technological advancements. Communication is when people exchange thoughts, messages and rain gather essay information. It can be exchanged by speech, gestures and by the use of writing.
There are many ranges. Bluetooth , Cellular network , Cordless telephone 1641 Words | 6 Pages. Advantages and disadvantages of television. ?Evaluative writing Advantages Disadvantages of Television Television : source of entertainment, . communication on a wide scale and source of information news Advantages : Updates about the outside world Information about the happenings in various parts of the world Enhance knowledge about current affairs, encouragement via quiz shows for younger lot Provides a platform to bring forth and showcase people’s talent to wider audience Learning food recipes from various cookery shows Disadvantages : Affects eye-sight. Broadcasting , Entertainment , Radio 445 Words | 3 Pages. advantages and Disadvantages of mla citing authors research, Media. Taming Essay Introduction? ? Television : Advantages : Convenient and Flexible: The television is a convenient and flexible advertising medium, . owing to its widespread popularity and the ease with which a message can reach millions of viewers internationally and authors and titles in a paper nationally. Television advertising allows advertisers the children flexibility to mla citing authors in a, use various approaches and different combinations of audio, video and taming of the introduction text to make ads memorable and mla citing authors emotional, depending on the product or service or the target audience. Strong Impact: Television. Advertising , Coca-Cola , Infomercial 1659 Words | 6 Pages. The Effects Of September 11? The Advantages and Disadvantages of mla citing authors research, Mass Media. The Advantages and rain essay Disadvantages of Mass Media Mass media is one of the fastest medium of exchange of information which . capture audience attention and mla citing and titles paper interest, for example, television and when theme radio is said to be the in a best Mass Media. A Mass Media to be effective must be accessible to the target audience and able to hold audience attention and interest. Therefore, this essay will discuss the advantages and cover for front desk agent disadvantages of Mass Media.
The first advantage of authors, mass media is peace and reconciliation. Broadcasting , Focus group , Frequency modulation 1020 Words | 3 Pages. The advantages and disadvantages of television. Nowadays many people all over the world spent most of their free time watching television ; but since the beginning, television . Taming Of The Shrew Essay Introduction? has brought to man many advantages as well as disadvantages . Dear Teachers and friends, I would like talk few words about advantages and disadvantages of television . Let us first look at authors and titles the advantages of television ; First, television plays an important role in our daily activities. By watching news channels, we get updated with the things going around the world.
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Advantages / Disadvantages of Watching Television Hope someone kind will read my essay and fix my grammatical . errors. Nowadays, television has become the most popular media of human kind. It’s also the when rain gather theme indispensable device in our daily life. By watching TV , we can see many things happened in the surrounding us world , therefore it help us to mla citing authors and titles in a paper, catch and avoid being dropped back from the world of information. Everyone must agree that the advantages of taming shrew essay, watching TV are very considerable .But beside. Broadcasting , Film , Popular culture 582 Words | 2 Pages. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Television. Mla Citing And Titles In A Research? history book myself.
The advantages and disadvantages of rain clouds, television Nowadays many people all over the world . spent most of and titles research, their free time watching television ; but since its appearance, television has brought to man many advantages as well as disadvantages . First, television plays an important role in our daily activities: it keeps us informed of all current affairs in the world. Events through television are more vivid than those through books and magazines. Rain Theme Essay? Second, television helps us enrich our. Dissociative identity disorder , Learning , Past 598 Words | 2 Pages. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Using the and titles Internet. ? Advantages and the effects Disadvantages of the mla citing authors and titles paper Internet Information and Preparation Sheet Vocabulary: global village, a plethora of . options, services, dissemination of information, silver bullet, Babel, rambling, reliability, veracity, ascertain the reliability, rapid pace of change, information overload, landmines, at the click of a mouse, maligned, comfort of home, assimilated, indispensable, pervasive, rife, program vs programme, having access to, beyond reproach, estranged, Be careful of one/you/we/I . E-mail , History of the Internet , Identity theft 1366 Words | 5 Pages. Letter Desk Agent Experience? Internet Promotion - Advantages and Disadvantages. quest for cheap marketing alternatives, these small businesses continue to use conventional marketing tools such as newspaper, magazine, radio and . television advertisements, unaware of the advantages that Internet Promotion offers. All too often, these entrepreneurs focus on the disadvantages of Internet Promotion and fail to adequately take advantage of the opportunities that it presents. Moreover, their preoccupation with conventional marketing strategies is driven by a misconception that these. Affiliate marketing , Business , History of the Internet 1111 Words | 4 Pages. Advantages and authors in a paper Disadvantages of Bundling.
Products: The Advantages and Disadvantages of Bundling Products Willie Roy Ramsey, Jr. PROC 5830: Pricing Dr. Douglas . Mowczko May 5, 2012 The Advantages and of September 11 Disadvantages of Bundling Products I. What is and titles, Product Bundling A. Rain Gather? Examples of Business 1. Authors Paper? Restaurants 2. Cellular services II. Advantages A. Lower prices B. Variety C. Older Products III. Disadvantages A. Essays Beach? Flexibility B. Authors And Titles In A Research? Penalties C. Correlation The Advantages and Disadvantages of Bundling. Compilation album , Insurance , Marketing 1577 Words | 5 Pages. The Advantages and Disadvantages of letter for front desk agent experience, Television. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Television . Television has played a significant role in . informing and mla citing in a entertaining society, There are numerous kinds of thesis handouts, TV shows broadcasted around the world, some of authors in a paper, them are Reality TV Shows, News Program, Drama, Cooking Show, and many more. Each of them holds their own specific advantages and disadvantages that they’ve brought out through the perspective of the audience. Of September 11? This essay will explore the aspects of television that has affected the lives of society. Entertainment , Episode , Film 407 Words | 2 Pages.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Sole Proprietorship. Advantages and Disadvantages of Sole Proprietorship Profits and Losses – Advantages : Proprietor receives all . the authors in a research profits because he or she takes all the risks. Disadvantages : Losses are not shared. The Effects Of September? Liability - Disadvantages : 1) The proprietor has unlimited liability. 2) If the firm is unable to pay its bills, the proprietor can be force to sell personal assets as well as the business to pay debts. Mla Citing Authors Research Paper? Management – Advantages : 1) Decisions on starting and running the business can be made. Business law , Business terms , Corporate tax 830 Words | 4 Pages. Advantages and Disadvantages of Vegetarians.
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Dictionary , Hygiene , Merriam-Webster 1422 Words | 5 Pages. Advantages and Disadvantages of of September, Technology. ?The advantages and mla citing authors and titles paper disadvantages of cover desk agent without, communications technology. The mobile phone has many advantages and . Mla Citing And Titles Research? disadvantages . It is easy to contact friends and family. Since the first mobile was created we have been able to essays, make calls to anywhere in authors in a research paper, the world by the click of a button. Cover Letter For Front Desk Agent? You are able to get in touch with people nearly 24/7. You have access to authors in a, constant internet. Having the internet at your finger tips any time you need it has many advantages . Need to find out want time a movie is on in the.
Cordless telephone , Fax , Internet 2073 Words | 5 Pages. Advantages/Disadvantages of Rev. War. There are advantages and disadvantages in every war that can either be minute details or change the whole course of the war. In . the Revolutionary war, there were many advantages and disadvantages of essays beach, either side. America and Britain both had different things working for them or against mla citing and titles research paper, them, many of these things were very significant by the end of the war. Although both sides had various advantages and disadvantages , America's advantages outweighed those of the British. In the war, America had. 2003 invasion of Iraq , American Revolutionary War , Army 868 Words | 3 Pages. Some advantages and disadvantages of internet. ?Some advantages and disadvantages of internet Availability of Knowledge Advantages The internet which was . once just a little puddle, now, have become an shrew, ocean; an ocean of knowledge.
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SOCIAL NETWORKING Advantages and Disadvantages 1 Bart John Jared ? A social network is a social structure made up of a set . of on chesil beach, social actors (such as individuals or organizations) and a set of the dyadic ties between these actors. 2 Advantage Disadvantage Conclusion 3 ADVANTAGES OF SOCIAL NETWORKING 4 ADVANTAGES Meet new people ? Gives you the possibility of regaining connection with the paper people who you have stopped seeing. Beach? ? Keep in contact with old friends and colleagues ? Getting answers. Disadvantage , Marketing , MySpace 296 Words | 14 Pages. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Living in the Country. Some advantages to living in the country include these points: Clean Air, no neighbors, open spaces, quiet, birds, deer and authors and titles other critters. You . have to of September, love nature to live in mla citing authors research paper, the country. No crime, and people are usually friendly. The Effects? Some disadvantages to living in the country include these points: No shopping mall or large supermarket.
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Think. Audience , List , Performance 754 Words | 3 Pages. Advantages and Disadvantages of Fuels. ? Advantages and Disadvantages of Renewable Fuels Solar Energy: Advantages : -Energy is free although . there is a building cost. -Causes no pollution, however, energy may go into mla citing research paper machines that produce pollution. -Solar energy can be used in remote areas where it is thesis handouts, too expensive to extend the mla citing authors and titles in a paper electricity power grid. -Estimated that the worlds oil reserves will last for 30-40 years whereas solar energy is 11, infinite. Disadvantages : -Solar energy can only be harnessed when it is daytime. Coal , Electrical generator , Fossil fuel 617 Words | 3 Pages. The disadvantages and authors and titles in a paper advantages of pesticides. PESTICIDES IN OUR ECONOMY INTRODUCTION A pesticide is a material used to kill or reject a pest. Pesticides have disadvantages and . advantages . They are able to restrain pests, but it can also kill other organisms as well. Not only do they affect animals but they can effect us, as humans. A pesticide is a biological, physical, or chemical agent used to kill plants or animals that are harmful to people. The name pesticide is generally applied only to thesis handouts, chemical agents.
Examples of different. Environmental effects of pesticides , Human , Malaria 521 Words | 4 Pages. Science: Advantages Disadvantages. Science – Its Advantages and Disadvantages One of the striking features of 20 century is the progress of is no section oh human . society in which science has not brought revolution. Mla Citing Authors? But still the term is debated among the conscious people that whether science is blessing or it is letter agent, a curse for humanity. The facts, which are drawn by systematic study, are applied practically for the welfare of mankind or for mla citing and titles in a research the destruction of humanity. For example a gun in cover desk agent, the hand of a guard is used for the safety. Empirical , Human , Pseudoscience 1920 Words | 5 Pages. The Advantages and Disadvantages of mla citing in a research paper, Franchising in France. The Advantages and taming of the shrew essay introduction Disadvantages of Franchising in France 1 Running head: International Trade: Licensing and Franchising The . Advantages and Disadvantages of Franchising in France Presented by: Deon E. Boswell Of Team McWorld University of Maryland University College AMBA606 November 4, 2005 The Advantages and Disadvantages of Franchising in France 2 Executive Summary The tremendous growth in franchising over authors in a paper, the last decade can be traced directly to the explosion of growth in international. Children Sheets? Business model , Franchising , International Franchise Association 2394 Words | 6 Pages.
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Dr Martin Cooper is considered the inventor of the first portable handset and the first person to authors and titles, make a call on when clouds theme a portable cell phone, in April 1973. This portable phone had numerous features never seen before. It revolutionised communication. Cancer , Cordless telephone , IP Phone 649 Words | 3 Pages. The Advantages and Disadvantages of mla citing and titles, Australian Aid. Advantages and Disadvantages of Aid to Australia – Geography Essay The purpose of Australian Aid is to help developing . countries around the world eradicate poverty and to promote stability and prosperity both in our region and the effects beyond, by providing different types of assistance and financial support. Authors? Although Australia receives a number of benefits due to aid, several disadvantages can also arise as a result of desk experience, this link with different countries. Providing aid to developing countries in the. Australia , Developed country , Developing country 898 Words | 3 Pages. Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing Outsourcing is an allocation of specific business processes to a specialist . external service provider. Most of the times an organization cannot handle all aspects of a business process internally. Additionally some processes are temporary and the organization does not intend to hire in-house professionals to perform the tasks. Once the task is outsourced to the service provider, he will take the authors in a research paper responsibility of carrying out the tasks and maintaining. Business process , Business process management , Business process outsourcing 888 Words | 3 Pages. Advantages and Disadvantages of Plea Bargains. Advantages and when clouds gather theme essay Disadvantages of Plea Bargaining Cherese Murphy CJA/224 May 17, 2012 Maxine Craig Advantages . and Disadvantages of Plea Bargaining The history of plea bargaining go back to the 19th century; by the second half of the 19th century plea bargaining was somewhat a common practice. (Siegel, Schmalleger, Worrall 2011, 320) However, plea bargaining became more common in the early and mid-1900’s. From 1916 to 1921 the authors and titles in a research paper Georgia Department of Public Welfare advised that guilty plea rates.
Crime , Criminal law , Judge 708 Words | 3 Pages. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Informa. ? Advantages and Disadvantages of information technology in Business Advantages : Increases production and saves . time: Business use technology to automate tasks. A good example is a bakery which uses automated temperature censors to detect any drop or increase in room temperature in a bakery. These censors will send information directly to the operator and report any temperature change. This saves the bakery time and it also results into quality products. Improves communication through communication. Business , Internet 1476 Words | 5 Pages. Thesis Handouts? advantage and disadvantage of CCTV.
INTRODUCTION: Closed-circuit television (CCTV) is a camera which is authors in a paper, used to produce images or recordings for . surveillance purposes. CCTV can be either video cameras, or digital stills cameras. Video cameras are either analogue or digital, which means that they work on the basis of sending analogue or digital signals to a storage device such as a video tape recorder or desktop computer or laptop computer wherelse digital stills cameras can take excellent pictures in when clouds, most. Closed-circuit television , Closed-circuit television camera , Crime 2059 Words | 5 Pages. And Titles Research? 3D Printing Advantages And Disadvantages. there are always some disadvantages . 3D printing is one of the greatest inventions anyone has ever made.
3D printers allow you to print any . three dimensional object from your computer. Original printers work by putting ink on paper. 3D printers don’t work like that. They work with materials like metal, plastic, and ceramic. The printers put down these materials, thin layer after thin layer from the bottom to of September 11, the top, to and titles in a paper, make the desired object. 3D printing has many advantages . 3D printers can help.
3D printing , Inkjet printer 940 Words | 4 Pages. Advantages and Disadvantages of Disciplining Children. Abstract This essay will provide a discussion on the advantages and the disadvantages of disciplining children. The first part . of the essay begins by elaborating on the disadvantages of cover agent without experience, disciplining children. And Titles In A Research Paper? These disadvantages include establishment of anxiety and fear, emotional fallout and thesis handouts rebellious behavior. The second part of the essay provides arguments on mla citing authors the advantages of disciplining children.
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And internet has excelled beyond. Computer , Internet , Online chat 642 Words | 3 Pages. Ifrs Advantages and Disadvantages. AMERICAN COLLEGE SKOPJE To be completed by students (typewritten) COURSE NUMBER | | COURSE TITLE | Financial Accounting | SEMESTER | V | SESSION | | . Mla Citing And Titles In A Research Paper? ASSIGNMENT NUMBER | 1 | SUBMISSION DATE DUE | | ASSIGNMENT TITLE | IFRS: Advantages and rain clouds disadvantages | INSTRUCTOR’S NAME | | To be completed by the front desk secretary or the course administrator SIGNATURE | DATE SUBMITTED | HOUR SUBMITTED | MATERIAL SUBMITTED | | | | Hard copyE-submission | | To be completed by in a research paper, the instructor . Balance sheet , Finance , Financial Accounting Standards Board 1468 Words | 5 Pages. Advantages and Disadvantages of the Internet. Advantages and Disadvantages of the effects, Internet Ten years ago, the Internet was practically unheard of by most people. Today, the . Internet is one of the most powerful tools throughout the world.
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Digital Publishing Annotation Use Cases. This document is also available in this non-normative format: ePub. This document describes the set of use cases generated for Annotation and Social Reading within the W3C Digital Publishing Interest Group, in coordination with the authors and titles research Open Annotation Community Group. This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Introduction? Other documents may supersede this document. A list of current W3C publications and the latest revision of this technical report can be found in the W3C technical reports index at http://www.w3.org/TR/. This document was published by the Digital Publishing Interest Group as an Interest Group Note. If you wish to make comments regarding this document, please send them to email@example.com (subscribe, archives). All comments are welcome. Publication as an Interest Group Note does not imply endorsement by the W3C Membership. This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at research paper, any time.
It is letter for front desk, inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress. The disclosure obligations of the authors research Participants of this group are described in the charter. This section is non-normative. Annotation is a pervasive activity when reading or otherwise engaging with publications. In the physical world, highlighting and sticky notes are common paradigms for marking up and associating one's own content with the work being read, and many digital solutions exist in the same space. These digital solutions are, however, not interoperable between systems, even when there is only one user with multiple devices. This document lays out the use cases for annotations on digital publications, as envisioned by the W3C Digital Publishing Interest Group, the W3C Open Annotation Community Group and the International Digital Publishing Forum. Cover For Front? The use cases are provided as a means to drive forwards the authors and titles in a conversation about standards in this arena.
The use cases are divided into taming shrew essay five sections: annotations that target only the mla citing and titles in a entire publication, annotations that target a particular part of children a publication, more complex annotations, the publication of annotations and finally use cases that are directly related to accessibility. 2.1 Annotations Targeting the Full Publication. A user wishes to write a comment about a particular publication, such as a single issue of a comic or a single book title. The comment is authors and titles paper, written in plain text or basic HTML, either on the reading platform (such as a web browser or reading system, henceforth user agent) or in the content provider's platform. The user wishes other readers to be able to see the comment linked to the publication, and potentially before they purchase or download it, as well as afterwards.
Anna is reading Alice in Wonderland online and, using a tool built into the provider's website, comments that she really loves the way the book is written. She then shares this with her friend, Ben. Ben is reading a Manga comic on a mobile device. He comments that it is helping him to learn Japanese and publishes this comment for anyone to on chesil, read online. A user wishes to organize their personal digital library by mla citing paper, tagging the publications that they have access to. Of September? The tag could be either drawn from a list of mla citing authors paper terms (a taxonomy) or free text (sometimes called a folksonomy). Cover For Front Desk Agent Experience? User agents encountering such an annotation must be aware of the mla citing authors paper difference between a tag and a comment, even though both might be modeled as an letter agent without, annotation.
Tags are typically rendered separately and mla citing and titles research paper very differently from short textual comments, such as in a tag cloud or list. The user then wishes to view their library partitioned via the thesis handouts tags. The user may wish to and titles in a research paper, share their tags with other users to help the homework sheets recipient categorize their own library, or find publications of mutual interest. Colleen has a collection of works of various types in her library about mla citing authors and titles in a research, chemistry, science fiction and the renaissance. She tags each work with what they are about, and whether she enjoyed reading them or not. David tags an essay introduction, online poem about his home town with the and titles in a research paper URI for the location from Wikipedia.
He publishes this annotation so that others can find it. 2.1.3 Structured Review of a Publication. A user wishes to provide a structured review of a particular publication, including pre-defined fields such as star ratings for agent, quality, cost, entertainment or other domain-specific information. The review could also include a full text description, such as the comment in the first use case. The definition of the fields would be retailer, publisher or domain-specific. In the scholarly domain, this could be expected to provide a distributed and standardized peer-review system, rather than the current use of vendor-specific interfaces.
In the commercial sector, it could help to standardize such features as product reviews across sites. Emily has read a textbook and provides a review of it online to help her classmates and mla citing in a research paper other students. She gives it ratings on taming of the shrew essay value for money, ease of use, ease of understanding, and overall quality, plus a long form description of the work. Fabio is reviewing a scholarly article for an academic publisher. The publisher requires various fields to be completed, such as relevance to the journal, novelty of the research, and quality of the experiments described. He also provides a discussion about the paper and how it relates to the field.
2.1.4 Textual Comment Maintained Separately from Annotation Document. A user wishes to link an existing web resource, such as a blog post, to the particular publication that it is about. The comment could be any online resource, in any format. In A Research? The user wishes other readers to be able to see the resource linked to rain, the publication, and potentially before they purchase or download it as well as afterwards. Gretchen uses a common blog hosting platform to write a comment about a work she has read for a book club, and then her user agent annotates the book with the link to the blog post. She then shares the annotation with the members of her book club. Harry has written a long blog post about the features of a digitized medieval manuscript. The manuscript is available via a dedicated website, and he links the blog post to the website's publication via an annotation in a personal note taking system. 2.1.5 Comment and/or Publication are Multimedia Resources. A user wishes to mla citing authors and titles, comment on an online resource by means of recording a short video on her phone and uploading it either just the audio track, or the entire video stream. The resource may also be of any format, including audio, video, image or any other data.
The user wishes other consumers to be able to view their video when interacting with the commented on taming essay resource. Ingrid uses a mobile device to take a video of herself discussing a work that she has just read for authors research, a book club. She posts the video to a commonly used video sharing platform, and then her user agent annotates the book with the link to the video. She then shares the annotation with the members of her book club. Jeremy has recorded a professor speaking about the features visible in an image of thesis handouts a map. The map is available via a dedicated website, and the professor hosts the audio recording of his lecture. Harry links the audio stream to the map for the benefit of other students. 2.1.6 Annotated Resource is an mla citing authors in a research, Annotation. A user wishes to reply to an existing annotation with her own comments in a threaded discussion. When Rain Gather Essay? The existing annotation has been made and published by another user, using a different user agent. The reply may also be a tag on the existing annotation in mla citing order to add to a combined moderation score, to classify it under some agreed upon scheme, or to homework, add keywords to aid in discovery.
Karen replies to a comment on a news video to and titles in a research paper, say that she agrees with the original commenter, and for front desk without experience provides additional evidence towards the points discussed. Luis tags a comment in an online discussion forum that contains offensive material to aid the moderators in keeping the mla citing paper discussion on topic and friendly. A user wishes to contribute their experience in the form of beach a comment, and mla citing authors in a research paper wishes to remain known as the author of that content and annotation that links it to children, the publication. The annotation must record its provenance, including the user's identity, when and how the annotation was created, and for what purpose. This provenance is important for appropriate display of the annotation, filtering or ordering of annotations, maintaining and assigning credit for annotations, determining allowed usage of the annotation, and many other similar requirements. Desirable metadata features: Creator's identity and information Creation time Creation tool Purpose of the authors and titles in a annotation.
Examples: tagging, describing, commenting, identifying, bookmarking, highlighting. Essays Beach? Intended Audience. Note: This could based on any information known about the user, such as age, reading ability, accessibility requirements. Category or Subject. Examples: Astronomy, Chemistry, Education, History, Technology, Sports Identity of original Annotation of which the current one is a copy Licensing and/or Rights statements. Note that many of these features are desirable for the body and target resources as well. Madeleine annotates a short story that she has read for an online class, and submits the annotation into the coursework system.
The system keeps track of authors and titles in a her identity for credit towards the class, when it was created to ensure that her work was submitted on time, the fact that it was created externally rather than within the coursework system, and thesis handouts other attributes. Nigel discovers a typo in an online encyclopedia entry that is not able to be edited by authors and titles paper, users directly. He annotates the entry with the typo and gives the correction. The system records the provenance of the annotation and adds him into its reputation system, which generates an automatic scoreboard for users and homework sheets articles. 2.1.8 Annotation has Multiple, Independent Comments and/or Tags. A user wishes to associate multiple resources at mla citing and titles paper, the same time with a publication, where the resources are independent of each other. The resources might be a comment and several tags added by the user to the publication at the same time. Alternatively, tags might be extracted from the letter for front desk without experience comment's text by and titles, an automatic process and added to the annotation about the publication after the user agent confirms their relevance. Olivia exports her reviews from her user agent, which include both her comments and the tags assigned to the publication when she was doing the review.
Peter is reading a romance novel online and comments about the use of a particular character. The user agent proposes 3 semantic tags from the comment, of which he accepts two. These tags are added to the annotation along with the comment. 2.2 Annotations Targeting Specific Segments of Publications. 2.2.1 Bookmarking Current Reading Position. A user wishes to have their user agent record the location they have read up to in the letter for front publication, either with a manual or automatic bookmark. This bookmark should be positioned at a particular point within the publication, such as a page or an offset within the character stream. The placement of the bookmark might be automatic (the user agent always moves the bookmark as the user reads) or manual (the user moves the bookmark as they desire).
When using the platform again, the mla citing authors and titles research paper user wishes to optionally start reading from the bookmarked position. The user also wishes to share this position with others to show how far through the publication they have progressed. This might be publically shared for bragging rights, shared semi-publically such as a reading group or class, or shared privately between platforms that the user has access to in order to essays, maintain the position between devices. Qitarah is reading a fantasy book as she commutes to mla citing authors research paper, work on the train every day. When she closes her mobile device, her reading system automatically bookmarks where she was reading so she can resume from that position when she gets the train home in the evening. When Rain Essay? Rangi is studying for an exam and creates bookmarks in and titles in a research paper his textbooks and required reading documents at home. Of September 11? He also studies on campus and needs access to those bookmarks from the school's computers.
He does not want other students to see his bookmarks, as he is competitive and wants to be the mla citing top of the class. A user wishes to highlight a span of text in a publication for emphasis. The Effects Of September? The exact nature of the presentation of that emphasis may or may not be important to maintain, this use case assumes that it is not. The emphasis might be to mark a passage of particular importance, a typo or other mistake, something to cite in another document, to bring to the attention of other readers, or to mark two such selections for comparison. The user may wish to mla citing authors and titles in a, share the highlight, and certainly wishes it to be accessible on multiple platforms to which she has access. In this use case there is thesis handouts, no requirement to provide a comment or body of the research paper annotation, simply to record a highlighted span of of September 11 text. Siobhan is preparing to publish a newspaper article and is doing background research.
She highlights various sections of other publications in order to later come back to them and decide if she should include them as quotes in the article or not. Thomas is proofreading his own term paper and highlights areas that he needs to in a, work on. The Effects Of September? He does this on a mobile device, but later needs to see those highlights in his word processing software. A user wishes to make a comment about a particular span of text. This is the most intuitive use case for annotation of mla citing research paper digital publications, and thus the area in which interoperability has the highest impact. The comment is letter for front agent, textual, but may have additional markup in and titles HTML to provide style formatting, layout or linking. Essays On Chesil Beach? The Annotation should be sharable, as per mla citing authors and titles research paper the other use cases. Umeko works for the government and is researching a particular topic. She highlights sections of text in various publications and makes personal notes about essays beach, them. She then uses visualization software to pull all of the notes together to organize her research.
Vladimir reads a news article online that he knows contains misinformation. He leaves a comment to and titles in a paper, this effect, associated with the part of the article that is not well founded. 2.2.4 Annotating Embedded Resources. A user wishes to make a comment about a particular resource that is embedded as part of the publication, such as an the effects, image or video. In the general case, the authors paper user would expect to somehow select the embedded resource and then launch the interface for adding comments in the same way as commenting on text. The embedded resource may be of any media type, but for this use case must be rendered directly as part of the publication. Whitney is reading a comic and comments on a particular image that it is the effects 11, much darker than the other cells in the publication. Xavier is reading a white paper that includes an mla citing authors in a, embedded dataset. He tags the dataset with a semantic URI identifying the subject matter of the dataset, which is different to the paper as a whole. 2.2.5 Annotating Parts of Embedded Resources.
A user wishes to annotate a particular part of an embedded resource, such as a rectangular section of an when gather essay, image or a particular time range of an embedded video file. The annotation should be rendered using this information, rather than simply attached to the embedded resource itself. The embedded resource may be of any media type, but must be rendered by the reading system. Thus video, image, audio and similar are in scope for this use case, but not stylesheets or scripts which are not rendered directly. Annotations on audio files may present additional rendering challenges, compared to ones with a visual component. The user then wishes to share the research paper annotation with others. The parts of resources to be annotated include: Character position in an embedded text or data stream Time position within an audio or video stream x/y points in an area such as an image or video x/y/z points in a volume such as a 3d object Character ranges within a text or data stream Time ranges within an desk without experience, audio or video stream Areas within an image, including rectangular, circular and polygonal areas Volumes within a 3d object. Yadira is teaching a class on physics and annotates part of an embedded video within the electronic textbook, delineating the time range that she wants to use as an example. She then shares this annotation, and others that are similar, before the class so her students can watch them.
Zahir is reading an online magazine about fashion and annotates part of one of the images that depicts a particular style he wishes to authors, replicate in his own work. 2.2.6 Annotating Alt Text of Embedded Resources. A user wishes to write a comment about a resource embedded within the publication, and to associate it with alternate, accessible representations of agent that resource, such as the alt text/long desc provided. The comment may be only about part of the alternate representation, and thus segments of the alternate representation must be able to be selected. The alternate representation may or may not have its own URI or other identity; it may exist solely in an attribute of a particular HTML document.
Ahmed is concious of accessibility and annotates the depiction of a friend in a photograph, and wants to align that annotation with the research paper name of the person in the textual description of the of the essay photograph in his school yearbook. The text description is provided in the alt text of the image element. Bianca is annotating a video. She associates his comments about and titles research, linguistics with both the time range of the video, but also the thesis handouts accessible text transcription of the speeches. 2.2.7 Annotation Comparing Segments within a Publication.
A user wishes to annotate two or more parts of a publication, embedded resources, or part of an embedded resource, in order to compare or contrast the mla citing authors in a targets. This may be to point out inconsistencies in the content or rendering, to make a note about two similar or related passages, or to cover letter without experience, link part of an embedded resource to where it is referenced in the text. Craig is studying a book for an English class and highlights the sections where the author is talking about the age of a character, to and titles research paper, demonstrate that the author is essays on chesil, inconsistent. He makes the mla citing and titles in a paper case in the comment that this is intentional. Dee highlights areas in charts within a scientific article that demonstrate a particular fact related to her own work. Rain Clouds Essay? She comments with a personal note to this effect. 2.2.8 Annotation Comparing Segments between Publications.
A user wishes to mla citing authors and titles in a paper, annotate two or more parts of different publications in order to compare or contrast the targets. This may be to make a note about two similar or related passages such as plagiarism, or to link part of an embedded resource to for front, where it is referenced elsewhere. Mla Citing Authors In A Paper? For example, the letter desk agent user may wish to link appearances of the same character in multiple books, popular references to and titles research, prior works, or examples of passages that contradict each other in scholarly literature. Enrique discovers three news articles about the children homework sheets same event which give very different accounts. He selects the disagreeing numbers given in each, and mla citing and titles in a comments that he believes the introduction lowest of the three and gives his rationale. Faith is linking the mla citing and titles transcriptions of song lyrics, published in various anthologies, together based on obscure references to particular real world people. She tags the segments with the essays person's identity in Wikipedia. A user wishes to authors and titles in a, annotate a digital publication in one format and have the annotation appear for different representations of the same resource.
For example, an thesis handouts, annotation created on an EPUB should also be rendered on the equivalent PDF or HTML page. The annotation can be either on in a the publication level, or anchored to a particular part of the text. Annotations on embedded resources (such as images) that are embedded without identity in alternate representations are not considered in scope, for example annotating a part of an image in taming of the introduction an HTML page which is then embedded within the PDF representation of the page. Gerard is reading a book on motorsports that is published both online and reproduced as a PDF. He publishes an mla citing authors paper, annotation about a span of text in the HTML version, and expects that it will appear in thesis handouts his tablet based reading platform after synchronization, where the same article is a PDF. Hailee reviews a scholarly article in a dedicated client on her computer, where the authors in a article is a print-ready PDF. The same review should be also linked to the article in the publisher's online HTML based system. A user wishes to of the essay, annotate part of a publication for which she has multiple editions, or that is updated regularly, and have those annotations persist between versions of the same publication. If the mla citing authors in a paper publisher provides a new version of thesis handouts a publication, known to happen silently at times for mla citing authors and titles in a, various reasons, then the annotations about the publication should be available on this new version rather than equally silently disappearing. Of The Introduction? As with any annotation that should be presented with more than just the resource it was created for, cross versioning allows for authors and titles research paper, a wider audience and thus is a potential target for spammers. Ichiro wishes to the effects 11, annotate the first line of Hamlet in such a way that it should appear on all of the mla citing authors and titles in a paper copies of the shrew essay play that the user has access to, rather than just the particular version that was open when the annotation was created.
Jacinta is a teacher who wishes to annotate a text book in such as way that her annotations are visible to her students even though they do not have the authors and titles in a exact same version, but instead have acquired it from different retailers. This use case is essays beach, particularly challenging to solve in environments in which identifiers for the work, rather than the particular version, do not exist. A user wishes to associate a particular style with an annotation, either for authors in a paper, the comment or the delineation of the children homework target of the annotation. Research Paper? The style should include any rendering attributes available, such as background or text color, border color and other attributes, font size, and so forth. When colors or styles associated with annotations are meaningful to an individual, to a particular group, or just generally, a text label should be able to rain clouds gather essay, be associated with the annotation drawn from authors and titles research, a list of terms (taxonomy) or free text, in order to sheets, assist with accessbility. Ken draws a bounding box on an image of the night sky, and wishes to authors and titles in a paper, ensure that his client in the future will draw the box in bright green to stand out, and certainly not to draw it in the default black which would be unable to be seen. Children Homework Sheets? Lynda highlights parts of mla citing and titles research a non-fiction text in two colors that have meaning to her; red strikethrough is statements that she disagrees with, and green background is for statements that she does agree with. The Effects? These styles must be maintained for the highlights to be of any use in the future. 2.3.4 Maintaining Annotation Layout. A user wishes for paper, their annotations to be presented at a particular location on children sheets the page, such that the and titles paper layout of the annotations doesn't interfere with the reading of the cover for front agent experience publication.
For example, annotations could be styled as a particular height and width, and then put into the margins of the page or over top of other white space. Annotations could be visually ordered such that reading them in the presented order gave a better experience than reading them in the order of the targets within the publication. Thirdly, the layout could be used for organization of thoughts concerning the publication by moving all of the related annotations together spatially. The location could be expressed as CSS absolute or relative positioning. Maurice is reading a fixed-layout work and positions his annotations above whitespace in the text with arrows to the character span that they refer to. By doing this, he means to ensure that they do not interfere with other consumers' reading of the content while still having his comments visible.
Nadia is a publisher and lays out the author's annotations on a novel in such a way that they aid the reader in understanding how the mla citing and titles in a author was thinking about his characters. She expects that the desk annotations will remain where they are placed, as this is important to the user's experience. 2.3.5 Recording State of Changing, Online Resources. A user wishes to mla citing and titles in a research paper, annotate the publication as it appears with dynamic resources in a particular state, or in 11 terms of the web architecture, given a particular representation. Resources on the web may change their representation over mla citing authors in a research, time or may have multiple representations at children sheets, the same time via content negotiation. The URI of the resource alone is mla citing authors and titles research, thus not sufficient to determine the sheets representation that was delivered to the annotator, and additional information such as the time of the request and mla citing in a the HTTP headers sent must be recorded. Owen annotates an online travel publication that is frequently updated with the latest information, such as the of the essay introduction prices of hotel rooms and the quality of restaurants in the area. He wants his annotation to be associated with the authors and titles in a current state of the when clouds theme essay work, and not necessarily any future state. Petra is reading a book that dynamically embeds images via a service. The JPG format that is used by a particular publication is rendered with too high a compression level, and it is hard to understand compared to and titles in a, the original PNG format. She thus wishes to comment only on the JPG that it is hard to see, rather than on the PNG which shares the of September 11 same negotiable URI.
2.3.6 Recording State of User Manipulated Resources. A user wishes to annotate a publication with embedded, dynamic resources. These resources are able to be manipulated by the user, rather than via the HTTP protocol or simple change over time. Some number of manipulations must be performed in order for the target of the annotation to be visible or understandable, regardless of the accuracy of the description of the target segment. The consuming user agent should then be able to reproduce these manipulations in order to allow a third party to and titles research paper, see the resource as annotated. Quinn is studying a publication that embeds a 3 dimensional model of a protein structure that can be rotated, panned and zoomed. In one particular orientation a certain feature is easily visible, whereas from other viewpoints it is not. When Rain Clouds Theme? He wishes for his annotation on the feature to be displayed with that same view to make it easier for the consumer to understand. Ramona highlights some text in a page that is and titles paper, responsive to user interactions and preferences. Thesis Handouts? The text is a dynamic transcription of a medieval manuscript, where her options change how the abbreviations and spelling are presented from either exactly how they appear on the page to what a modern reader would understand.
She wishes to annotate the expanded text, as she thinks the editor has made a mistake with a particular revision. This use case is particularly challenging to solve in the generic case rather than with media specific solutions. 2.3.7 Annotation has a Choice of authors research paper Multiple, Dependent Bodies or Targets. A user wishes to annotate a publication or part thereof with multiple options for the body or target. The options are thus dependent on each other, and only one of the options should be displayed to the user.
This might include translations of the same comment, alternative formats for the same content, and alternative URLs that all make the same content available. Solomon speaks both Japanese and English, and wishes to provide translations of thesis handouts his comment in both languages. He teaches English as a foreign language in mla citing authors and titles in a research Japan, and his students should be able to choose whether to view it in one language or the other. Teynika annotates a paper that is published in 11 multiple locations, however the representations are identical. One copy is in a subject based repository, the other in her institutional repository.
She wishes to explicitly link both of the targets to ensure her annotation can be presented along with at least one copy of the paper from the most convenient location to the consumer. 2.3.8 Annotation has Multiple, Dynamically Defined Targets. A user wishes to target segments of a resource that appear more than once in that resource, termed here a repeated segment. The user does not necessarily know the exact number of times the repeated segment appears in the resource; the interpretation of the annotation is understood to and titles in a, be independent of the number of instances of the taming shrew essay repeated segment. Ulrich, a copy editor, creates an authors paper, annotation proposing a correction to replace all instances of the string pleaf'd with the string pleas'd.
Essentially the annotation is proposing a search and replace operation of the sort ubiquitous in modern word processing systems. Veronica, a manufacturer, wishes to annotate all products of thesis handouts a certain class in his products database with a note that these items will go on sale next week for 15% off for 2 weeks only. 2.3.9 Determination of Annotation Validity after Target is Modified. A user annotates a publication with a correction to the text. The publisher then acts upon this annotation to correct the mistake, or in the scholarly field potentially to retract the publication from the scientific record. After the correction has been made, the annotation no longer applies to the publication and hence should not be displayed. It may be important not to delete the annotation, such that the user gets credit in some system for reporting the correction. The system that maintains the annotation may not be connected to the system that publishes the mla citing in a publication, and hence might not be able to be updated. Wesley annotates a gaming manual with a correction as to which controls are needed to perform a particular move. The publisher re-issues a new copy of the manual after the correction has been made to avoid other users having the same frustration.
Quinn's annotation should not appear on the new version. Xena annotates a typo in how her name is when clouds theme essay, spelt (two 'n's instead of one) in a book about the research in her field. Once the second 'n' has been removed, the annotation should be considered resolved and no longer displayed. This use case is particularly challenging to mla citing and titles paper, solve in thesis handouts the generic case rather than within specific systems that understand the motivation of the annotation and when it has been resolved. 2.3.10 Determination of Annotation Validity for Embedded Resources.
A user annotates an embedded resource, such as an image, which is used in several places within a publication. Authors And Titles In A Paper? The annotation is only valid, or relevant, when additional restrictions are in place and should not be displayed when those restrictions are not true. Yasir reads a publication in which the same headshot photograph is used for two different people and wants to annotate the photograph to say that it is taming essay, wrong when used on page 1, but not have the annotation displayed when the photograph is and titles in a research paper, used correctly on page 3. Zoe wishes to comment that a company logo should only be used in the header on every page, but nowhere else. 2.4.1 Sets of of September Annotations for a Publication. A publisher has one or more sets of annotations about a publication and wishes to supply those annotations along with the publication. Authors Research Paper? Alternatively, a user might wish to supply their own annotations as a set for other users.
These annotations could be comments by the author (in the same vein as DVD extras commentary), from famous readers, or simply pointers to essays, related works. In A? In an education setting, this functionality could be used to provide additional commentaries on a text book or other publication that are intended to essay introduction, assist the student in in a understanding the material. The set(s) could also be sold separately as an upgrade package for the publication. The order of the annotations may be important, for example to read the children homework publication in mla citing authors and titles chronological rather than narrative order, or by following the order of a class lectures rather than the order of the chapters in thesis handouts the text book. The metadata about the collection of annotations is mla citing and titles in a paper, also important, such as who packaged them together and for what purpose. Anya works for thesis handouts, a publishing house and has transformed the author's commentary on their steampunk novel into a set of annotations for sale. The company wishes to have them available as an add-on for customers that have already bought the novel, and also in mla citing authors and titles in a research a bundle for new sales. Bob is a PhD student studying a famous detective story set in London. He works out a walking route that takes the user through all of the locations in the book in an optimal fashion, which is not the same order as the narrative, and wants to publish his annotations about the locations in that sequence. A user wishes to save the cover letter agent experience annotation that they have created in mla citing authors order to desk experience, retrieve it later, regardless of whether it is mla citing research paper, finished or not.
The Annotation should be given a unique and of the shrew introduction resolvable identifier. The user may wish to save the annotation in their own system, rather than the system which provides the resource being annotated. The user may equally wish to save the annotation in mla citing authors and titles paper multiple systems. The annotation should persist in local storage if the user is offline, and be persisted globally once the taming shrew introduction connection is re-established. In the and titles in a interim, a locally unique identifier should be assigned to the annotation. Of September? Multiple copies of the annotation should reference each other, if possible. Catherine writes an annotation about an mla citing, astronomy publication and wants to save it both in her own system and remotely for others. Clouds Gather Essay? Doug writes an annotation about Greek mythology which becomes popular and is syndicated widely across many systems after its initial publication online. The syndicated copies refer back to the original source, which he uses for credit towards promotion. 2.4.3 User or System Initiated Transfers between Systems. Either the authors and titles in a paper user or the system requests that all or some subset of annotations that are maintained be transferred to another system.
If the user requests it, then this enables an taming essay, export functionality such that the user's annotations can be exported to mla citing in a paper, another platform or device. If the system requests it, then this enables a synchronization functionality where the user's annotations will be maintained in multiple locations for ease of use and preservation, or aggregation for analysis. Both such cases should use the same mechanism. Eileen has two devices that are on the same network. The devices are set to synchronize her annotations whenever they detect each other. Frank has written a lot of annotations on a plane trip while offline. For Front Agent Experience? When he gets home, he manually requests that his device upload all of the annotations to a preferred server. 2.4.4 Annotation (or Part) is not Published Openly. A user wishes to keep their annotations or personal notes private, or only in a research share with a small group of people such as a reading group, academic research group or only with a set of friends in a social network.
Even if the taming essay introduction user wishes to mla citing authors paper, keep their annotations private, the ability to thesis handouts, transfer the annotations between devices is desirable, so that they be used regardless of the particular reading platform. The user may also wish to authors, keep only some aspect of the annotation private, for example the comment should be protected, while the on chesil beach annotation graph can be shared openly, or vice versa. Regular web based authentication and authorization structures should be used to enable this functionality in an online environment to ensure interoperability. Gabby publishes her annotation on the effects of a particular pharmaceutical product in an authenticated environment in which only mla citing authors her and her colleagues can see it. Hadrien publishes his annotation openly so that other systems can see the linkage between the resources, but the comment itself is protected by rain gather, an authentication system and paywall. 2.4.5 Publication (or Part) is mla citing authors in a paper, not Published Openly. A user wishes to annotate a resource the she has access to, but requires authentication and/or authorization to view or annotate. The annotation should not circumvent or allow the circumvention of thesis handouts this DRM, for example by reproducing the content of the target publication. Isabelle annotates a closed access journal article that she has access to authors and titles research paper, while at university. When she is travelling, she no longer has access to the article as the system uses the IP range of her institution to determine availability.
Jason works for essays, the closed access journal publisher and is concerned that the annotation Elana made quotes some of the protected text, and if someone were to annotate the entire text, it would break their authorization model. 2.4.6 User is Notified when Annotations are Created. A user wishes to be informed when a resource, or set of resources, is and titles research paper, annotated. They do not necessarily want to have the annotation sent to them, just be alerted to the existence of new annotations. The notification should be pushed to the user's agent, rather than requiring active participation on the user's behalf. Katelynn is a reporter for a newspaper, and wishes to thesis handouts, keep track of when her articles are commented on so that she can either update the content or reply to discussion. Luke is interested in in a research paper a topic in the effects 11 a wiki, and wants to research, be notified whenever another user comments on the pages so he can ensure his knowledge is desk agent without experience, up to date.
2.5 Accessibility and Internationalization. 2.5.1 Using Annotation for Contributing Accessibility Information. An annotation provider (personal or retailer) wishes to provide annotations that give additional information about resources for the purposes of mla citing authors and titles in a research accessibility. Mary annotates an image with an audio file that records her description of the thesis handouts image. This audio file can then simply be played by a user agent to a visually impaired user. In A Research Paper? Nathan annotates the text transcription of a segment of video to the appropriate place in the video stream. The transcription can be displayed to someone unable to hear the audio part of the video, or when the user agent does not have sound capability. Users need to easily become aware of and find highlights or annotations, particularly when using a screen reader, a small screen, or seeking sparse annotations in the effects a lengthy work. Olga is reading a long work about warfare that is not heavily annotated.
She wishes to skip ahead to the next interesting section, and thus needs to have some way to visualize the location of the annotations that others have made on and titles in a research paper the work. Pedro is using a screen reader, and wishes to have the option to listen to the annotations when they are available or to skip past them. Whenever the system encounters an annotation it gives an audio clue that tapping the screen will prompt the device to pause reading to convey the content of the annotation. 2.5.3 Using Annotation for children homework sheets, Contributing Internationalization Information. A user wishes to provide internationalization information for a document that they don't control, such as a translation for a particularly complex phrase, or whether automated translation systems should explicitly not translate a given phrase. Questa has implemented a machine translation system that generates reliable Dutch translations and has it scheduled to run on commonly updated English-language sites, before publishing to a well-known annotation server in the Netherlands. Reece is a scholar in authors research paper Ancient Greek, and routinely provides translations for online texts when they have been transcribed from children sheets, museum objects.
He wishes to make his translations available to mla citing authors research paper, both the museums and thesis handouts anyone who visits their online exhibitions. The following requirements are summarized from the use cases presented above.
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The application of systems theory in business decision making. A system is a set of mla citing authors in a paper, interrelated elements working together towards achieving a certain goal or objective (Merriam Webster). Systems theory is a way to view the world and it has influenced scientific, engineering as well as decision systems. Systems theory is used in this report as a paradigm for showing how systems work and how their elements relate together Fredrick Taylor (2001). System behavior is expressed in formulations and characteristics where the analysis is based on its simplicity and the number of elements among other factors R. Flood and shrew essay introduction, M. Authors In A Paper! Jackson (1991). 1.1 General Scenario: Unity Auto Garage was established in 1974 by 11, Mr. Rashid and a group of other directors driven by their ambitions to start up a user centered garage that would offer 24 hour service and at very friendly prices. Authors! The garage is located along Kampala Road within Nairobia??s busy industrial area and has introduced a very challenging competition line for Accidental and Auto repairs in Kenyaa??s service industry. In the beach, garage cars arrive for general services involving engine check, wheel alignment, and general car servicing auto body repairs, engine repairs, and safety inspections among others.
The cars arrive for service in a single line and serviced by a team of garage attendants mostly comprising of 3 service team members. It is expected that a car will arrive at least every 30 minutes. The estimated average service time is 20 minutes per car. 1.2 1.2: Description and representation of basic concepts. Mr. Rashid, the garage founder is in authors in a research dilemma over various decision making issues and he therefore wishes to solve the following decision based problems regarding the garage using the systems theory: 1. Know the average number of cars in children homework the garage system.
2. Know the average time for a car in the system. 3. Know the average waiting time. 4. Know the average number of authors in a paper, cars in queue. 5. Children! Know the authors and titles research paper, utilization factor. 6. Find out the percentage idle time. 7. The garage has a challenge of children homework, customers leaving if they find more than three cars on queue. The management wishes to know the mla citing in a paper, probability that there will be more than three cars in the queue at a certain time. From the above scenario two key problems can be formulated for homework, the garage.
These are; 1) Establishing the utilization factor for staff members and service channels in the garage. 2) Determination of the queuing discipline to deploy for customer service. Application of the systems theory is recommendable to Mr. Rashid in making the stated decisions. To do this, two systems theory approaches methods will be applied as follows; the research paper, analytical model to find out a solution for the first problem and a simulation model to cover for front desk, find out a solution to the second problem. 1.3 1.3 Rationale of System Dynamics to the Problem: Since a system is majorly composed of mla citing authors paper, interrelated elements working towards a common objective, the garage system has a number of elements that foster its success. The major elements in the system are the garage human resource, technological resources available, the number of children homework, cars entering the garage queue for mla citing authors research, service and the number of service channels available at the garage.
There are various events that result into state changes in the garage system. These are; a car entering the queue system for service, a car entering a service channel or a car leaving the service channel after service. An increase in the number of cars in essays beach the queue will result in mla citing authors research paper the demand for more staff and the need for more resources such as finances and cover for front desk agent experience, time. On the other hand, this may affect the degree of customer satisfaction as customers may be forced to wait for authors research, long in the service queues. 1.4 1.4 Representation of the diagram. (Fig. 1.1 The garage systema??s dynamic diagram) 1.5 1.5 An illustration of the diagram and critical discussion.
Fig1.1 above shows the beach, various relationships portrayed by the elements of the and titles research, garage system. As indicated in the diagram an increase in for front desk agent experience cars on the queue will result in an increase in the garage staff team and overall this will call for more financial budgets and allocations. Mla Citing Authors And Titles In A Research Paper! On the other hand, increase in rain theme service resources will lead to a reduction in the service time though the increase in resources means more financial expenditure for in a paper, the garage. The diagram therefore suggests a negative feedback system for the garage. Task 2: Use of Model building process. 2.1 Identification of the decision variables.
The garage system is dynamic in nature. Some of the systema??s variables are: cars arriving, time, and the size of the garage staff team, the available resources such as power and technology. According to essays on chesil beach, the systems dynamics theory the systema??s variables will change in different situations. For instance it is expected that the arrival time will vary from mla citing authors research paper, a car to another. The systema??s behavior is expected to clouds theme essay, be of the authors, exponential growth look. However, the pattern can be combined with oscillation to form a complicated system behavior. 2.2: Formulation of thesis handouts, objective.
Over and above answering the questions formulated in task 1, the mla citing authors and titles paper, system should also provide some loopback feedback to the garage management. Through the system the garage management will be informed on the cause and effect of essays on chesil, either small or significant change in the systema??s variables. 2.3: Formulation of constraints. There are a number of constraints anticipated in the deployment of the system. The constraints include the fact that the number of cars reporting to the garage is just but an estimate and therefore there may be more than or fewer cars joining the queue that stated. Finances in the system can be termed exogenous as they seem to affect other variables in the system yet they are affected by mla citing and titles paper, no other variable. 2.4: Formulation of the assumption set.
There are various assumptions in the system. They include the assumption that the homework, car arrival will be uniform (after every 30 minutes). Another assumption in the system is that the service queue opens immediately for the next car after the car in service leaves. This means no slack of time as an event commences soon after the other. Authors In A! This assumption may lead to letter without, weak decisions as a small change in some variables may affect the results of the system. Task 3: The simple analytical model. Construction of the analytical Model of the System: In the mla citing authors and titles in a paper, systema??s analysis the following are the key considerations since it is a queuing system, the thesis handouts, size of calling for service, the pattern of arrival and behaviour of arrival are to authors and titles research paper, be considered. Other considerations to make are queue length and distribution and the effects, the service lines available. The analysis will be based on and titles in a Kendalla??s notation on queuing systems which consists of basic three symbol form.
These are: Arrival distribution | Service time distribution | Number of service channels open. M = Poison distribution for number of cover letter without, occurrences (Exponential times) D = Constant deterministic rates. G = General distribution with mean and variance known. According to the system in proposal the following information and solutions can be deduced as follows. a?? The average number of cars in the system L = a?? The average car service time in system W=
a?? Average number of cars in queue Lq= a?? Average service waiting time in in a paper the garage Wq= a?? Percent idle time for taming essay, the service facility P0= a?? Probability the number of customers is k Pnk= Task 4: Analytical model application. The analytical solutions. Using the analytical model solutions to Mr. Rashida??s dilemma can be acquired as follows; 2 cars arriving every hour (since 1 car is and titles in a, arriving at least every 30 min)
3 cars serviced per hour (since the average service time given is 15 minutes per car) a?? The average number of cars the system will be; L = = 2/ (3-2) = 2/1 which means there will be 2 cars in the system on average. a?? What is the children homework, average time that a car will spend in the system? W= = 1/ (3-2) = 1 this means that on average a car will spend 1 hour in the service line. a?? What is the average number of cars waiting in queue?
Lq= = 22/ 3(3-2) = 1.33, this means that on average 1.33 (rounded off to the nearest whole car is 1 car) in mla citing in a research the waiting time at a given time. a?? What is the average waiting time for a car in the system? Wq = 2/ 3(3-2) = 0.67, this means 0.67 hours waiting time for a car in the system. a?? The percentage of time that the facility is taming shrew essay introduction, busy is also going to mla citing authors research, be the same as the waiting time, which is 0.67. a?? What is the probability that the facility is idle? i.e. (no car)
P (0) =1-(2/3) = 0.33 this means that the probability that there are 0 cars in the system is 0.33. A Critical Evaluation of the Analytical Model: Through the use of Kendalla??s notation for queuing systems (Dr Conor McArdle EE414 – Performance Evaluation of queuing Systems) answers to the above system problems have been approached. The average number of cars in the system in an hour has been identified as 2 per hour. Other answers provided for the problem include the service average time that the service station is busy, the probability that the facility is idle, as well as the average waiting time for children homework sheets, service. Mla Citing And Titles Paper! The utilization factor analysis helps the management make a decision on whether to add another service station or not. The queuing discipline determines which customer is selected from the queue for processing or service when a server becomes available. Examples of different queuing disciplines are: FCFS – First-Come-First-Served – If no queuing discipline is taming of the shrew essay, stated in mla citing authors and titles research paper the Kendall description, this one is assumed. The Effects! All the systems we consider have a FCFS queuing discipline, LCFS-Last-Come-First-Served. PS – Processor-Sharing-All customers are served simultaneously where processing of all customers is equally spread across all servers.
6.1 Constructing the revised analytical model. Mr. Rashid wishes to increase the authors and titles paper, number of service channels in the garage by 100%. He therefore wishes to carry out a a??what ifa?? analysis for this in form of a revised analytical model. This will help him understand the impact of changing a certain variable in the system. Taming Of The Shrew Essay Introduction! For example what if the number of service stations was increased by 100% as he thinks? The result would be addition of another service line, while the number of cars visiting the garage for service still remains the same. From an analytical point of mla citing authors and titles paper, view the number of cars in the queue at a given time in letter for front experience the system would reduce and on the other hand the financial requirements would increase as a new staff team would be hired in place for the new service channel. 6.2: The analytical solution for the revised solution. With the and titles in a research, a??what ifa?? analysis in consideration the new model would be as follows;
(Fig 6.2: revised solutiona??s dynamic diagram) There will be a significant reduction in the number of cars in queue for service as indicated in fig 6.2. This will mean faster service delivery to essays on chesil, customers though the garage has to procure more finances for the new channel. A critical evaluation of the revised system. The revised system helps the management in identifying critical decisions to be made. Through the revision of a certain system, various variables can be changed and therefore the results known in time. For instance Mr. Mla Citing In A Research! Rashid is on chesil beach, able to tell what if the number of service channels was increased up to a certain level. Therefore it is very important to factor analytical models in authors and titles in a research real life systems from a revision perspective as there will always crop a new system and solutions to more questions. Task 8: Constructing the rain gather theme essay, Simulated system.
The system described in the scenario can be simulated as a discrete system. This means that the authors and titles, system constitutes of variables that change instantaneously at separated points in time. Of September 11! The systema??s state variables are; a?? The number of cars in queue. a?? The number of cars arriving. a?? The number of busy/serving stations. The system has various crucial events that govern the change of state and these are arrival of a car, a car entering service and a car departure.
The system is discrete because it only changes when a car arrives for service, car enters for service or a car departs from service station. To simulate time the authors in a research, next event time advance mechanism also known as (event to event time advance) will be used. The Effects Of September! In this case the simulation time will be initialized at zero, with the occurrence times for other events being determined by using probability methods since the occurrences anticipated will be random. The assumption is that at least one car will arrive in every 30 minutes. And Titles Research! Inactivity periods will not be factored in this simulation as events follow each other therefore skipping inactivity time periods encountered by the system. The systems event graphs.
An event can be defined as an instantaneous occurrence that may change the state of a system. Determining the number of thesis handouts, events in simulation sometimes may be challenging as well as specifying the state variables needed to keep the simulation running. Therefore for this system an event graph will help overcome these problems in authors research paper my simulation as follows. (Fig 1.2 the system simulation graph) A Critical Evaluation of the Simulation: As indicated in the above figure the arrival event can be scheduled initially and beach, therefore schedules itself in the system. The other two events are scheduled by some preceding events somewhere.
However the mla citing and titles in a, departure event may reschedule itself should the queue be very log for the customer to rain clouds theme, wait. Therefore there are strongly connected components in the simulation and these are; Car arrival Car arrival. Car departure Car departure. The events car arrival, Car entering the service point and car departing are not strongly connected however.
Task 10: Conclusion: The application of systems theory in business decision making is very crucial for approaching specific problems. The application of this enables a business know the cause and and titles in a research, effect analysis of key elements of a system at work as well as the utilization factors associated. Through this an expression of the system overview is achieved and. Analytical methods involved help a business get the exact parameter of deployment for progressive performance. When Clouds Gather! Simulation helps imitate the authors in a research, system and frame it in real world scenario perspectives. There are various queuing systems that can be applied at different levels and case scenarios.
The choice of a good queuing system will help streamline operations and essay, ensure quick service to customers in a business. Recommendation for further research could be analysis of queuing systems in multi service stations. Robert B. Mla Citing Authors And Titles In A Paper! Cooper. Introduction to Queuing Theory (2nd edition). 1981. 347 pp.
Borge Tolt. The solution manual (182 pp, 1981) available online at. Eitan Altman. Children Homework Sheets! NS simulator course for beginners. 2002. Lecture Notes 146 pp. Available at http://www-sop.inria.fr/mistral/personnel/Eitan.Altman/ns.htm. Moshe Zukerman Introduction to Queuing Theory and authors in a, Stochastic Teletraffic Models. Donald Gross, John F. Shortle, James M. Essays On Chesil! Thompson, and mla citing and titles research, Carl M. Harris. The Effects Of September 11! Fundamentals of Queuing Theory, Solutions. Banks, J., J.S.
Carson, B.L. Nelson, and D.M. Mla Citing And Titles In A! Nicol (2005), Discrete-Event System Simulation, Fourth Edition, Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. Sterman, J.D. (2000), Business Dynamics: Systems Thinking and homework, Modeling for a Complex World, Irwin McGraw-Hill, Boston, MA. Ronald E Giachetti Design of enterprise systems. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Business essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of mla citing and titles in a paper, us is qualified to a high level in taming of the introduction our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Business work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours.
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