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Writing Great Book Reports: Fiction and Nonfiction. You probably began writing book reports in elementary school. When you were younger, it seemed like an easy assignment. Sanjaya did many book reports when he was younger but this is the first one he will be doing in high school. His teacher has explained all the information that should be included. Sanjaya began by reading the assignment first few pages of several books. He told the library about the kind of books he likes. On Peter Pan! The librarian made several suggestions. This one combines interesting characters and some wild adventures. It#8217;s so good that Sanjaya hates to put the book down for meals.
Book Reports in lower grades were easy. They included. 1. Reading a book usually a book you wanted to read anyway. 2. Writing about the story, without telling the ending. 3. Writing your opinion of the book including what you liked best and what you didn#8217;t like.
4. Assignment Online! Students often ended y oral reports by telling classmates it was a great book and they should #8220;Read the book and find out coping with stress what happened.#8221; 1. You are older and your teachers now expect book reports showing advanced organization and writing skills. 2. Each teacher who asks you to online, write a book report will have different instructions including the types of books, the length of reports, and the topics to essays, cover. Some teachers might give you a list of books to choose from. If you really don#8217;t like any books on the list you could always ask the assignment teacher if something you like of equal or greater difficulty could be substituted. Writing a Book Report on Works of Fiction. An English teacher will ask you to read fiction, possibly from coping with essay, a certain time period or by a certain author. They might tell you to include:
1. the setting (place, time, weather) 2. the characters (sometimes including the protagonist or main character and the antagonist or enemy) 3. the genre (category such as romance, science fiction, fantasy, mystery, adventure, suspense, horror, historical, or literary fiction.) If you aren#8217;t sure of the genre, ask a librarian to help. Some books are a combination of genres. One of my favorite authors writes mysteries on other plants: It is papers both mystery and science fiction. Others combine mysteries and romance. Vampire stories seem to have become a separate genre, at pan least for now. 4. a summary of the plot. This might include the assignment type of conflict (if you have studied this) and in chinese a description of the assignment climax.
Be sure to find out if the teacher wants you to include the coping essay ending or resolution of the conflict. 5. the tone, mood, or theme of the book. 6. the papers online Point of View who is the narrator of the charles darwin evolution essay book? 7. When evaluating the book, you might support your opinions by assignment papers including several quotations from the book. Your teacher might consider #8220;You should read this book to essays on peter, see what happens,#8221; to be out of place at your age. You might instead describe the strong and assignment online weak points in the book. Writing a Book Report on a work of Nonfiction. This is less common but could be assigned in classes such as history or science.
This will seem strange. You won#8217;t use setting, characters, genre, plot, theme, or point of view. Instead of a report on a book, you might be asked to report on an article. Essays! Your teacher will probably explain what they do expect. They will probably want: 1. Assignment! The main idea of the entire book . This is the reason the author wrote the book. Sometimes there is a question that the writer attempts to answer. Sometimes it is an analysis of a situation.
Look for the author#8217;s thesis, the brief statement of in chinese, their main idea. Papers Online! Use this as the introduction to your report. 2. You cannot summarize every chapter in the book. Choose three or four of the most important ideas that support the author#8217;s thesis. These should form the three or four paragraphs in the body of the report. 3. In nonfiction, the background of the essays pan author is important.
What qualifies this author to write on this topic? Look at the bibliography and see how much research the author has done. Are the books in the bibliography all from assignment, one particular perspective or from many different points of view? You might check the Internet for more information about the author. This along with the analysis of the author#8217;s thinking might form the conclusion if it is brief. With Essay! If they are detailed and significant, they can be additional paragraphs in online the body of the report, followed by a conclusion. 4. It is important to with stress, use critical thinking.
Does the author separate facts and opinions? Are the #8220;facts#8221; they use accepted as true by educated people in the field? Does the author look at a topic from many points of assignment papers online, view? Would you consider the author fair-minded or does the author show bias or a certain slant (particularly common in books on politics)? Does the author #8220;jump to conclusions#8221; without sufficient proof? Know what your report should include BEFORE you begin to read. As you read, take notes on appropriate topics. You could use bookmarks or sticky notes for pages you might want to re-read or take quotes from.
Your outline is easy. You will use the categories above or what your teacher recommends. Be sure you have three or four main ideas in Physiology each category. With this, the report should be easy to write. If your report includes an oral presentation, you might add visuals to make the online report more interesting.
Try to begin with an exciting introduction that will make your listeners want to hear more.
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Resume: Bruce Ensor, PE, SE, MLSE – Senior Structural Engineer. Bruce Ensor, Structural Engineer started in private practice in 2002 after serving as Chief Structural Engineer for Integrated Building Arts (IBA). Assignment Online? Before working at IBA, Bruce lived and worked in Washington DC for Skidmore Owings and Merrill and the moved to Honolulu HI on the island in Oahu. During his six years in the Hawaii, he worked as a Structural Design Engineer and Special Inspector for Martin Bravo Inc., Sato and Associates and entropy of spm case study of liverpool Shigemura, Lau, Sakanashi, Higuchi. Bruce graduated from the Pennsylvania State University’s Architectural Engineering program/structural option, in 1986. The Architectural Engineering program is a 5 year program which focuses on Building Design and Professional Practice for the production of papers online Construction Documents for Buildings. Bruce formed the Exercise Physiology Professional Corporation, BE Structural, PC in assignment papers 2007 and is located in Wormleysburg, PA. Bruce was certified as a Model Law Structural Engineer, MLSE, by the National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying. All licensed Structural Engineers, SE, are also licensed Professional Engineers, PE.
All Professional Engineers, however, are not licensed Structural Engineers. In fact, some states have separate tests that allow Professional Engineers to be licensed Structural Engineers. Structural Engineers are more qualified by state exam to practice this specialty of Engineering. BE Structural PC provides professional engineering consulting services in the areas of structural engineering and building design for new construction, renovations and structural repair. Bruce has provided forensic engineering and expert witness testimony for construction litigation cases. Bruce has been involved in coping post disaster structural evaluations, custom design, sustainable and non-traditional engineering. Papers Online? Bruce tries to coping, see his employees as people first, staff second. Bruce’s day to day functions include helping the staff compose proposals, engineering design, oversight and quality control. Papers? His primary mission is to ensure that the firm’s first priority is to deliver quality services. Bruce continues to value and promote education and employee growth while taking BE Structural, PC to the next level. His passion for his work and evolution his non-traditional ideas about what an engineering practice should be, have helped solidify his company’s position in a competitive marketplace.
Bruce believes their future is a bright one. Bruce has three children, one of which arrived in June 2014. When he is not at the office, Bruce enjoys spending time with his family, including Boomer, the family dog. Pennsylvania State University Bachelor of papers Architectural Engineering – 1986, Structural Option Lebanon Valley College , MBA Coursework. Alabama, #33912-E Arizona, #58595 Colorado, #PE0047983 Connecticut, #PEN.0029450 Delaware, #14885 Florida, #72724 Georgia, #PE039195 Hawaii, #PE-9190 Kansas, #PE24076 Kentucky, #30567 Maryland, #27411 Massachusetts, #5066 Michigan, #6201060356 New Jersey, #24GE05065700 New York, #091580 North Carolina, #041581 Ohio, #PE.77767 Pennsylvania, #PE048856E South Carolina, #31946 Texas #117701 Virginia #0402049833 Washington D.C., #PE906145. 2002 to Present, Harrisburg, PA. BE Structural, P.C., Structural and Forensic Engineer. 1994 to 2002, Harrisburg, PA. Integrated Building Arts, Chief Structural IBA, and essays Forensic Engineer Whitney Bailey Cox Magnani, Structural Project Engineer TASC Engineering, Structural Project Engineer Erdman Anthony Engineers, Structural Project Engineer Gannett Fleming, Structural Project Engineer. Sato Associates Special, Structural Project Engineer Special Inspector Martin Bravo, Inc. Special, Structural Project Engineer Special Inspector Shigemura, Lau, Sakanashi, Higuchi, Structural Design Engineer.
Skidmore, Owings, Merrill, Structural Design Engineer Purdum Jeschke Consulting Eng., Structural Design Engineer. American Institute of Steel Construction, American Concrete Institute. Residential Wood Framed Construction Damage Roofing contractor placed several large stacks of shingles along the ridges of a stick built home under construction causing the roof framing to deflect and pushing the bearing walls tilting them out along the top plate. Assignment Papers? Reviewed the structural as-built condition and provided engineering and details with instruction to remedy the structural deficiencies and keep the construction on-track avoiding litigation. Parking Garage Collapse Shortly after the installation of a wearing course the coping stress one story parking garage collapsed. Provided an on site assessment of the assignment failure and made an entropy of spm patterns case of liverpool bay assessment of the assignment papers causes of essays on peter failure. Wind Damage to Agricultural Buildings High winds collapsed a series of assignment online wood framed agricultural building.
Provided an on site assessment of the essays construction and assignment papers made an assessment of the plaintiffs expert report as well as an assessment of the causes of failure. Foundation Fill Material Failure Provided opinion relative to the failure of the fill material used in Exercise the construction of an office park condominium. Water Infiltration Investigation – Federal Building Under Renovation Conducted a site investigation to online, observe rain water infiltration and provide a professional opinion as to the cause the water infiltration. Cold Weather Concrete Slab Failure Investigate the failure of entropy analysis of spm case study a second floor concrete slab placed and cured during cold weather. Provided an on-site visual evaluation of the assignment papers structural concrete slab, reviewed the construction documents and provided an opinion letter relative to findings. 1 Brookwood Drive, Lititz, PA. 56 Ridings Way, Lititz, PA, 17543 104 Wheatland Drive, Lititz, PA 726 Broad Street, P.O. Box 477 Emmaus, PA 18409. 981 Marbrook Lane, York, PA. 1051 Wallace Avenue, Chambersburg, PA, 17201 3881 Stony Brook Drive, York, PA 4453 Cedarwood Drive, York, PA 726 Broad Street, P.O.
Box 477 Emmaus, PA 18409. 8352 Willow Run Fogelsville PA. 1984 Cricklewood Cove, Fogelsville PA. 2014 Wooded Ridge Circle Fogelsville, PA. 6958 Lehigh Ct Allentown PA. 3686 Wingfield Drive York, PA. Structural Observation and coping with stress Due Diligence.
1337 N. Assignment Online? Front Street, Harrisburg, PA Prepared due diligence report of an existing office building under consideration for purchase. Report focused on structural deficiencies and evolution essay resulted in the withdraw from the purchase due to the structural modifications that would be required. St. Lawrence Chapel, Harrisburg, PA Structural Observation Report conducted to papers online, make visual observations of the case of liverpool structural characteristics relative to possible renovations of the assignment online basement to make it an occupied space. Lancaster Host Resort and Conference Center Structural Investigation of subsidence of courtyard around pool area. Provided a site observation report and Exercise Physiology opinion relative to the cause of the subsidence and the options to remedy the situation. Vibration and assignment papers online Blast Protection Analysis. Blast Wall Design for the Silver crest Housing Project, 1994 Design of a 25-foot high earth and concrete counter fort blast wall to resist an equivalent of in chinese 50 lbs. of TNT.The wall served as separation and assignment protection from the possible explosion of natural gas tanks adjacent to the site of a four-story HUD housing project. 11880 Williamsport Pike, Greencastle, PA, 2006 Blast Damage Claim to Residential property adjacent to Construction Site. 11858 Williamsport Pike, Greencastle, PA, 2007 Blast Damage Claim to Residential property adjacent to Construction Site. 531 E. Derry Road, Hershey, PA, 2007 Vibration Damage Claim to Residential property adjacent to essays, heavy traffic roadway and pipeline construction.
Calvary United Methodist Church Designed the renovations and papers additions to bad effects, the Sanctuary, Office, and papers Classroom wings of an existing church. A new multipurpose room for basketball and group meetings was set over a music room and youth room on the basement level. The Sanctuary was modified by extending wings to each side and removing the legs of the existing Laminated Rigid Frame with the use of a deep Laminated Wood transfer girder supported by a Laminated Rigid Frame. Coping With Stress Essay? The roof over the sanctuary was supported using laminated wood roof decking supported by new laminated rigid frames and papers online CMU walls. The floor of the sanctuary is framed with concrete over metal deck supported on of internet essays, open web steel joists. The classrooms and office wing were modified by adding a pre-engineered wood truss roof over the flat roof area. The floors were framed with concrete topping over metal deck supported by open web steel joists. The foundation of the papers online structure was a combination of modifications to existing spread footings and patterns case of liverpool bay the addition of new spread footings as well as continuous reinforced concrete wall footings.
Glatfelter Insurance Company Five story, 35,205 SF office building and connector to an existing facility. Each story is approximately 7000 SF, (5,500 SF of office and 1,500 SF of assignment papers connector). Essays On Peter Pan? The roof was framed with Pre-engineered wood trusses supported on a structural steel frame that was braced with a combination of X-bracing in papers online the short direction and a series of steel moment frames in the long direction. The floor framing consisted of concrete over metal deck supported by open web steel joists and steel beams and girders. The building is situated into a sloping grade and required a reinforced concrete foundation wall. Essays In Chinese? The foundations were a combination of reinforced concrete spread footings and reinforced concrete continuous wall footings. Calvary Baptist Church Structural design of papers a 3000 seat church with a clear span of 240 feet. The Church was semi-circular in coping stress essay plan and required the use of papers tapered girders and columns terminating at in chinese a compression ring at the peak of the roof. Franklin and Marshall Truck Dock Canopy Design Canopy design to match the canopy design of an existing structure. Online? Needed to consider the costs as well as connections to the existing structure to support the canopy. Slate Hill Road Office Building Renovation, Camp Hill PA On site evaluation of an existing structure to provide for the installation of new mechanical equipment on the roof of a one story office building.
Matcon Diamond Retaining Wall Design, Pittsburgh, PA Property line retaining wall along a railroad right of way. Designed with battered H-Piles driven into fill material to accommodate parking above. Pennsylvania Turnpike Exit 19, Highspire, PA Structural design of new toll way with offices and subsurface connector between booths. Triangle Refrigeration Addition and renovation of an existing wood structure to add a new grand entrance lobby and elevator to offices on the second floor. 1000 Bryersdale Road, Harrisburg, PA Modifications to essays in chinese, the Renovations of an existing doctor’s office to accommodate changes in papers online the construction of offices in the ground floor. Lancaster General Hospital – Cherry Street Doctors Offices Provide structural assessment of for the installation of charles Fluoroscopy equipment. Provide structural reinforcement details of the existing structure as well design of a substructure to support the assignment papers equipment to bad effects essays, prevent adverse deflection of the equipment during operation. Bryn Mahr Hospital – Fluoroscopy Center Provide structural assessment of an existing structural concrete and steel framed building built circa 1927 for the installation of Fluoroscopy equipment. Provide details to install equipment from the existing structure.
Foundation Failure due to Sink Hole Development Retained by an Insurance Company to assess the damage and long-term liability due to foundation failure and subsequent repair due to the formation of a sink hole. On an adjacent property the papers township drained a water tower to prepare to paint the inside. The water was drained out of it to a catch basin on an adjacent site. The large amount of essays on peter pan water created a sink hole to assignment online, form adjacent to the insured’s building. Coping With? The loss of soils below the foundation required emerging shoring and remediation. Assignment Papers Online? We assessed the relevance of the construction cost and the action taken by the building owner’s contractor in coping with essay review of the insurance claim and made recommendations to avoid future problems at the site. Agriculture Building Collapse. Retained by assignment papers online, the General Contractors Attorney. During construction high winds collapsed a wood framed agricultural building. We provided an on site assessment of the construction progress at entropy analysis of spm patterns case study bay the point of failure and made an assessment of the plaintiffs expert report as well as an assessment of the causes of failure.
Our involvement aided the papers online General Contractor’s attorney in determining the merit of the claim against his client as well as the culpability of subcontractors hired by entropy of spm case study, the general contractor to erect the structure. Arbitration of Construction Dispute. Retained by a contractor to evaluate a home he had constructed per assignment prescriptive methods allowed by the code after the homeowner disputed additional charges and took possession of the unfinished home. The homeowner retained an inspector and claimed the roof was not adequate to support the essays in chinese loads and online span of the as built condition. Construction Related Fatality.
Retained by an Attorney to evaluate a claim which was the result of a basement wall failure during construction. We provided expert advise and analysis for the Attorney on the technical merits of the claim relative to his client, a subcontractor on the project. Severe Deflection in Exercise Residential Construction. Retained by the Plaintiff’s Attorney to review an existing condition. Papers Online? A homeowner after purchasing a $350,000 home noticed an unusual slope of the floor. The contractor had made revisions to essays on peter pan, the original design and a second floor bearing wall now sat on the first floor joists and caused the floor to sag.
Our assistance led to a resolution due to the difficulty the defense felt they would have disputing our findings. Penn DOT District 08 Office Building Renovation Expansion and renovation of an existing state office building. Added an assignment entrance elevator and first floor lobby which required retrofitting the existing structure to tie in the elevator shaft. Strengthened the roof framing system to charles darwin essay, install mechanical equipment on papers online, the roof. Strengthened an Physiology existing retaining wall adjacent to assignment online, the addition. Pennsylvania State Police Academy , Hershey, PA. Addition of charles evolution classroom and barracks space to the existing police barracks. The structure consists of metal deck roof over long span steel joints. The second floor is formed with a concrete topping over metal deck supported by steel joints and structural steel beams.
The lateral system consists of assignment papers online structural steel frames in both directions supported by concrete spread footings. Piedmont Hawthorne , Middletown, PA. Provided analysis of long span trusses in an existing airport hanger for the installation of full protection based on OSHA requirements. Messiah Old Main, Admission Building , Grantham, PA. Bad Effects Essays? Provides structural engineering and design services for the additions of papers online offices to an existing building on bad effects of internet, the campus of online Messiah College . Framing consists of structural steel frame with bar joist and metal deck roof, and a second floor framed with structural steel and concrete over metal deck and bar joist supported in spread footings. CSR Shredder, Harrisburg, PA. Provided design and engineering for a scrap yard to install an entropy analysis of spm patterns case bay automobile shredder. Design included special foundations installed as “rock columns.” The control building and sort buildings were all framed with structural steel and concrete over metal deck flooring and metal deck roofing over rolled sections. St. Assignment Papers? Paul United Methodist Church , Elizabethtown, PA. Expansion and renovation of a existing church.
Added a grand entrance which required large openings introduced into the front of the existing bearing wall. The addition was two stories and was framed with exterior masonry bearing walls, concrete over evolution essay, metal deck and bar joist supported floor and a metal deck and assignment online joist roof. We assisted the contractor with a shoring of the existing masonry fill tower to with essay, allow for the addition of entrances to the new addition from the existing building. Messiah College , Greenhouse, Grantham, PA. Papers? Additions of a greenhouse to Kline Science Hall required the analysis of an aluminum framed structure supported by a half height masonry wall. Darwin Evolution? Snow drift from the adjacent structure required tighter spacing of frames adjacent to the existing building. United Way Headquarters, Enola, PA.
Two story office building framed with structural steel. Assignment? The roof is metal deck over bar joists. The second floor is concrete topped metal deck over bar joists and structural steel. The foundation system is concrete spread footings. Associated Pennsylvania Constructors, Harrisburg, PA. Structural and architectural rehabilitation of a concrete framed structure.
Provided repair details and specifications which allowed multiple bidders with a fast tracked schedule. Hershey Entertainment Resorts Company (HER), Hershey Arena, Hershey, PA. Preliminary Design Study of a tubular steel space frame for a pedestrian bridge spanning 120 feet over seven lanes of essays traffic. Memorial Hall Expansion, Hershey, PA. Addition of assignment a long span structure to clear span a new natatorium, gymnasium, and Exercise auditorium. Also included structural interface addition with the existing structure and the addition of a new classroom and cafeteria, as well as the renovation of an existing space to modify the function. HER, The Bears’ Den Sports Bar, Hershey, PA. Structural design of new Sports Bar at the Hershey Lodge and Convention Center. Milton S. Hershey School , Founder’s Hall, Air Handling Unit Replacement, Hershey, PA . Due to the renovations required in portions of Founder’s Hall, new Air Handling Units needed to be installed as well as new vent grills to allow for high outside air requirements.
Structural analysis and modifications were required to accommodate the new vents and installation of the new mechanical equipment. Installation of long span lintels were designed to limit the papers deflection of the exterior masonry stone and to anchor the stone at the opening perimeter to the structural steel frame. Milton S. Hershey Schools , Hershey, PA. Conducted a Central Plant Study in an effort to examine the feasibility of utilizing the plant in the renovation of an existing school. Structural considerations were made in in chinese the running of piping from the central plant over a pedestrian bridge crossing a small stream. Outlook Pointe: Garden City, MI / Sagamore Hills, Westerville , Centerville , Hilliard , OH / Creekview, PA Assisted living facilities similar in nature for the Balanced Care Corporation.
Approximately 70,000 square foot each, 2-storys tall. The structural system is a combination of Cold Formed Steel bearing walls on CMU foundation walls and continuous footings. Papers? The 2nd floor is charles evolution essay concrete topping over metal deck, bar joists, and structural steel. Steel columns bear on shallow depth spread footings. The roof is sheathed with plywood and supported by prefabricated wood roof trusses. Lateral loads are taken out through exterior cross braced walls and CMU stair and assignment papers online elevator towers. Outlook Pointe – Loyalsock, North Cornwall, Johnstown, PA. Assisted living facilities, approximately 30,000 square foot each, 1 – story. The structural system is a combination of Exercise Cold Formed Steel bearing walls on CMU foundation walls and continuous footings.
The roof is assignment papers online sheathed with plywood and essays supported by a prefabricated wood roof truss system. Lateral loads are taken out through exterior cross braced walls. Dauphin Deposit Bank Renovation. Various site investigations and evaluations as well as preparation of contract documents for the repair and modification of approximately 5 older buildings at the corner of 2nd and assignment online Market Streets Harrisburg. The existing buildings are constructed of mass brick masonry bearing walls, wood floor joist and deck as well as structural steel and concrete deck. Royal Oaks at Bent Creek, Penna. Assisted Living Facility for the Basile Corporation. 72,000 square foot, 2-story structure. The roof is framed with plywood over long span wood trusses resting on perimeter and interior steel beams and coping stress essay columns. The floor is framed with a 4 inch concrete topping over metal decking supported by assignment, open web steel bar joists and steel beams and columns.
The Foundation is spread footings and grade beams founded below frost. The lateral system for the building is charles evolution comprised of wood shear trusses connected to papers, cross braced steel frames and entropy analysis patterns reinforced CMU stair towers and online elevator core. Edwards – Keyport, N.J. Darwin Evolution Essay? / Giant – Mechanicsburg / Giant – Gettysburg / Giant – Pennsboro Commons Grocery Stores, 55, 000 sq. ft. to 65,000 sq. ft.. The roof is constructed of metal roof decking over long span steel bar joists supported by long span girder trusses. Assignment Online? The roof framing is supported by charles darwin evolution, columns at the sides with masonry bearing at the front and the rear of the store.
There is a second floor for the office staff and a mechanical mezzanine in assignment online the rear of the store for mechanical equipment. The second floor is essays composite beam and deck. The lateral system for the building is the exterior reinforced CMU shear walls. Giant – Allentown / Giant – Yardley / Edwards – Philipsburg, N.J. Renovation to existing grocery stores.
The owner; Giant Food Stores made renovations to enlarge the retail floor space as well as improve the entrance and the dock areas. Floor plans required that beams be strengthened, columns were moved, footings strengthened. The existing retail spaces needed to be kept in service during construction which required eccentric wall footing design. Brenner Dodge Renovation of the showroom and assignment facade, enlargement of the body shop and essays on peter pan creation of papers online a customer service area to improve drop off and analysis of spm patterns case bay pick up of the customers vehicle. The structures were constructed with metal deck roofing over bar joists and structural steel. The new construction was erected to maintain a separate lateral system from the existing construction. Worked closely with the General Contractor in a design build format as they uncovered unforeseen conditions I would help resolve the papers issues.
United States Postal Service Distribution Center – Frederick, Md. Design Build Expansion to an existing distribution facility. The roof was constructed using metal deck over open web steel bar joists, supported by steel columns and spread footings. Physiology? Unique modifications required grade beams to straddle existing foundations. Details included interfacing with a pre-cast wall system and grade beams to avoid bearing on existing foundations. Provided a rigid frame at papers online the exterior facade to darwin essay, allow for assignment future expansion of the facility. Giant – Westminster , Penna. Renovation to an existing grocery stores. The owner; Giant Food Stores made renovations to enlarge the retail floor space as well as improve the entrance and bad effects the dock areas. Floor plans required that columns be relocated.
Otterbien Methodist Church Education Center: New construction of assignment a Church and School. The exterior is brick faced with a reinforced concrete masonry backup wall. The roof of the church is heavy timber decking supported by coping with essay, prefabricated Glue Laminated Tudor Arches and beams. The school roof is flat and will be supported by plywood decking over custom prefabricated wood trusses bearing on reinforced concrete masonry. The structure will sit on concrete spread footings. Fink Elementary School: Renovation and addition to an elementary school.
The new construction will consist of assignment papers a metal deck roof supported by open web steel joists and load bearing reinforced concrete masonry units on concrete spread footings. Woolworth Warehouse, Shiremanstown, Pa. Structural evaluation of an existing warehouse roof framing system to provide a monitoring system to prevent excessive deflections due to snow loading. Develop recommendations to essays in chinese, strengthen the structure and remedial steps to alleviate the ponding and overloading of the roof. Mechanicsburg Navy Depot Bldg.’s 310 311: Evaluate an existing wood frame structure to take new furniture loads. Bldg. 210: Investigate the cause of the papers online cracking in an existing 45 foot tall reinforced masonry fire wall. Capitol Complex Fire Safety Improvements Addition of essays pan fire access stairway in the State Capitol Building . The existing structural system was constructed with structural hollow tile floor with steel beams.
Renovations to Patterson Hall, Penn State University , University Park Pa. Addition of a mezzanine hung from the inside of the structural steel trusses. Holland Tunnel Vent Buildings Architectural and assignment Structural Rehabilitation The buildings originally constructed in Exercise Physiology the 20’s were deteriorated. Most of the damage was exterior cracks on the mass masonry walls. The buildings were constructed from structural steel with concrete floors and shotcrete for assignment the liners of the ventilation stacks pulling air from the tunnels. The top of the ventilation stacks were deteriorated and needed to be replaced. It was determined that it would be cost effective to on peter pan, replace the limestone in these areas with a simulated limestone pre-cast concrete panel.
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Lincoln Tunnel Vent Buildings Architectural and Structural Rehabilitation. Renovated the coping with exterior of the vent buildings similar to the Holland Tunnel but much smaller in scale. May’s Chapel Reservoir Additions Two 900 SF reservoirs, one new reservoir and an addition of roof to an existing reservoir. Designed the pre-cast concrete roof double T’s, inverted T girders and the columns and assignment papers foundations for Exercise the existing reservoir. The foundation was constructed with piles at papers the exterior and analysis study of liverpool bay spread footings on the interior. Hayden District Garage Bus Facility Expansion Addition of garage space to an existing bus facility. The roof was supported with long span roof trusses fabricated from structural T shapes and angles. They were supported with structural steel columns resting on a caisson supported structure. Port Authority Bus Terminal Rehabilitation Reviewed the online jacking system that was used to elevate the bad effects of internet pre-cast concrete beams to repair the bearing pads. Cozine Bus Garage, New York City Transit Authority Addition of garage and a second story office space to an existing garage.
The roof was supported with long span roof trusses fabricated from structural T shapes and angles. They rest on assignment, structural steel columns resting on a pile supported foundation. The Harrison Street Water Facilities, Elizabethtown Water Company, Princeton, New Jersey Renovation of the filter house adjacent to the clear well. The facade of the building was displaced due to inadequate design features and non conforming construction. The building was stabilized with the addition of Exercise structural steel supports erected on papers, the interior face. Pennsylvania Air National Guard Comm. Electronics Training Complex, State College . Pa. Estimated Construction Cost $8,500,000.00 Total Square Foot: 45,000 SFThe facility consists of three separate buildings: a two story office building, a single story maintenance shop, and a single story warehouse. The project was set up so that each building could be bid separate or all together.
The buildings are framed with metal deck roofs supported by essays on peter, long span open web steel joists bearing on perimeter 12 inch thick insulated concrete masonry walls. On the interior the joists are supported on structural steel beams and columns. The foundation consists of a continuous perimeter wall footing with spread footings under the interior steel columns. The floor system in the office building is supported by papers, composite joists. The top chord is made composite with the concrete topping by welding studs to the top chord of the open web steel joist. The composite vehicle maintenance building houses adjustable hydraulic lifts, a three ton capacity bridge crane supported by an independent structural steel frame and a two ton capacity monorail hoist supported from the open web steel joists. Exercise Physiology? The warehouse includes a small arms vault. The warehouse floor was designed for papers online forklift loads. The exterior walls were designed for retaining soil due to charles, the sloping site. Septa Bus Garage Expansion, Philadelphia Pa.
Developed details to renovate the exterior brick and CMU walls of the bus garage. Atlantic City Bus Terminal, Atlantic City New Jersey Design build competition involved the assignment use of long span cantilever sections with a structural steel frame for the concourse. This was all designed to bear on spread footings. Port Authority Of New York And New Jersey Tunnel Inspection Report Inspected the tunnel walls and ceiling slab above the duct banks in the tunnel under the of internet essays Hudson River . Pennsylvania Turnpike Tunnel Inspection Blue Mountain and online Kittatinny Tunnels Inspected the analysis of spm patterns case study of liverpool bay tunnel walls, ceiling slab and ventilation ducts. Norristown Water Treatment Plant, Pennsylvania – American Water Company Expansion to the facilities supporting the water treatment plant. Continuous Quality Improvement Training Participated in a two day seminar on assignment, the quality improvements process as it relates to the consulting engineering business. Confined Space Training Participated in a two day seminar on the proper procedures for essays pan the entrance into a confined space. University of Hawaii Nursing Building Renovation Renovation of an existing four story classroom and assignment office building on the campus of the essays University of Hawaii . The existing structure is cast in place concrete with pre-cast beams, cast in assignment place slabs and columns. Due to charles evolution essay, the increase in floor loading in some areas the main girders needed to assignment online, be strengthened to meet the current code requirements for shear strength. Bad Effects Of Internet? Addition of a new mechanical building adjacent to house the new chillers and cooling towers for the air condition system. University of Hawaii, Hawaii Institute of Geophysics Renovation and seismic upgrade of an existing three story pre-cast / cast in place concrete research facility.
Hawaii Cane and Sugar Federal Credit Union A two story structure, framed with engineered plywood web I-joists and online glue laminated beams, wood and steel columns. Lateral support is provided by rigid steel tube frames and wood shear walls all on a concrete foundation. Blast Wall for entropy analysis of spm of liverpool the Silver crest Housing Project Design of a 25 foot high earth and concrete counter fort blast wall to resist an equivalent of 50 lbs. of TNT. The wall served as separation and protection from the possible explosion of natural gas tanks adjacent to assignment papers online, the site of bad effects of internet essays a four story HUD housing project. Waikiki Aquarium Animal Glass Enclosure Design of a tempered glass railing system to contain monk seals at the Waikiki Aquarium. The design specification required the dynamic loading of a 500 lb. monk seal colliding with the glass at approximately 12 mph. as well as other load cases which were not as severe. Four Meter Telescope at assignment Haleakala for the United States Air Force Prepared the lateral analysis for the use of tilt up wall construction for the building to house the telescope. Essays In Chinese? Performed the preliminary lateral analysis for the design of an online adjacent one story ice storage facility.
Salvation Army Facility – Kauai Addition and renovation to a one story wood and CMU structure. The roof is to be constructed with long span wood trusses to provide for essays a large meeting space. A’ala Market A one story structure with a panelized wood roof on post and beams. The lateral loads are taken through the perimeter CMU walls. The CMU walls were designed with the slender wall design criteria of the 1988 UBC.
For cost evaluation the foundation was designed with both grade beams at the property line retaining wall and the use of stepped footings. The building has a large freezer and required thermal separation of the freezer floor from the ambient ground temperature. Waioli Tea Room Renovation Renovation and structural evaluation of an existing termite damaged wood framed restaurant to take roof loads due to new mechanical equipment. Gaspro Warehouse Relocation and Site Evaluation Relocation of online a prefabricated metal building. Design of the vertical and essays in chinese lateral system to assignment papers, divide the case study of liverpool building along the ridge to make it into two separate buildings. The structure is supported laterally by modified rigid frames in the strong direction and by online, rod bracing in the transverse direction. The foundation was designed to resist the wind up lift and the rigid frame kick force at the supports for the frame. Waste Management Hawaii Renovation Renovation of an existing prefabricated metal building to add office and industrial space in a second floor added a 2 ton jib crane with foundation to be used in lifting of essays in chinese diesel engines. Royal Kunia Golf Course Clubhouse Design of a three building complex. The main building is framed with a heavy timber roof bearing on assignment, both cantilevered concrete columns and bad effects essays concrete masonry block walls all on spread footings.
The other two structures have roofs framed with engineered plywood web I-joists and glue laminated beams. These are supported by steel tube columns at the interior and CMU at the exterior. Pukalani Townhomes Design development of papers online approximately 25 multi-family two story wood framed town homes on the Island of Maui . The sloping site condition warranted the with stress essay use of braced post and beam construction to frame the assignment online first floor. Of Spm Bay? Portions of the structure are to be prefabricated on the mainland and shipped to Maui for final assembly on site. The addition of assignment online prefabrication to the design process presented unique considerations to the framing of Exercise Physiology this wood structure. The lateral system is constructed with panelized wood exterior shear walls and gypsum board interior shear walls. Symphony Park Plaza A luxury condominium project in downtown Honolulu . The project consists of a 43 story residential tower with a 6 level parking garage adjacent to the tower.
The structure is online regularly reinforced concrete, the building’s foundation was designed to rest on end bearing piles with pile caps and grade beams to carry the column and wall loads. The structural slab in the tower was designed as a one way flat slab and essays the parking garage was designed as a two way flat slab. Assignment Papers Online? The tower was designed with the use of wind tunnel testing and also dynamic analysis of Exercise both the wind and seismic forces. The lateral design was done using ETABS software and papers 1988 UBC Zone 2A seismic forces. Nauru Phosphate Royalties Condominium A luxury condominium project in downtown Honolulu . The project consists of essays a 43 story residential tower with a 6 level parking garage adjacent to the tower. Our firm was selected to perform the structural design of the tower. Assignment? The tower is reinforced concrete, the buildings foundation was designed to rest on end bearing piles with pile caps and grade beams to carry the column and essays in chinese wall loads.
The structural slab in the tower was designed as a one way flat slab given the unique half circle floor plate and relatively short spans between interior unit walls. Federal Express South Ramp Development This is to be Federal Expresses Operations facility at the Honolulu International Airport . The project consists of three buildings: the ramp facility, the city station and the sort facility. Papers Online? Two of the structures are to be long span rigid steel frames with cold formed steel roof purlins and wall girts. The city station was constructed of Exercise reinforced masonry with a timber roof and panelized wood roof deck. The metal buildings rest on both spread footings and assignment papers online grade beams which are used both as gravity support and also as dead men for analysis case study of liverpool the overturning due to wind forces.
Longs Drug Wahiawa This is a drug store within the Wahiawa Town Center . Online? The building has a large sales floor with a mezzanine for Physiology offices and heavy storage. The building is constructed of reinforced concrete masonry support walls using the slender design provisions of the 1985 UBC. Papers Online? The roof of the structure is a panelized wood diaphragm with long span glue lam beams that frame into standard steel pipe columns that rest on spread footings. Kenny’s Restaurant Kaneohe This is the essays in chinese first prototype in assignment online a planned expansion of the Kenny’s Restaurant chain. The building is constructed of reinforced concrete masonry exterior walls and on peter has a structural timber mezzanine and assignment online pitched wood roof. Outrigger West Hotel, Pool Deck Repair Corrosion investigation and repair of reinforced concrete pool and lanai decking. Developed the structural steel shoring for the construction period and details and on peter plans for the repair of the damaged area. Outrigger Reef Hotel, Column Repair Corrosion investigation and papers online repair of reinforced concrete columns at the foundation level of a multistory ocean- front Waikiki resort hotel. Sheraton Kauai Hotel Renovation Renovation and expansion of a low rise wood structure. Ameron Concrete Batch Plant Kaneohe Design and construction documents for a temporary mat footing supporting a portable concrete batch plant.
Hapuna Beach Resort 300 room resort hotel located on the Big Island of Hawaii. The six guest wings were each six stories and were designed for seismic zone 3. Performed a three dimensional analysis using the ETABS computer program for the guest wings. Ritz Carlton Kapalua 552 room luxury hotel on the Island of Maui . The 6 story guest towers were bearing wall concrete with a one way flat slab. The ballroom and back of house were designed using both concrete and structural steel. In Chinese? The lateral system was done using the ETABS program. McDonalds at Kahana Gateway, Maui Utilized McDonald’s standardized drawings for the basis of design of the papers structure with the stress essay addition of a customized wood roof that served as a facade for the mechanical equipment. Ena Road Documentation report of an existing apartment building adjacent to a construction site where pre-cast concrete piles were to be driven. Waikele Golf Clubhouse Three story club house with below ground golf cart storage. The Main level was designed using regular reinforced concrete beams and pre-cast planks. The mezzanine level and roof were a combination structural steel, glue lam beams and online structural lumber.
Sizzler Steak House One story wood structure with a flat wood roof diaphragm on engineered wood I-joists and plywood shear walls. Waiehu Beach Center Renovation of an essays existing one story wood structure and the addition of a second floor above the existing roof using glue lam beams and structural lumber. Ameron Tunnel Repairs Site investigation of corrosion damage to a conveyor belt service tunnel supporting aggregate bins. Designed a replacement roof structure for the service tunnel and performed construction inspection of work as it progressed. Kahana Gateway Development consisted of three structures, commercial, professional, and assignment online residential. All three buildings were constructed of analysis patterns case bay wood with some use of reinforced concrete and CMU. I administrated the construction of the project and assignment papers online helped the in chinese contractor resolve field conditions. Liberman Residence Two story wood framed residence on spread footings. Mililani Recreation Center Single story recreation facility, long span open web steel joists with metal deck on roof and steel framing. Plywood shear walls all on spread footings.
Palms At Waelae Multi-family housing project. Designed the assignment papers online recreation facility and all exterior stairs to the units. The recreation center was designed as reinforced flat slab with reinforced masonry walls and columns. The roof is analysis study wood framed and assignment papers online the foundation is reinforced concrete spread footings. Earle M. Bad Effects Of Internet? Jorgensen Steel Warehouses Office Two rigid frame buildings with metal deck roof on cold formed Z-purlins.
The rigid frame is tied at the base with reinforced concrete tie beams to reinforced concrete spread footings. The office structure was also a rigid framed building, with the papers addition of coping with stress a second floor constructed of composite metal deck on steel framing. Repairs to papers, Pier 52 53 Honolulu, Hawaii Demolition of damaged bull rail on shipping pier, patch with epoxy based patching compound. Repairs to reinforced concrete curb around bollards. Plaza Bridge Repairs Honolulu, Hawaii Designed the repair of coping with bridge stringers that had corroded by the addition of continuously welded scab plates on the bottom flanges of the assignment papers online bridge.
Addition of cross bracing to replace damaged cross bracing. Entropy Analysis Bay? Repair of expansion joints in plaza deck to stop leakage problem. Konishki Residence Single family residence, with wood roof, reinforced CMU walls, flat slab on second floor, all on spread footings. Association of Retarded Citizens of Hawaii Group Home Halfway house for retarded citizens. Wood framing on spread footings. Site retaining walls and property line retaining walls. Warehouse for Daniel and Nancy Han Rigid framed building with metal decked roof on online, cold formed Z-purlins. Tied at base with tie beam on spread footings. Submarine Base Bowling Center Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Rigid framed building with metal deck roof on cold formed Z-purlins.
Frame tied at base with tie beam on spread footings. Hyatt Regency Kauai Luxury class hotel on the island of entropy analysis patterns case bay Kauai . Designed the auxiliary buildings. Auxiliary buildings were all similar in construction. The subsurface buildings were constructed of reinforced concrete. The roofs of the subsurface buildings are flat slabs. The columns and load bearing interior walls were all reinforced concrete on spread footings. Assignment? The above ground structures have wood roofs on reinforced concrete columns or braced pole columns both on coping, spread footings. 2001 Eye Street, Washington, DC 12 Story Reinforced concrete office building with 3 levels of below grade parking and 1 level retail. Two way flat slab design, Beams supporting ramps in parking levels and in areas of heavier loading.
Tie beams for assignment papers sloped columns in parking garage to coping with, accommodate the papers transition from the office space above to parking garage below. The basement perimeter walls were designed as retaining for construction purposes. The lateral system was a concrete moment frame utilizing the equivalent frame structure. Structural steel framing was used for the mechanical spaces and architectural dormers on roof. 1310 G. Street, Washington, DC 13 Story reinforced concrete office building with 3 levels of below grade parking. Essays? Similar to the design of 2001 Eye St. with the exception of the mat foundation design due to papers online, a bearing pressure of only in chinese, 2000 psf. Goodwin Square, Hartford, CT 28 Story hotel and office complex with renovation of existing buildings and integration of new structures. Assignment Papers Online? Designed spread footings, reinforced concrete columns, steel base plates for steel structure above 9th floor and wind analysis on structural steel framing for the Cupola. Colorado Center, Denver, CO 22 Story reinforced concrete office building. Performed the preliminary wind study using ANSI and BOCA loading criteria. Land Bay Five, Fairfax, VA 5 Story office building with steel frame and composite metal deck.
The steel frame was braced in the weak direction and a frame in the strong direction. The floor system was composite steel beam. PURDUM JESCHKE CONSULTING ENGINEERS. Security Gate, Marine Barracks, Washington, DC Structural design of crash barriers and blast protection for Marine Barracks. David Taylor Naval Science Research and Development Center Structural design of addition to a 1 story existing facility.
Metal roof with open web joists and in chinese CMU walls.
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Fair Trade - In or Against the Market ? “Before you’ve finished your breakfast this morning, you’ll have relied on half the world.” Martin Luther King. Fair Trade is the most important and fastest growing market-based mechanism to assignment online, improve the lives of producers in developing countries. Exercise Physiology! It does so by assignment papers, offering small-scale producers in the global south fairer trade relations, including a guaranteed minimum price above world price and developmental support. Global Fair Trade sales have reached € 1.1 billion (US$1.4 billion), increasing at rates of around 50 percent per year and are projected to continue to grow. Bad Effects! Fair Trade bananas have a market share of 56 percent in Switzerland and the U.S.
Fair Trade coffee market has been growing nearly 90 percent per year since Fair Trade coffee was launched in 1998 (Max Havelaar, 2006; TransFair USA, 2005). The success of Fair Trade is reiterated time over time by a variety of personalities and institutions, ranging from advocates of Fair Trade in assignment online, the North and producers in coping with stress, the South to such prominent promoters of trade liberalization as the G 8 and assignment papers online the European Commission. 1 The general feeling of euphoria is captured by one of the pioneers of the Fair Trade movement, Carol Wills, on a conference in the European Parliament in of internet, June 2005: “Fair Trade works! It works for poor people; it works for assignment papers online, consumers. It works as a business model; it works as sustainable development; it works to protect the environment; it works as an idea!” (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005). However, one could wonder what this is all about. After all, Fair Trade started as an alternative to free trade, explicitly focusing on of internet, solidarity and assignment the well-being of producers and rejecting classical economic notions of competition, the self-regulation of the market and sometimes even employing anti-capitalist rhetoric. How should one asses that at the G8 summit 2005 in Gleneagles leaders of essays on peter those economically dominant countries that are continually held responsible for global trade injustices (often by assignment online, actors and organizations in the Fair Trade movement) formally acknowledged the growing success of global Fair Trade and said in their final statement that they “welcome the growing market for Fair Trade goods and their positive effect in supporting livelihoods and increasing public awareness of the of spm patterns of liverpool positive role of trade in development”? (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005: 4). Or, even more disturbing, how should one think about the fact that Nestlé, famously 2005’s “least responsible company” worldwide and assignment online as one of the four big roasters responsible for essays in chinese, the coffee crisis that impoverishes millions of producers, prides itself of launching a Fair Trade brand in Britain (Nestlé, 2005)? The sentiments and reactions of many people working in the field are nicely summarized by John Hilary, policy director at War on Want: “The Fair Trade movement was set up to challenge the papers practices of companies like Nestlé. Of Internet! How can such a company deserve the Fair Trade mark?” (Vidal, 2005).
In this paper I will try to asses if Fair Trade really works for assignment papers, all and even more importantly how it works for Exercise, the different participants of papers online Fair Trade, mainly consumers and producers and what the wider effects of Fair Trade are. Exercise! As a framework of reference I will employ a tension between two visions of Fair Trade that underlie contemporary debates in the Fair Trade movement as well as in the growing literature about Fair Trade. At the one extreme a pragmatic position interprets Fair Trade as a developmental tool to assignment online, increase the entropy case of liverpool bay standard of living for disadvantaged producers in developing countries by making neoliberal free trade work the assignment papers online way it is supposed to Exercise Physiology, work. At the other extreme a more idealistic vision sees Fair Trade as a practical critique of the neoliberal free trade model that aims at online, transforming the capitalist market through alternative trading practices. Since these visions are at least in entropy analysis of spm study, tension with each other, if not inherently contradictory, the question is: what is assignment papers online Fair Trade really?
Is Fair Trade a neoliberal solution to current market failures for small scale producers in the global south that works within and thus perpetuates the free trade and coping with free market regime? Or is Fair Trade a practical tool of social change that challenges neoliberal trading practices and more generally aims at online, transforming free market and free trade? This paper will argue that these dichotomous visions are useful in terms of conceptualizing different possible trajectories but that they are both two one sided and extreme. Fair Trade is neither a purely neoliberal and free market solution to certain market failure nor a tool to entirely transform capitalist free market relations. In Chinese! Rather, I will argue with Polanyi, Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against destructive effects of unrestricted market forces that tries to re-embed the economy. As such it is a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors that brings about papers multiple and partly contradictory effects on different levels. I will first describe what Fair Trade is how it is defined, how it works, how big it is today and what problem it tries to address. I will then analyze the two vision of of internet Fair Trade in more detail to specify and contextualize the question this paper tries to answer. The central part of the paper tries then to assess the impact Fair Trade has, first on the level of producers and producer communities and secondly the socio-cultural, political and assignment papers economic impact on the free trade market in general. And in the end I will propose a theoretical framework of Fair Trade that tries to avoid the strict dichotomy of the two visions. 2. 1. Definition, Functioning and Scope of Fair Trade.
During its long history there have been many different definitions of Fair Trade, but in an attempt to come up with an understanding that can be widely accepted, an informal network of the most important Fair Trade organizations called FINE produced the following definition in 2001: 2 “Fair Trade is a trading partnership, based on dialogue, transparency and in chinese respect, that seeks greater equity in international trade. It contributes to sustainable development by offering better trading conditions to, and securing the rights of, marginalized producers and workers - especially in online, the South. Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in essays on peter, campaigning for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). The goals of Fair Trade that are implicit in this definition have been laid out by assignment online, Redfern and Snedker in a 2002 report of the International Labour Organization (ILO) as being: To improve the livelihoods and well-being of producers by improving market access, strengthening producer organizations, paying a better price and essays providing continuity in the trading relationship.
To promote development opportunities for disadvantaged producers, especially women and indigenous people, and to protect children from exploitation in assignment papers online, the production process. To raise awareness among consumers of the negative effects on producers of international trade so that they exercise their purchasing power positively. To set an example of partnership in trade through dialogue, transparency and respect. To campaign for coping with essay, changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade. To protect human rights by promoting social justice, sound environmental practices and economic security” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 11). Historically Fair Trade evolved out of papers a range of faith-based and secular alternative trading organizations (ATOs) that can be traced back to relief efforts after World War II. Charities in Western Europe like Oxfam began importing handicrafts from producers in Eastern Europe and in the United States the Mennonites started to buy products from Puerto Rico in what would become Ten Thousand Villages (Redfern Snedker, 2002; Low Davenport, 2005, Kocken, 2003). The Fair Trade movement developed from coping, these charities that understood themselves as radically opposed to the market over several stages into the mainstream.
Fair Trade has thereby changed in a variety of ways, the most import shift being that “Fair Trade has moved from being purely an papers online activist-led advocacy and empowerment model towards being a market-led commercial success story” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 13). This shift was mirrored in the change of name and discourse from “alternative” to “fair” trade (Low Davenport, 2005: 147). Especially after the establishment and international harmonization of labelling organizations in the 1990s Fair Trade has experienced enormous growth rates and since the 2000s, Fair Trade is entering a new stage of becoming a serious option for many mainstream retailers (Krier 2005, 5). The most important labelling organizations are organized under the umbrella of the evolution essay Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO). FLO was formed in 1997 out of online 14 national labelling organizations with the aim of collaborating on defining international Fair Trade standards, certifying and auditing Fair Trade producers organizations and traders and on providing support to producer organizations that need external help (FLO, 2005a: 23). Today 20 national labelling organizations joined FLO-International (FLO, 2006). These marks in the U.S. and Germany for example called TransFair and in essays, the Netherlands and Switzerland called Max Havelaar guarantees independent third party auditing of Fair Trade products. However, due to the complex and expensive process of getting the mark, not all Fair Trade products are sold under these labels Tradecraft for example, the largest Fair Trade company in the UK, offers most of its products without it (Nichols Opal, 2005: 11). 3. In operational terms Fair Trade is characterized by several key practices that are practiced by the labelling organizations as well as by papers, the alternative trading organizations that do not participate in certification (Nichols Opal, 2005: 6-7): agreed minimum prices, usually above or independent of world market prices, that allow for a living wage for producers; an emphasis on development and technical support through the payment of a social premium; direct purchasing from producers to charles evolution, shorten the global supply chains and papers online reduce the margins of middle men; transparent and long-term partnerships; provision of credit when requested and pre-financing of up to 60 per cent of the total purchase value; producers are democratically organized, often in a cooperative; sustainable and increasingly organic production is practiced; there are no labour abuses and unionization must me allowed. Since most products are certified through the national labelling organizations this paper will focus on the standards established by analysis patterns case study of liverpool, the FLO.
These standards, which must be met by producer groups, traders, processors, wholesalers and retailers, can be divided into three parts (FLO, 2006; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131): First there are two sets of generic organizational producer standards, one for co-operatives of small-scale producers and family farmers and another one for plantations. Independent small-scale farmers must be organized into assignment online democratically organized cooperatives that transparently account for and distribute the Fair Trade income, especially the coping with social premium. Fair Trade plantations must have a democratically elected worker body or a union that is assignment papers online able to decide on and distribute the Fair Trade social premium (FLO, 2006). Secondly there are several sustainable production requirements. These environmental standards vary by products but in general prohibit the use of pesticides and coping stress require protection of drinking water and endangered resources (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131). And thirdly there are, as the core of assignment Fair Trade, certain trade requirements that govern the relations between producers and importers. Traders have to pay a price to producers that covers the costs of sustainable production and living; they must pay an additional social premium that has to be invest in in chinese, development; they must pay up to 60 percent in advance, when producers ask for papers online, it; and the trading contracts have to essays, allow for long-term planning and assignment online sustainable production practices. And producers have to darwin evolution, meet the above requirements, have to accord with the labour standards of the International Labour Organization and have to meet certain quality requirements (FLO, 2006).
These trade standards vary by product and are determined by the labelling organizations and the quality standards can be extremely specific and rigid. 4 . The minimum price for washed arabica coffee for example is set by the FLO at US$1.21 per pound (455 gram) in Central America, Mexico, Africa and Asia (and at US$1.19 for South America and the Carribean). In addition to assignment papers, this minimum price producers get US$0.15 per pound for certified organic coffee and a social premium of US$0.05 per pound for all coffee. And if the market price is Physiology higher than the Fair Trade minimum price, the assignment papers online market price applies but the social premium is still paid on top of the market price (FLO, 2005b). This means that while the coffee price in 2004 on the conventional market averaged at US$0.76 per Exercise pound, Fair Trade cooperatives were paid a guaranteed price of US$1.26 for conventional and US$ 1.41 for coffee that is papers online also certified organic (TransFair USA, 2005). Bad Effects! 5 For other products the standards are very specific and papers complex. For bananas for example the minimum price varies depending on the country from US$5.50 in Colombia and Ecuador to US$7 in the Dominican Republic for a box (18.14 kg) of conventional bananas at the farm gate, with an additional premium of US$1 per box.
Organic bananas from Costa Rica, for example, are measured entirely different and Physiology priced at US$0.15 plus a 3 cent premium per kg (FLO, 2005c). With market prices in Ecuador currently under the assignment papers online official minimum price of US$3 per box this translates into a substantial benefit for Fair Trade producers. 6. In order to coping stress, provide a sense of the scope of Fair Trade it is useful to look at some facts and figures that describe the ‘success story’ of Fair Trade: World wide sales of labelled Fair Trade products are estimated at €1.1 billion for 2005 (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). At the end of 2005 there were 510 producer organizations from more than 50 countries that represent over assignment one million producers and together with their families over 5 million people are integrated into the Fair Trade system and profit from it (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). This makes up a considerable amount of all small scale growers world wide. 7 Between 2003 and 2004 the sales of labelled Fair Trade products grew by 56 percent, exceeding the annual growth of 42 percent between 2002 and entropy case study bay 2003 (FLO, 2006). The growth of Fair Trade sales since 1999 is illustrated in table 1. These growth rates are projected to continue (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 190). The market share of Fair Trade products, on assignment papers, average only amounting to below 3 percent is partly substantial. In Switzerland for example more 56 percent of bananas are Fair Trade and the market share of case study of liverpool Fair Trade ground and roast coffee in online, the UK is 20 percent (Max Havelaar, 2006: 22; Krier, 2005: 30).
The market share of Fair Trade bananas has been estimated by the European Commission Director General for Agriculture to reach at least 10 percent in Europe. Table 1: Sales volume in comparison in million Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006/FLO). (TransFair USA, 2006c). The largest national Fair Trade market is currently the U.S. Coping With Essay! market, amounting in 2004 to €215 million, followed by the U.K. with a market of €206 million and Switzerland with €135 million (FLO, 2005a: 4). Table 2 illustrates how small the amount of Fair Trade products is papers online that consumers buy on average in essays on peter, large economies like the U.S. and Germany compared to Switzerland, thus revealing the immense potential for future growth. While consumers in assignment papers online, Germany for example only spent €0.70 on average on charles darwin essay, Fair Trade products, in the U.K. consumers spent €3.46 and in Switzerland an impressive €18.47 per year (Krier, 2005: 29). Table 2: Average consumption of Fair Trade products per capita in different countries in Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006 / FLO)
The most comprehensive study of the exact facts and figures about Fair Trade organizations is a 2005 study “Fair Trade in Europe” published by the four largest Fair Trade organizations(Krier, 2005). It shows that in Europe alone sales of Fair Trade products amount to a minimum of €660 million in 2005, including €60 million of non-labelled products. Fair Trade sales increased in Europe by 154 percent in the last 5 years or on average 20 percent per year and assignment papers these increases are mostly due to the participation of supermarket chains in Fair Trade. Fair Trade products are available at 79,000 points of sale in Europe, including 55.000 supermarkets. In Europe more than 100,000 volunteers are involved in the 2.800 world shops and the 200 Fair Trade importing organization (Krier, 2005).
In the U.S. the Fair Trade coffee market is with essay growing at astounding rates, since 1998 increasing at an average rate of nearly 90 percent per year. Fair Trade coffee is currently available in 35,000 retail outlets in the U.S. Assignment Online! alone (TransFair USA, 2005; 2006d). There is essays in chinese considerable overlap between certified organic coffee and certified Fair Trade coffee. While in Europe only an estimated 25-45 percent of Fair Trade coffee is also organic, in the U.S. this share is 75-85 percent (Zehner, 2002). 8 There are 5000 to 7000 different Fair Trade products available, 250 of papers which are currently certifiable. Essays! Most of the uncertified products are handicrafts, but the papers online bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide are agricultural products, mostly coffee, bananas, other fruits, tea and with cacao. According to Leatherhead Food International the most important Fair Trade products globally are in bananas (in terms of volume) and coffee (value) (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 191, see also FLO, 2005a). 2. 2. The Problem: The “Un”-Fairness of the papers Neoliberal Free Trade Regime. It is important to understand the Exercise Physiology reasons why we need Fair Trade in the first place. Classical free trade theory, which originates from Adam Smith’s and assignment papers David Ricardo’s theory of Physiology comparative advantage, claims that countries specialize in and export what they are relatively good at producing and they import what they cannot produce sufficiently. Assignment! Since for example the climate in Germany does not allow for the production of analysis of spm study of liverpool coffee and since the infrastructure and the technological advancement for the manufacturing of cars is not developed in Bolivia, both countries benefit from opening their markets for assignment papers, mutual trade.
In theory, free trade is a win-win situation in Physiology, which everyone benefits. But social reality proves the opposite: international trade (among other things) has contributed immensely to the present situation of assignment papers online devastating poverty for bad effects essays, the majority of assignment papers online humanity (McMichael, 2004). And instead of darwin essay increasing the wealth of papers online both trading parties, the relations between producers and consumers in essays on peter, commodity markets like coffee or bananas can be described as a “perverse transfer of wealth, by some of the supermarkets, from papers online, farmers and farm workers of developing countries to the consumers of developed countries” (Tallontire Vorley, 2005: 5). The aggressive liberalization of international trade through international institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund has led to charles darwin, an enormous increase in the volume of trade global trade in assignment papers, 2000 was 22 times the with stress level of 1950 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 17) and world exports have almost doubled over the last decade (HDR, 2005: 114). But global inequality has grown simultaneously so drastically, that many question the basic assumption that trade benefits all. Assignment Papers Online! The United Nations Human Development Report 2005, for example, introduces its section on international trade with a telling quote by entropy of spm patterns case study of liverpool bay, Eduardo Galeano: “The division of labour among nations is that some specialize in winning and others in losing.” And to give a flavour of what the outcome of neoliberal trade is according to this report the “world’s richest 500 individuals have a combined income greater than that of the poorest 416 million. Beyond these extremes, the 2.5 billion people living on less than $2 a day 40% of the world’s population account for 5% of global income. The richest 10%, almost all of whom live in high-income countries, account for 54%.” (HDR, 2005: 4)
There has also been much scholarly attention to a series of commodity crises of assignment papers falling prices and to changes in the structure of the supply chains that further concentrate power and benefits within a few supermarkets based in the Global North. The price index of commodities for example declined by 47 percent between 1982 and 2001, and the present the real prices for darwin essay, key agricultural commodities are near a 30-year low (Vorley, 2003). And the globalization of sourcing, shifting the distribution of assignment papers power along the global supply chain, gave increased leverage to a small group of oligopolistic supermarket chains, the “new gatekeepers” (HDR, 2005: 139). „These companies have tremendous power in their negotiations with producers and they use that power to push the costs and risks of business down the supply chain. Their business model, focused on maximising returns for shareholders and keeping costs competitively low for consumers, demands increasing flexibility through ‘just-in-time’ delivery, but tighter control over inputs and standards, and ever-lower prices“ (Brown, 2005: 3). The squeezing of prices (which are paid on average 45-60 days after delivery; Brown, 2005: 10) and the increased pressures of essays tightly governed product standards and stringent criteria for make it impossible for many small-scale producers to compete on the market (Reardon et al., 2003). Both the commodity crisis of falling prices for agricultural products and the concentration of assignment online power by of internet essays, a few supermarket chains are general patterns in the agricultural industry that are exacerbated in the coffee sector (Lang, 2003). Papers! According to coping stress, a study of the papers online International Coffee Organization (Osorio, 2004) the general price decreases in agricultural products were greatest in coffee. While exporters received US$10-12 billion per year in the 1980s this has dropped to entropy patterns case study of liverpool bay, less then half in 2003 US$5.5 billion. This immense loss in income in developing countries is contrasted with the opposite development in assignment online, high income countries retail sales in consuming countries increased from US$30 billion in the 1990 to around US$80 billion at present (Osorio, 2004: 2).
Low world prices have reduced costs and at the same time boosted profit margins for those five coffee roasters (Philip Morris, Nestlé, Sara Lee, Proctor Gamble and Tchibo) that in 1998 controlled 69% of the world market (the level of concentration seems to be even higher according to more recent studies; Gibbons, 2005). Exporting countries, meanwhile, have seen their share of final consumer expenditure fall from Exercise Physiology, one-third to one-thirteenth (Ponte, 2002). Studies on the impact of falling commodity prices show that especially for assignment online, small-scale producers the effects are disastrous, directly translating into diminished opportunities for human development and increasing poverty (Gibbons, 2005). Small-scale producers of agricultural products in rural societies in many developing countries are confronted with the darwin essay absence of several key conditions on which classical and neo-liberal trade theory is based (Nichols Opal, 2005: 132-54): Many small scale producers face a lack of market access, in terms of transportation, language, education and market information, making it easy for middlemen or big corporations to papers, exploit this uncompetitive situation of ‘monopsony’ (a market situation with only one buyer) and create a race to the bottom. Most producers are excluded from financial markets or insurances and especially the lack of access to credit and the inability to switch to other sources of income in response to price changes make it extremely hard for small-scale producers to survive under the global free trade regime. These market situations reveal important power asymmetries in global commodity markets.
Fair Trade tries to address these difficulties by trading directly with producers, promoting long-term trading relationships and by paying a floor price and a social premium. But what is Fair Trade, conceptually, and what are its effects? Before I will assess the impact and essays on peter functioning of Fair Trade closer I will in the next section systematize the different theories about Fair Trade, particularly distinguishing two different visions. The variety of objectives and characteristics of Fair Trade and the theories about Fair Trade have in the literature been conceptualized in terms of two visions of Fair Trade (Renard, 2003: 91; Moore, 2005: 74; Goodman Goodman, 2001). While the papers first and Exercise Physiology pragmatic position sees Fair Trade as a way to increase the standard of living for assignment online, some of the disadvantaged producers in the South through fairer trade relations, the second and more idealistic positions sees Fair Trade as a means or a tool to charles essay, modify the neoliberal economic model and to transform the entire economy into one in which Fair Trade abandons free trade. 9 And, putting it in a similar dichotomy, whereas some argue that Fair Trade is compatible with the free market claims of assignment online contemporary dominant neoliberal discourse (Nichols Opal, 2005) others claim that Fair Trade promotes “social change” (Taylor, 2005), challenges “abstract capitalist market principles” (Raynolds, 2000: 306) and operates “in and against” the Exercise same global capitalist market that it wants to transform (Brown, 1993: 156). The main dividing line centres around the question if Fair Trade is an attempt to online, bring neoclassical economic theory “closer to reality” (Nichols Opal 2005: 19), or if Fair Trade is a practical critique and departure from coping, free trade theory and practice that opens up an alternative way of trading. Before I will criticize these two conceptions of Fair Trade as both being too extreme and missing the real impact of Fair Trade I will take a closer look at the specific claims these theories make. The moderate view of Fair Trade as perfect neoliberalism argues that the aim of Fair Trade is to create trading conditions that are beneficial rather than exploitative to assignment, the most disadvantaged producers in the Global South.
Nicholls and Opal (2005) argue in their comprehensive account that Fair Trade as “market-driven ethical consumption” (so the subtitle), “by correcting market failures to make the trading system work for everyone [is], in fact, a neo-liberal solution to the problems with trade” (p. 13). Instead of construing Fair Trade, like many others, as opposed to free trade, they argue that Fair Trade “makes the free trade system work the way it is supposed to.” (p. 31). It does so by correcting those market imperfections that characterize agricultural markets for small-scale producers in developing countries.
And this “market-led commercial success story”, so the authors conclusion along the same lines, “works within a capitalist system, rather than abandoning the essays in chinese liberal trade model entirely” (p. 13). Interestingly Paul Rice, president of the U.S. labelling organization TransFair USA seems to assignment papers, share this view. Stress Essay! In the assignment papers 2004 annual report of TransFair he writes: “Fair Trade makes globalization and ‘free trade’ work for the poor” (TransFair USA, 2005). On the other hand, so the more idealistic and radical vision, Fair Trade challenges both theory and practice of neoliberal free trade. Coping With Stress Essay! It does so by criticizing conventional competitive trade relations as “unfair”, as socially and ecologically destructive and by campaigning for assignment papers, broad change in the way trade between the Exercise powerful industrialized countries and the countries of the Third World works. Fair Trade thus recognizes the assignment discrepancy in power between the essays developing and the developed world and it is a practical model of pursuing international trade beyond competition and liberalization. This type of argument often refers to socio-cultural changes in terms of the consciousness of market participants.
Raynolds (2002a) for example analyses Fair Trade in papers online, terms of new kinds of ‘consumer/producer links’ that shorten and humanize the pan supply chain and introduce values such as fairness, equality and assignment global responsibility into the market. And Tallontire (2000) sees this cooperation as a new ‘partnership’. And Raynolds (2000: 306) even argues that the importance of the Fair Trade movement (similar to the global movement for organic agriculture) lies primarily in its ability to challenges the “abstract capitalist market principles that devalue natural and human resources, particularly in countries of the South”. The idea of this line of argument is that consumers as well as producers through participation in Fair Trade change their attitudes towards markets and charles darwin evolution trade in general and that this change of mentality has further implications for the free market in general. Some claims even go as far as Goodman and Goodman (2001: 99) who would prefer to have Fair Trade result in online, a “fundamental transformation of analysis patterns bay capitalist society and its distinctive rationality.” It has been argued that this is an “inherent contradiction of the [Fair Trade] model” (Renard, 2003: 91). This is assignment papers certainly the case, if one constructs Fair Trade as constituting either one of these visions. But as will become clear from the following evaluation of how Fair Trade works in practice, these visions are both too extreme and one sided. The reality of Fair Trade lies somewhere in between: Fair Trade incorporates some elements of the free market and abandons others; with some of its multiple activities Fair Trade stabilizes free trade and analysis of spm case study with others it challenges free trade. The possible impact of Fair Trade, as has been illustrated by online, the two visions about Fair Trade, lies in two different areas: First, Fair Trade is supposed to benefit producers and stress essay the producer communities. This is more or less straightforward and uncontroversial and the results of different case studies will be summarized and assignment papers online systematized in the following section.
The second type of impact Fair Trade allegedly has that it influences free market and free trade in bad effects essays, general is more controversial. In order to assignment papers, analyse this claim I will divide it up in three areas. I will assess the socio-cultural impact of essays pan Fair Trade on producers, consumers and on actors not participating in assignment, the Fair Trade market, analyse the economic impact on of internet essays, the conventional market and papers online see in how far Fair Trade politically challenges the rules of free trade. 4. 1. Impact on Fair Trade Producers. Measuring the impact of essays Fair Trade on the lives of producers is extremely important. Fair Trade claims to be an effective way of improving the living standard of producers in the global south, and consumers buy Fair Trade products in the belief that their purchase is having this developmental effect. In the papers online end all the Physiology money that NGOs, government agencies and private donators give in support of Fair Trade and all the money that consumers of Fair Trade products spend on the higher prices of assignment papers online these products could be spent on of spm patterns study bay, other development projects that might be more effective. In recent years a variety of case studies and survey studies on the impact of Fair Trade have been published, both by academic research groups (at the University of Greenwich, UK and the Colorado State University, USA) and by NGO’s and ATO’s. These studies, most of which are qualitative non-systematic analysis, converge on several general points: Fair Trade has a positive impact on the lives of producers; Fair Trade benefits the producers in assignment papers online, a variety of ways beyond increasing income; and the most pervasive problem is that Fair Trade products make up only a part of the sales of producers. There are some limitations to these impact studies, the most important being that most studies do not compare the changes in incomes and livelihoods of the essays in chinese Fair Trade producers to non-Fair Trade producers and communities (an exception is Bechetti Constatini, 2005) and that it is assignment analytically hard to essays pan, separate the unique contribution of Fair Trade from assignment online, other influences, especially since Fair Trade projects are often supported in various ways by development agencies (Raynolds 2002b).
10 As has been convincingly argued by a survey study of the bad effects of internet United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the assignment papers benefits from developmental aid and from participating in Fair Trade are highly mutually supportive and interlinked (Dankers, 2003: 64). Complicating the evaluation further, some studies and in chinese especially surveys seem to overemphasize the assignment papers positive instances and to leave out some of the more problematic findings. 11. There are a variety of different impacts on producers. The direct impacts include an increase in income due to the Fair Trade minimum price and the social premium; access to credit; improved education; psychological and organizational effects such as producer empowerment and its effect on civic participation (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 204). I will first analyze the benefits from the price premium and other directly financial benefits, I will then assess the non-monetary benefits and the organizational and political impacts of charles darwin essay Fair Trade on producers and finally I will try to online, give a picture of how effective Fair Trade is in transferring money from consumers to producers. 4. Essays! 1. Assignment Online! 1. Of Internet! Benefits from the price premium. Fair Trade producers receive for assignment, their products a floor price, which is, depending on the fluctuations of the world market prices, significantly higher then what conventional buyers pay and an additional social premium.
This price difference is sometimes substantial: due to extremely low world prices, coffee producer organizations for example get at essays in chinese, present around twice the money conventional producers are paid. On an aggregate level the direct benefits of this extra income for producers are impressive: This extra income calculated from the difference of Fair Trade floor prices and world prices for all the certified global retail sales (estimated at US$ 1 billion for assignment, 2004) and the social premium amounted in 2004 to in chinese, US$100 million, so the 2004-2005 annual report of the FLO (FLO, 2005a: 4, 21). And similarly, the extra benefits for coffee farmers during 2003 amount to over US$22 million, if one calculates the difference between the world market price as defined for papers, Arabica by the New York and for coping essay, Robusta by the London stock exchange with the Fair Trade minimum price and premium (FLO, 2006). 12 All these benefits are distributed among the 531 producer organizations that are certified by the FLO, representing over assignment one million farmers and workers and, including their families, five million people are affected by the extra income earned through Fair Trade sales above world prices (FLO, 2006). Just looking at these aggregate numbers this means that in 2004 out of US$100 billion consumers spent on Physiology, Fair Trade products an extra income of almost US$100 on average was transferred to more than one million farmers. On the micro level the picture is, however, more complex. The benefits for assignment papers, individual producers range from doubling their income to just securing their employment without immediate direct benefits.
All studies and surveys conclude that Fair Trade has a positive influence on the income of bad effects of internet essays cooperatives and individual producers, significantly improving their standard of living (Riedel et al, 2005; Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Taylor, 2002; Dankers, 2003). 13 Different studies demonstrate however highly differing results even in terms of the basic financial benefits. This reflects the different particular circumstances of producers and their environment as well as the uneven distribution of Fair Trade benefits among the producers organizations. Let’s look, at some examples: In a cooperative of papers 1500 small coffee producers in Chiapas, Mexico, the individual members received up to 200 percent of the conventional price for their coffee - and essays on peter since coffee incomes made up some 80 percent of family incomes, this made a huge difference (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002: 16, 19). In a coffee cooperative in Costa Rica the individual members earned 25-60 percent more than the local middle men would have paid them and on assignment papers, average 39 percent more then farmers that did not sell on the Fair Trade market (Ronchi, 2002: 10). In a coffee cooperative in essays on peter pan, Bolivia the prices in 2000, compared with the conventional market, ranged from 106 percent to assignment papers, 123 percent for Physiology, Fair Trade, and from 109 percent to online, 195 percent for organic Fair Trade (Dankers, 2003: 59). In one of the only economistic studies on a Fair Trade farm in of spm case of liverpool bay, Kenya Bechetti Constatini (2005) conclude that Fair Trade improved the social and economic well-being and the nutritional life quality and that participation in Fair Trade resulted in a higher perceived income, which they attribute mainly to lower expectations among Fair Trade farmers who had access to complementary welfare services. Several studies emphasize the importance the Fair Trade premium plays in improving the overall economic conditions of a cooperative, such as stabilizing loans, buying new infrastructure or improving the working conditions (Lyon, 2002; Mendez, 2002; Dankers, 2003). The wages at assignment papers, a Fair Trade banana plantation in Ghana, however, were only insignificantly higher than the coping with stress wages of casual labour in the region (Dankers, 2003: 57, 59).
And in a cooperative in El Salvador the online financial benefits of participating in of internet, Fair Trade were only enough for online, outstanding debt servicing, in both cases mainly because only a small percentage of products could be sold on the Fair Trade market (Mendez, 2002). Mutersbaugh (2002) evaluates Oaxacan coffee producers’ participation in alternative trading networks very critically, arguing that what producers find most relevant about darwin essay these networks and dislike most are the expansive and technically demanding aspects of organic certification. As Raynolds (2002b: 14) correctly analyses, Mutersbaugh does however not analytically distinguish between Fair Trade and organic labelling, and assumes incorrectly that costs for certification are paid for by producers. Since most Fair Trade coffee is assignment papers online also certified as organic, it is worth noting that sometimes the coping essay prices paid for organic coffee on the conventional market are as high or higher as the Fair Trade premium for organic coffee (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 11). In addition to the direct monetary benefits from the Fair Trade price premium another important benefit is the provision of credit at reasonable rates and the pre-financing of up to papers online, 60 percent of the essay price of the assignment online purchases, if the cooperative demands that. The provision of credit and prepayment is immensely important and is mentioned in most studies as very positive (Taylor, 2002: 21). A problem that has been reported however is that contrary to the rules of the essays pan different Fair Trade labelling organizations and ATOs the actual payment comes very late, creating immense financial pressures for producers (Lyon, 2002: 32). In a cooperative in El Salvador farmers complained that the payments were usually delayed by papers, more than 3 months, as opposed to payments after 30 days on the conventional market (Mendez, 2002: 19).
The most pervasive problem and at charles essay, the same time the major explanation for the difference in the direct benefits for individual producers and cooperatives is that many Fair Trade producer organizations are only able to sell a small portion of their products on the Fair Trade market. The supply by far outstretches the demand. On a world-wide average Fair Trade producers are only able to online, sell around 42 percent of their product on Exercise, the Fair Trade market (Bechetti Constatini, 2005: 3), while Fair Trade coffee cooperatives are selling half of their crops at Fair Trade prices (Levi Linton, 2003). Online! How this plays out at essays in chinese, an individual level is illustrated by a recent study of Nicaraguan coffee farmers (Bacon, 2005). This study shows that although the price paid for Fair Trade coffee at the farm gate is more then two times higher then for conventional coffee (US$0.84/lb as opposed to US$0.39/lb to an agro export company or US$0.37/lb to a local middleman), the average price for papers, all the of internet essays coffee that Fair Trade farmers get is still very low, only slightly higher then conventional prices and sometimes lower then the monetary production costs (US$0.56/lb as opposed to the conventional average of US$0.40/lb, while the monetary production costs average US$0.49 to 0.79/lb, see p. 505).
Other factors that play into the difference in income revealed by papers online, the case studies are different local price levels for essays on peter pan, conventionally grown products and the fact that depending on the internal organization and the social context of the different cooperatives differing proportions of the extra income are absorbed by administrative activities and communal projects. Some producer groups decide to return most of the extra income to their members, but many decide democratically to retain part of the extra income and use it communally for assignment online, health, education, community projects, debt repayment, infrastructure, organic conversion and technical training (Nicholls Opal, 2005, table 9.2 on p. 206). In evaluating Fair Trade projects it is furthermore crucially important to take the larger social and essays in chinese geographical of papers online a specific cooperative into account. Bacon’s study on Nicaraguan coffee farmers emphasizes correctly, that although the vulnerability of farmers in coping stress essay, the Fair Trade cooperatives to loose their land titles due to low coffee prices is assignment papers four times lower then for farmers selling for the conventional market, the essays on peter pan more important finding is that a vast majority of surveyed farmers, both those selling to Fair Trade and to conventional markets, reported a decline in the standard of living during the last years (Bacon, 2005: 506). And Lewis (2005) points out in his study of the relation between Fair Trade and migration that in the Mexican village he researched the positive effect of Fair Trade organic coffee was outweighed by the negative impact of increased migration patterns. The higher price Fair Trade retailers pay to producer communities has a significant impact on the lives of thousands of small-scale producers. A closer look at different Fair Trade farms and cooperatives shows however that the impact is papers very different depending on a variety of factors. There has not been a systematic comparative account that describes the general patterns of these differences. But all studies point out that the biggest problem for producer communities is that they cannot sell all their products on entropy analysis of spm patterns case, the Fair Trade market.
The fact that most producer groups in papers, different studies emphasize the need to increase the Fair Trade market furthermore reveals the importance participation in and benefits of Fair Trade has for small-scale producers (Murray et al, 2003: 5). Producers not only directly benefits from the extra income or Fair Trade, but also from long-term relationships, improved organization and market information, all of which may affect their non-Fair Trade relations (Nichols Opal, 2005: 202). In several studies psychological benefits like improved self esteem and pride in Physiology, the higher level of control over the value chain are evaluated as very beneficial and important. Papers Online! Murray et al (2003: 8) for example reports from Exercise Physiology, seven case studies with coffee farmers in Latin America that “in case after case, farmers reported that the papers increased attention to charles essay, their farming including the assignment online visits of Exercise Fair Trade and organic inspectors, buyers and even visiting Northern consumers () promoted renewed pride in coffee farming.” (see also Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002: 17). Taylor (2002: 19) found that this increased self esteem “was often manifested in online, producers’ behavior relative to others in their community, such as increased participation in public assemblies.” In other studies these more subtle improvements were only acknowledged by a small minority (e.g. of only 14 % in a case study in El Salvador; Mendez, 2002: 21).
Other indirect benefits of participation in Fair Trade reported in case studies are increased spending on bad effects of internet, education of children (Lyon, 2002: 9; Ronchi, 2002: 8; Murray et al, 2003: 9) and the preservation of indigenous cultures (Murray et al, 2003: 4; Lyon, 2002: 32). It must however be noted that the evidence for the claim that high proportions of the extra income through Fair Trade is assignment papers spent on education and that Fair Trade supports the survival of indigenous cultures is more anecdotal than systematic and that other factors like low success rates in schools or powerful trends like urbanization and Exercise migration may neutralize these impacts (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 209). An important issue in Fair Trade is the apparent gender bias. A variety of studies has shown, that since the income generated from Fair Trade crops is generally controlled by male household members, and since less woman are employed in Fair Trade cooperatives, there is no or little female empowerment or improvement of the livelihoods of woman through Fair Trade (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 208; Tallontire, 2000: 170; Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39). Sometimes more women are employed but men still get the income (Mayoux, 2001). Often specific woman empowerment programs are required by online, the certifiers but the implementation seems hard (Taylor, 2002: 4). Essays On Peter Pan! And as Mayoux (2001) has pointed out, if females are employed in Fair Trade their workload often increases since they are not exempt from household work.
There are however also positive examples: In a producer organization in India in the increased participation of females in the production process had broader impacts like “increase in self-confidence, economic independence, better access to papers online, health, and participation in decision-making in the family, community, and local council” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39; see also Paul, 2005: 148). Many studies emphasize the importance of analysis of spm patterns study bay organizational development through Fair Trade (Ronchi, 2002; Mayoux, 2001; Murray et al, 2003; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Paul, 2005). Papers Online! A report by the FAO that is on peter based on seven case studies concludes for example: “In all the cases involving farmer cooperatives, it is clear that the fair-trade price premium is only part, and often only assignment papers, a small part, of the benefits derived from the fair-trade system. The success in essays pan, self-organization seems to be far more important, resulting in better bargaining positions, better credit worthiness and economies of scale” (Dankers, 2003: 64). Fair Trade certification requires small farmers to assignment papers, be organized in cooperatives and workers to on peter, establish democratically elected bodies to decide on the use of the social premium. It is important to note the mutually supportive effects of Fair Trade and assignment cooperatives. Cooperatives enhance producer power in local markets, increase income for both members and non-members by creating competition to private intermediaries and democratically empower its members to express their voices collectively. Milford (2004) has shown in a study on cooperatives in Chiapas, Mexico, that cooperatives often failed if they were not involved in selling for the Fair Trade market.
If cooperatives are engaged in Fair Trade, they cannot only compete better in the conventional market but Fair Trade also works better in generating cooperative and organizational benefits then other financial and pan developmental support by NGOs or governments (Milford, 2004). Other studies raise doubts about the online accountability and efficiency of cooperatives. A study from a coffee cooperative in Nicaragua argues that the cooperative as a organizational structure “involves an expensive, top-heavy entrepreneurial hierarchy, including a large administrative staff and substantial representation costs for its leaders” (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 42). Several studies revealed a lack of “effective democracy” in large cooperatives and even the emergence of a new “management class” (Dankers, 2003: 64) and there have even been reports of corruption (Lyon, 2002: 35). Other organizational benefits that have been highlighted in several studies are access to essays on peter, market information and the increased credibility of producer organizations that participate in Fair Trade. Online! All these aspects have helped many producer cooperatives their performance in the non-Fair Trade market, often enabling small farmer coffee organizations to establish direct links with foreign companies, sometimes under conditions similar to Fair Trade (Taylor, 2002: 10, 21). With! The organizational strength of Fair Trade cooperatives has helped several producer organizations to papers online, take innovational routes of opening up new market possibilities. La Selva, a coffee cooperative in essays on peter pan, Chiapas, Mexico, for example started to sell their coffee in a Mexican chain of cafeterias, the first of which opened in San Cristóbal de Las Casas in 1994 (Cabanas, 2002: 30). In an interesting article titled Bringing the moral charge home Jaffe et al. (2004) have investigated several Fair Trade initiatives within the South. Realizing that conventional Fair Trade is only able to assignment papers online, benefit a small fraction of cooperatives, civil society organizations and producer groups in Mexico launched their own label called Commercio Justo México in Physiology, 1999 (Jaffe et al, 2004: 184). In 2001 the first coffee was sold under this Mexican domestic label, thus addressing the problems of small producers that sell to the domestic market and changing a situation in which the best coffee products had to be imported (Comercio Justo, 2006).
14 A similar initiative is the network ANEC (National Association of Peasant Marketing Enterprises) that started to sell domestically labelled Tortillas to assignment papers online, counter recent trends of deteriorating quality of corn which were caused by cheap U.S. imports after NAFTA (Jaffe et al, 2004: 186). These initiatives seem very promising and, as Jaffe et al (2004) argue, together with similar attempts in the North they could broaden our understanding of Fair Trade in positive ways. Another interesting aspect of Fair Trade one that is extremely hard to measure and that only charles darwin evolution, few studies take into account are the possible spill-over effects to non-Fair Trade producers and the entire community stemming from the organizational power of Fair Trade cooperatives. There are obvious benefits to the families of producers through the extra income and on the producer communities through the impact of the developmental projects (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 213; Taylor, 2002: 24). Online! In a coffee cooperative in Mexico the members became politicized through their participation in the assemblies. One member reports: “We know that even if La Selva decided to stop selling coffee, the stress essay organization would go on.
We know this because in papers online, the assemblies we discuss the sale of coffee and management of the farms, but also the people are concerned about more wide reaching problems about our relationship with the rest of the patterns case of liverpool world. For example: how the government projects are run, the problems in the Registro Civil (office for births, marriages, and deaths), land tenancy questions, and religious festivals.” (Cabañas, 2002: 30). And a Guatemalan cooperative helped the government in setting up a trash collection program and assignment papers supported community events and the local school with supplies and furniture (Lyon, 2002: 30). In general Fair Trade seems to charles darwin evolution essay, increase what Putnam (2000) called the social capital of communities by thickening organizational structures and strengthening civil society (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 215). Besides the financial benefits Fair Trade thus provides a variety of other benefits, all of which are important to the improvement of the lives of producers. Especially the organizational and cooperative benefits of Fair Trade, even if sometimes not perfectly effective, are crucial in increasing the market power of producers, in providing new sources of income and in strengthening the political struggle of farmers. The gender bias observed in several studies is an issue that must be addressed in the future. There is still a lack of consistent research on the impact and the effectiveness of Fair Trade (Paul, 2005). Especially the attempts to come up with quantifiable methods of calculating if the money spent on Fair Trade products or donated to Fair Trade organizations is well spent, is only in its preliminary stages. Since all the impact studies conclude that the most important benefits of Fair Trade are non-monetary, quantitative assessments can only assignment, capture one part of the entire impact that Fair Trade has on producers (Paul, 2005).
The non-monetary impact on the life of producers is hard to essays, quantify, but the qualitative research summarized above should give some insight. Nicholls Opal (2005: 225) attempted to use a quantitative and highly sophisticated account to assignment online, measure the charles darwin evolution social return on assignment online, investment for a South African wine cooperative and found with this somewhat contingent and problematic method that “for every £1 spent on Fair Trade wine (at the import level), a value of £6.89 was returned to the community.” Since the higher price of Fair Trade products is divided up by several margins (retailer, distributor, coffee roaster, importer, producer) it would seem far less efficient then giving the of spm patterns bay money directly to the producers. There has not been a systematic account yet. While some studies suggest that a reasonable percentage of the extra price for papers, Fair Trade actually reaches producers, other reports seem to imply that sometimes Fair Trade is a pretty inefficient way to transfer money to producers in the South. In a critical article in the Wall Street Journal Stecklow White (2004) have reported some examples that show how Northern retailers benefit far more then the producers from Fair Trade: At Sainsbury's, a British supermarket chain, the price of Fair Trade bananas (which was four times that of conventional bananas) was US$2.74 per pound. The producers receive only 16 cents per on peter pan pound, 55 cent go to all the middlemen and importers and the rest to the supermarket, which earns approximately US$2 with every pound of organic Fair Trade bananas.
15 At a Cafe Borders in New York City, producers paid nearly US$12 a pound for bags of Fair Trade coffee while farmers received only US$1.41. Assignment! A comparative study of the coffee supply chain of Nestlé and the Fair Trade supplier Cafédirect found that out of the darwin evolution 34 percent Fair Trade mark-up for the consumer price only 4 percent ended up with the producers, mainly due to online, higher costs of advertisement and marketing licence (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 40). Zehner (2002) compared Fair Trade coffee and conventional coffee and found that 43 percent of the higher price of with essay US$1.50 is passed on to producers while 39 percent went into the increased margin of assignment online Starbucks itself. And there are more similar examples (Stecklow White, 2004; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 51). This is however not the general rule. Other retailers, by selling Fair Trade products at the same price as conventional products, have shown the way to of spm bay, increase the market share of Fair Trade and to decrease exclusion on the side of consumers. At the supermarket chain Migros in Switzerland for example Fair Trade bananas have almost the assignment same price as non-Fair Trade bananas (which made it possible to increase the market share of Fair Trade banana to 56 percent) and Wild Oats Natural Marketplace in the U.S. sells Fair Trade bananas and bulk coffee at the same price as their conventional counterparts (Stecklow White, 2004). To change this situation, in which consumers pay very high prices with the essays intention of helping producers, but end up mostly increasing the margin of the retailer, it would be interesting to investigate the assignment online possibility of establishing a further criterion for Fair Trade certification, ruling that the margins of Exercise Physiology retailers cannot be higher for Fair Trade products than for assignment online, conventional products. A related criterion could be to make all retailers of Fair Trade products disclose their margins, something many retailers refuse to do (Stecklow White, 2004). 16 Another problem is the of internet essays inefficiency of many Fair Trade supply chains.
In order to papers online, increase the market share of Fair Trade products and to charles evolution essay, benefit more producers this problem has to be addressed as well. (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003). Another important ratio is the return on investment in papers, the labelling organizations. With Stress Essay! If one just takes into papers online account all the money the FLO and its member organizations spent in 2002 and calculates the return on investment of this money by dividing it with the total benefits for farmers, the bad effects of internet essays ration is 2.8 : 1, meaning that every dollar spent by the labelling organizations increases farmer income by US$2.8 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 216). And TransFair USA claims that since 1999 “each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in assignment papers, supplemental income for farmers and farm workers.” 17 These measures, however, do only include one part of the extra money consumers spent on the higher prices for pan, Fair Trade products. These examples show that due to very high margins in the North or to inefficient management of the trade partly only a small portion of the extra money consumers pay goes directly to the producers. This is particularly appalling because the high prices of Fair Trade products prevent the demand from increasing. And, as we have seen, one of the main problems of assignment online Fair Trade producers was the insufficient demand and analysis patterns case study of liverpool bay producers could immediately double their supply. 4. 2. Assignment Papers! Impact on the Free Trade Market. Fair Trade does not only benefit the producers it sources its products from, but as an attempt to create alternative or at least different trading practices it has a wider impact on the free market in general. Coping With Stress Essay! This means, Fair Trade influences not only the producers, but as well consumers, other actors on the market like competing companies and political decision makers. Most authors who write about the broader impact of Fair Trade emphasize socio-cultural changes and neglect the political and economic pressures Fair Trade exerts on the market.
But all are important and I will address them separately. 4. 2. 1. Socio-Cultural Impact of papers online Fair Trade. There has been no systematic research on essays, how participation in Fair Trade brings about socio-cultural changes. I will in this section lay out the assignment papers online general idea of what the socio-cultural impact of darwin Fair Trade might be. Assignment Online! In the next section I will then raise some general doubts and problems that might limit or neutralize the case study of liverpool bay socio-cultural impact of papers Fair Trade. What is this socio-cultural impact, the “quiet revolution” 18 Fair Trade is supposed to bring about in bad effects of internet essays, the values and practices of its participants and even among those who don’t participate?
Fair Trade links consumers and producers together in ways that are fundamentally different from the assignment papers online conventional market, so a claim held by many activists and researchers (Raynolds, 2002a). It ‘humanizes’ the trade process (so ETFA, the European Fair Trade Association, Raynolds, 2002a: 404) by shortening the consumer-producers chain and by introducing values like solidarity, cooperation and equality into the market. Bad Effects Essays! While in conventional markets the interests of producers and consumers are inherently contradictory and papers online gains for the one are losses for stress, the other Fair Trade re-personalizes trade by assignment, introduces real deliberative decisions and values into the otherwise automatic and anonymous price mechanism. The Fair Trade movement recognizes that economic activity is social activity. Fair Trade, just by functioning the way it does, “destabilizes neo-liberal knowledge claims” (Raynolds, 2002a: 398). Whereas the quality of coping with stress essay conventional products just consists of the assignment online physical features and the image attached to on peter pan, it by the brand (Klein, 2002), thus excluding the conditions of assignment papers production from the value or the quality, Fair Trade includes these into the quality of the product. With Stress Essay! Producer and consumer links that make the conditions and lives of producers visible to the consumers are created, maintained and “performed” through the discursive and narrative tactics of images and label texts about corporate policies, personalities and assignment papers lives in the producer community (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 109). This competition for the “hearts and minds” of the consumers through disclosing facts about the production process, which are absent from other, changes the geography of production: The power of who defines what is “quality” in a product is to some degree shared by producers and consumers as partners (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 112). Fair Trade furthermore uncovers that conventional markets are dominated by the most powerful actors that create the market and shape its rules in their own interests, thus contributing to bad effects of internet essays, counter the neoliberal view of the economy as a level playing field (Taylor, 2005: 139).
Fair Trade frames conventional products as ‘un-fair’ and thus challenges consumers that do not buy Fair Trade products to think about the social and environmental costs that might not be included into the cheap price of the product. Fair Trade has thereby contributed to the impressive rise of ethical or “green” consumerism (Cowe Williams, 2000; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 186). Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into assignment papers account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more. Different studies estimate the analysis patterns study percentage of ethical consumers differently, but there is assignment papers online increasing evidence that 50 to 80 percent of of internet essays all consumers fall under this category and that the market for ethical goods and services is growing at assignment, rates of 20 percent per year and already amounts to U.S.$8 billion (Nicholls Opal, 2005; Cooperative Group, 2004). 19 From these surveys it is obvious that the market for ethical products is analysis patterns case of liverpool bay huge and growing and that many consumers care about the social and ecological externalities of the assignment production process. This is a clear signal that self interested utility maximisation is not the only driver of essays in chinese economic action certain values associated with the dislike of global inequalities are becoming additional determinants of individual choices. 20 It is important to notice however the “ethical gap” between the preferences consumers state in surveys and their actual behaviour on the market (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 187). Although most surveys reveal that around 30 percent of the population is particularly motivated to buy ethical products these products make up only fewer than 3 percent of assignment their individual markets. This phenomenon has been termed the “30:3 syndrome” and it is one of the most important challenges Fair Trade faces for the future to close this gap (Cowe Williams, 2000: 5). Fair Trade also represents a model that provides orientation for change (Roozen Boersma, 2002).
Fair Trade establishes, in Physiology, contrast to the competitive trade relations, a partnership approach to trade that aims at incorporating ethics into trade by focusing on values such as equality of assignment exchange, cooperation and fairness and by trying to increase the terms of trade in favour of the producer (Tallontire, 2000). 21 Fair Trade is however not only a practical model of alternative trading practices but a variety of companies in the Fair Trade movement embody also a model for alternative business practices. Instead of being characterized by external shareholders and profits like conventional companies, many of the bad effects of internet essays alternative trading organizations involved in assignment online, Fair Trade are cooperatively run, owned by with stress essay, the workers and some do not work for profit (Nichols Opal, 2005: 96). One example is The Day Chocolate Company that directly connects small-scale cocoa farmers into global markets by making the assignment online farmers shareholders in the company (Doherty Tranchel, 2005). The social impact of Fair Trade is multilayered and essays on peter pan complex. Fair Trade humanizes trade relations through consumer-producer links, it undermines conventional the legitimacy of conventional production and it epitomizes functioning alternatives. Fair Trade can be understood as a model for politicians as well as for private corporations. A model of alternative trading practices that restricts competition, includes social externalities into the price and is fairer in its outcomes; and online an example of an alternative company model that does not only aim at Physiology, increasing profits, but at serving both producers and papers online consumers. The section on the political impact of Fair Trade will discuss deliberate attempts by Fair Trade actors to lobby for political change of the Exercise Physiology rules of international trade by invoking the Fair Trade system as a model of cooperation in trade that works.
And the section on economic impacts of Fair Trade will see in online, how far Fair Trade influences competing corporations to improve their practices, both through market pressures by conscious consumers and by representing a functioning alternative. Although and most researchers agree on this point participation in darwin essay, Fair Trade has important socio-cultural impacts on consumers along the lines laid out above, some concerns can be raised about these claims. Especially in how far producers really are part of the “consumer/producer links” in Fair Trade networks is questionable. Many studies reveal the limited sense of understanding and identification producers have towards Fair Trade for most it is just another market that demands higher quality and pays higher prices (Mendez, 2002; Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002; Lyon, 2002; Dankers, 2003). One researcher at a Guatemalan coffee cooperative observed: “The vast majority of interviewed members stared at me blankly when asked if they knew what Fair Trade was. Some came up with creative responses that exhibited a minimum level of comprehension such as ‘Fair Trade is the good price that they pay us for our coffee’” (Lyon, 2002: 24). 22 The understanding many producers have of Fair Trade is papers online mostly based on quality and price. Taylor (2002) reports in his summary of seven case studies that it was easier for producers to understand the impacts of organic production since it was more related to their farming activity and coping with stress essay they got a higher price for improved quality. Assignment Online! And one producer claimed: “In Fair Trade there are higher quality products, and in the conventional market the produce is contaminated and at the same time sold at lower prices.” (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 18). Other cooperatives have an understanding that is closer to the theories about consumer/producer links.
Isaías Martínez, a farmer in Mexico, for example says: “The most important contribution of the Fairtrade Labelling system is in my eyes that our ‘dignity as a human being’ is recovered. We are no longer a plaything of the anonymous economic power that keeps us down” (FLO, 2006). This gap in understanding Fair Trade is, according to several studies, a new development that is essay commonly attributed to the increased activity of big national labelling organizations and online large retailers that see Fair Trade more as business than the bad effects essays alternative trading organizations. 23. On the papers consumer side there is another set of Exercise worries. Especially the mainstreaming of assignment papers Fair Trade has led to a diffusion of its message that changed from participation in an international project of trade reform to one in which consumers are “shopping for a better world” (Low Davenport, 2005b). It is important to be conscious of who is getting what out of a Fair Trade deal: The consumer on the one hand receives, in addition to the product, the “good feel factor”.
A reason to of spm patterns case of liverpool, perceive herself as an “ethical” and “responsible” consumer is assignment given by the message on the Nestlé coffee: “Partners’ Blend: Coffee that helps farmers, their communities and the environment”. 24 The producer on the other hand gets a couple of essays pan cents more than on the conventional market, but will never be able to online, consume in a similar way. In light of the asymmetry in evolution essay, wealth between consumers and papers online producers one could ask if the standards in Fair Trade are an “adequate representation of ‘equal exchange’ or ‘fairness’ in Exercise, relation to assignment online, the rich consuming North?” (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 115). Although this is a legitimate question it is not important in a practical or pragmatic sense since not buying regular coffee or not buying coffee at all are both detrimental to the producer. It is however important to not let the experience of consuming a cup of fairly traded coffee become an “absolution” (Howley, 2006) and a justification to source all the other products through conventional markets. There are some further general concerns that can be raised about the power relations in Fair Trade, in particular about the commodification of the case of liverpool bay lives of producers in advertising for Fair Trade and exclusive standards and prices, but both are necessary mechanisms to make Fair Trade effective and successful on the market. Papers! 25. 4. 2. 2. Economic Impact of Fair Trade.
Besides the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade described above and Exercise Physiology its attempts to influence the politically established rules of the papers market explained in the following section the most recognized impact Fair Trade has on the market is economic. The argument has two parts. The first part is concerned with the amount to essays, which international trade gets transformed just by the fact that more and more products are traded through Fair Trade organizations. And since that is limited somewhat, the assignment online other part analyses the indirect impact Fair Trade has on competing companies in forcing them to Physiology, change their trading policies by assignment papers online, raising awareness about the social and environmental externalities of the production process. Fair Trade only amounts to a small portion of all international trade, currently to far less than one percent. But Fair Trade has potential to grow especially since Fair Trade has shifted from being an alternative to increasingly penetrating the mainstream, and in some markets Fair Trade already accounts for large portions of all trade (Krier, 2005; Taylor, 2005). There is an extremely controversial discussion about the recent development of Fair Trade into the mainstream which gives practical importance to the debate between the evolution essay two visions of Fair Trade described above. Assignment Online! The positive sides of selling Fair Trade products through mainstream channels and commercial supermarkets such as Starbucks in the USA or Tesco in the UK are fairly uncontroversial: immense increases in the volume of Fair Trade products, which thus benefit more producers, an increase in the availability and in chinese range of products and opening up the message of Fair Trade to papers, a much wider audience then through ‘alternative’ trade (Low Davenport, 2005a: 150). The downside of mainstreaming Fair Trade, on the other hand, is more controversial. There are several concerns about mainstreaming Fair Trade.
A general critique comes from conservative free market advocates. Philip Booth (2005) from the London based Institute of essays on peter pan Economic Affairs argues that by paying a minimum price Fair Trade is assignment online disturbing the automatic market mechanisms of Adam Smith’s invisible hand. While it might help the producers that sell on the Fair Trade market it is Exercise Physiology detrimental to all other producers in that market. Guaranteeing a minimum price, so the argument continues, also creates oversupply. Papers Online! 26 While this critique overestimates the power of Fair Trade to disturb the in chinese market and to create oversupply and assignment online although it suppresses the far more important market disturbances described above (market power of TNCs, monopsony, imperfect access to credit and information etc.), it raises the important issue of how Fair Trade influences non-Fair Trade producers. The argument against Fair Trade is however flawed. Essays! In order to assignment papers online, avoid negative impacts on other producers and to decrease the dependency of Fair Trade producers the labelling organizations encourage producers to diversify their production and help them to access new markets. Furthermore, as I will discuss in bad effects of internet essays, the next section, contrary to harming other producers, Fair Trade has contributed to papers online, a broader trend of social standards and certifications that might bring about Exercise Physiology positive change for all producers.
Most of the criticism of the papers online mainstreaming of Fair Trade comes however from supporters of the general idea of alternative trade. Exercise! One worry is that big mainstream corporations that take part in Fair Trade undermine the message of assignment papers online Fair Trade. Whereas the Fair Trade movement started as a movement of alternative trading organizations that practiced trade not along cooperative lines and challenged conventional competitive and exploitative trading practices the mainstreaming of Fair Trade introduces new actors with different interests and entropy analysis study bay practices into Fair Trade. Whereas ATOs are interested in increasing the benefits for the producers in the South, the motives of mainstream corporations like Starbucks or Tesco are by no means the principles of Fair Trade but to increase their profits (Ransom, 2005). Mainstream supermarket chains this is confirmed by assignment online, most studies see Fair Trade as a “useful marketing tool which differentiates them in the market [and as] one of the tools in the CSR [Corporate Social Responsibility] armament rather than a basis for in chinese, doing business” (Young, 2003: 10). This difference in interest becomes manifest for assignment, example in the overpricing of with Fair Trade products by many supermarket chains, that has been discussed above. 27. Another concern is that this “clean-washing” (Low Davenport, 2005b) or “fairwashing” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 138) helps mainstream corporations to assignment, justify and perpetuate their exploitative trading practices (Raynolds, 2002a). Of Spm Case! By selling a small percentage of their products under the Fair Trade certification, mainstream companies can use the strategy of “parallel production” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) to papers online, improve their image as socially conscious without fundamentally changing their sourcing practices.
Some of the smaller alternative trading organizations that sell 100 percent of their coffee Fair Trade dropped out of third party certification altogether as a response to these practices. Just Coffee, one of them, explains the essays in chinese strategy of fairwashing or parallel production: “the conventional roasters are lining up to access the Fair Trade label. The problem is that they want to do this without changing their business practices (), still buying the bulk of their coffee paying low market prices while they use the Fair Trade label on the miniscule amount of ‘Fair Trade’ coffee they purchase. They want to capitalize on assignment papers, the symbol without committing to what it stands for.” (quoted in charles darwin evolution essay, Nicholls Opal, 2005: 138). Some examples: Starbucks, which adopted Fair Trade coffee under severe consumer pressure in 2000, purchased in 2005 only 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee under the Fair Trade label (Benjamin, 2006; Renard, 2003). Papers! And, as mentioned in on peter, the introduction, Nestlé is using the Fair Trade label to make up for being labelled 2005s “least responsible company” worldwide by assignment papers, selling some of their products with the Fair Trade label the actual amount is not laid open but are estimated to essays pan, be less than 1 percent (Nestlé, 2005). As Booth (2005) has noted, the biggest retail promoter of Fair Trade in Britain, the Coop, is at the same time the biggest recipient of subsidies from the EU common agricultural policy in the country. “There is no doubt whatsoever that the papers subsidies do more damage to with, the developing world than the sale of Fair Trade products does good” (Booth 2005: 8).
Bill Vorley (2003: 77) gives another interesting and telling example: The Asda Wal-Mart excused its shift away from sourcing most of its bananas from small farms in assignment papers, the Caribbean by pointing to its Fair Trade bananas, highlighting the charles darwin evolution fact that it is still possible to papers online, buy Caribbean bananas. It did however suppress the fact that the Fair Trade bananas only of internet, made up an extremely small percentage of all the bananas it sold. A related problem with mainstreaming Fair Trade is the asymmetry in power that is created by the fact that mainstream corporations only sell a small portion of their products under the label (Renard, 2005). Since this portion makes up a huge percentage of all the papers Fair Trade sales, the labelling organizations become dependent on these sales, while corporations like Starbucks could easily change their buying policies. In the U.S. for example, where Fair Trade coffee is growing at impressive rates of essays on peter almost 90 percent per year, huge parts of these increases are due to assignment papers online, the participation of mainstream actors like Peet's Coffee Tea, Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, McDonalds and Tully's (TransFair USA, 2006a; 2006b). If Starbucks would decide to trade its 3.7 percent of Fair Trade coffee under its own label C.A.F.E. (Coffee And Farmers Equity) a move that would not much affect Starbuck this would have devastating affects on Fair Trade in the U.S., decreasing world coffee sales by more than 10 percent and bad effects of internet decreasing Fair Trade coffee sales in assignment papers, the U.S. by 21 percent (Starbucks, 2006; TransFair USA, 2006). Renard (2005: 30) mentions a similar dilemma: “Would TransFair USA be capable, at entropy, this point, of stripping Starbucks of its seal if in fact Starbucks practices were shown not to comply with Fair Trade norms or generally unethical, despite the importance of Starbucks Fair Trade sales in the US?” Another threat is the strategy of “standards dilution” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) employed by TNCs to alter the standards set by an NGO like the online FLO, using their immense power and share of sales (Renard, 2005).
The growth of Fair Trade into the mainstream bears immense possibilities; but at bad effects essays, the same time it creates some new dangers, mainly the undermining of the message of Fair Trade, the papers fairwashing of socially and environmentally destructive corporations and increasing dependency of the labelling organizations on large retailers. The question is thus one of finding the essays right balance between these, or as one scholar has put it: “At what point do increased sales and online economies of scale cross the in chinese fuzzy line between more income and online benefits for producers to dependency on mainstream markets and potential loss of the cutting edge in challenging unjust world trade relations?” 28. The other side of the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market is Exercise its indirect power to influence competing corporations to change their trading practices outside of Fair Trade. This power of Fair Trade is mainly its ability to indirectly influence and change the preferences of consumers by pointing attention on papers, the producers and the conditions of production and by providing a viable alternative. The socio-cultural changes associated with this argument have been laid out of spm patterns case study of liverpool above. Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more.
Fair Trade plays an important role in this increase of the segment of conscious consumers, especially by showing that alternatives are possible (Roozen Boersma, 2002b). Assignment Papers Online! Transnational corporations have often responded to consumer demands and pressure for better social and environmental production by arguing that it is entropy patterns case impossible to control the assignment papers online entire supply chain. The new division of pan labour, involving the establishment of export processing zones (EPZs), global subcontracting and lean production are used by TNCs to justify exploitation and assignment papers online environmental destruction as inevitable and impossible to control (McMichael, 2004). Fair Trade shows in practice that social and ecological exploitation are not natural and that corporations can take responsibility, thus proving the standard apologetic reactions of analysis of spm case corporations wrong. It is a well established fact that more and more corporations react to these market pressures and shifting consumer preferences by establishing CRS (corporate social responsibility) standards and by creating guidelines and standards for internal monitoring (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; Renard, 2005). This has been described as a “paradox of globalization” (Barrientos, 2000: 556; Tallontire Vorley, 2005): On the one hand there are strong trends to deregulation and market liberalization in assignment papers online, the context of the Exercise rise of neoliberalism and on the other hand there are more and more attempts to privately re-regulate the online market; while transnational corporations abuse their increasing market power to further lower the price of production and externalize social and environmental costs these same corporations take part in the rise of Exercise Physiology different and mostly private measures that claim to improve social and assignment papers online environmental sustainability of production. I will not go into the developments of this general process of the increase of labels and just mention one example (see Muradian Pelupessy, 2005). Starbucks, which sells 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee with a Fair Trade label, has established its own self monitored first party label “C.A.F.E” (Coffee and Exercise Farmers Equity) practices that amounts to assignment, another 24.6 percent (34.84 million kg) of darwin essay total sales.
This label is supposed to “ensure the sustainable production of high-quality coffee by addressing social, environmental and papers online economic responsibility throughout the coffee supply chain” (Starbucks, 2006a: 20). Charles Darwin Essay! Starbucks goal is, as illustrated in papers online, table 3, to essays pan, double the amount of coffee traded under the C.A.F.E. Assignment Online! practices to around 70 million kg in analysis of spm patterns case, 2006 and further increase it to 102 million kg in 2007, which would mean that almost three fourths of all the assignment coffee Starbucks buys is with monitored under its own label (Starbucks, 2006a: 4; Benjamin, 2006). Table 3: Projected increase of Starbucks coffee bought under its own label C.A.F.E. practices (Source: Starbucks, 2006a: 19). In assessing these developments one first has to take into account the extremely high price Starbucks pays to its producers. Starbucks has paid an average price of $2.84 per kg for assignment, all the 142 million kg of unroasted coffee it bought, both for Exercise Physiology, labelled and assignment unlabelled coffee. This average price is 23 percent higher than the average commodity market price, and even more than the minimum price of Fair Trade ($2.80 per kg) (Starbucks, 2006a: 17; Benjamin, 2006).
This is an extremely promising and extremely effective development. The entire sales of charles evolution Starbucks, sold at an average price higher than Fair Trade, amount to 2 percent of global coffee sales and are more than four times the amount of Fair Trade coffee certified globally in 2003 (30 million kg) (TransFair USA, 2005: 2). It is however also important to take a close look at papers online, the supply chain, to dig into the reasons why Starbucks does not substantially increase its participation in Fair Trade and to see in how far these high prices are outweighed by the high costs of standard compliance to entropy patterns case study bay, the high quality requirements. The high price Starbucks pays for papers, its coffee can partly be explained by with stress, the fact that Starbucks only buys gourmet coffee with extremely high intrinsic qualities. And the C.A.F.E label is only a “code of conduct-lite” (Renard, 2005: 429), focusing first and foremost on the intrinsic quality and the taste of the coffee and adding ecological and social standards as secondary. Further important differences to the Fair Trade label are among others (Starbucks, 2006b): the payment of higher premium prices increases with better performance instead of a guaranteeing a minimum price; the infrastructure of certification remains internal to Starbucks, making it impossible for producers to influence the standards (Mutersbaugh, 2005a); there is assignment papers no substantial third party monitoring; verifiers are not autonomous, making it a “fully private” as opposed to the “semi-public” space in of spm case study bay, Fair Trade certification (Mutersbaugh, 2005b); and there is less organizational and developmental support. Since the high price is only one of the benefits of assignment participation in Fair Trade, and as shown in charles darwin, the case studies above not even the assignment online most important benefit, all the non-monetary benefits of Fair Trade do only partially apply to those producers selling to coping with, Starbucks through its C.A.F.E. scheme. Besides these trends to undermine the Fair Trade label there are reports of problems at the producer level that forced several cooperatives to break up their trading relations with Starbucks. 29.
There are some important dangers in this general trend towards voluntary certification that are important to fully assess the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market. These are mainly the way power relations in papers online, the production process change and a curious convergence between the rhetoric of Fair Trade and contemporary discourse in dominant institutions. While voluntary standards are often praised as the positive influence of consumer power on corporations and the increasing social and environmental accountability and awareness of those corporations, studies like the Human Development Report conclude that “the growth of bad effects of internet essays private standards is acting as a barrier to papers, market entry for smallholder farmers” (Brown, 2005: 5; Vorley, 2003: 70). It has been argued that this “just in space production” of certified products transforms rent relations, shifting the costs of standard compliance to analysis case study of liverpool bay, the producers, increasing rents for retailers and giving the retailers more power and governance over the supply chain (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; 2005c). Online! 30 This line of argument, seeing certifications as a place of conflict and power rather than cooperation, criticizes the broad trend towards the establishment of semi-public spaces through NGO-third party certification.
Fair Trade, so the argument, by promoting the privatisation of standards, facilitates the of internet already existing tendency of the demise of the state in market regulations. Fair Trade, without intending to papers, do so, thus stabilizes neoliberal globalization and supports the further decline of state power to regulate markets and to of liverpool bay, restrict exploitation and environmental destruction. A similar argument can be made on the level of assignment contemporary development that converges with the discourse of Fair Trade in Physiology, an interesting way. 31 Faced with the controversial debate about the East Asian miracle in the early 1990s, the destructive Asian economic crisis in 1997 and the emergence of powerful NGOs and social movements, the dominant paradigm in the major development institutions like the World Bank and online the IMF shifted in the late 1990s from neoliberalism towards a more “inclusive liberalism” (Porter Craig, 2004; Gore, 2000; Hart, 2001; Wade, 1997). Revisionist or inclusive neoliberalism, while using a slightly different, more inclusive and empowering discourse, shares with orthodox neoliberalism the preference of the market over the state, has enabled processes of immense social and environmental destruction and bad effects of internet is in similar ways interpreted as yet another discourse of domination and assignment papers control (Porter Craig, 2004; McMichael, 2004). Coping With Stress Essay! And the rhetoric of the Fair Trade movement conforms to an astounding degree with this discourse of revisionist neoliberalism. Central parts of both discourses converge albeit with different connotations on notions like market ‘opportunity’, ‘empowerment’, social and economic ‘inclusion’, ‘social capital’, ‘civil society’ and ‘partnership’. What should one think about the fact that these concepts are employed both by institutions from the assignment papers online centre right like the World Economic Forum and by the Fair Trade movement?
This convergence of revisionist neoliberal discourse and Fair Trade discourse helps explain why this small movement of alternative trading organizations could move into Physiology the mainstream; why several studies interpret Fair Trade as part of assignment neoliberalism or social capitalism; and why such prominent supporters of free trade as the European Commission and the G 8 summit are celebrating the success of Fair Trade. In both cases by on peter pan, using private certifications and by employing a certain discourse of market empowerment Fair Trade converges with contemporary reactionary tendencies. While this certainly carries the dangers of supporting (as an unintended consequence) the privatisation of online market regulations and the justification and naturalization of neoliberal discourse, there is also the potential for change. Private standards are not inherently opposed to state regulations and through its political efforts Fair Trade actively tries to lobby for charles evolution essay, change in the political market rules. And discourses are contradictory, unstable and contested and assignment papers online political and social pressures can, alongside with Fair Trade, transform a discourse of essay domination and assignment oppression into a discourse of entitlements and rights, taking serious the ‘inclusive’ and stress essay ‘empowering’ part and assignment turning it against the inhumane consequences of neoliberal hegemony. The discussion and analysis of the possibilities for Fair Trade to economically influence the conventional market has revealed opportunities as well as dangers. There is first impressive potential for Fair Trade to grow into the mainstream and to directly change trading practices. But these possibilities depend on the participation of big mainstream corporations that only in chinese, use Fair Trade to their advantage without sharing its message and taking the responsibilities. This brings along the dangers of undermining the message of assignment Fair Trade and of becoming dependent on these mainstream companies. Secondly by showing that ecologically and socially responsible trading practices are possible Fair Trade is part of a more general push by consumers that brought about the rise of private standards and certifications. This development in a similar way opens up new possibilities to introduce social and environmental standards on a broad basis into Physiology the mainstream economy but at the same time bears the danger of getting down-washed into intransparent and unenforceable standards-lite that are (mis)used by big mainstream corporations to assignment, control and pan exploit the supply chain in new ways.
Fair Trade certification and the general trend towards private standards are not intrinsically good or bad. Both are social institutions that are sites of conflict and power where contesting interests get negotiated and fought out between different actors. Papers Online! Future developments depend among many other social forces on the evolution of in chinese Fair Trade. 4. 2. 3. The Political Impact of Fair Trade. Contrary to dominant discourses and papers online public opinions on trade issues, the current trade injustices are not “natural” or the outcome of essays different levels of knowledge, technology and assignment online education. Case Bay! These factors surely play their part, but the unjust system of international trade is politically established and maintained by countries with very different levels of power. The rules that enable the free market and free trade to function are not “neutral” or “natural” but serve certain interests and not others. Without going into detail this can be illustrated by assignment, looking at the unjust tax system and the immense amounts of subsidies in the global north, which both make trade with agricultural products very difficult for developing countries. Evolution! According the United Nations Human Development Report 2005 the average tariffs low-income countries, which are exporting to papers, high-income countries, face are three to four times higher than the barriers applied in trade between high-income countries (HDR, 2005: 126). 32 Since primary products like cacao beans are taxed less then processed products like chocolate, this perverse tax structure also makes it impossible for many developing countries to do the high value-added processing and essay retailing parts of the production process in assignment papers online, their country, ensuring that most profits in the value chain are added in the Global North. In the European Union, for example, tariffs rise from 0 to 9 percent on Exercise Physiology, cocoa paste and to 30 percent on the final product, which explains why 90 percent of assignment papers online cacao beans are produced in developing countries while only 44 percent of cocoa liquor and 29 percent of cocoa powder exports originate in those countries, making Germany the worlds largest exporter of cacao products (HDR, 2005: 127).
The unbelievably high levels of agricultural subsidies, especially in Europe and the U.S. furthermore undercut any comparative advantage of developing countries and the UNDP calculates that the real costs for developing countries of rich country agricultural subsidies is as high as all official aid flows in 2003 - US$72 billion a year (HDR, 2005: 130). The global legal framework for charles evolution essay, trade justifies exploitation and the externalization of social and environmental costs of production. This can be illustrated by the fact that the WTO under the PPM clause (Production and Processing Methods) does not allow discriminating against products that are produced through social and papers ecological exploitation. 33 There is considerable discussion in the Fair Trade movement if the essays in chinese PPM clause, created for governments, does also apply to labelling organizations like the FLO, but it is generally assumed that voluntary discrimination does not violate the WTO rules, even if they include non-physical characteristics such as the real social or environmental costs. 34. Whenever those institutions that currently determine how the markets function mainly the World Trade Organization and its sisters World Bank and International Monetary Fund there are powerful attempts by NGOs and social movements to protest and lobby for market and trading rules that are fairer to the most disadvantaged producers. This Trade Justice Movement is “campaigning for trade justice - not free trade - with the assignment rules weighted to analysis of spm of liverpool, benefit poor people and the environment” (Trade Justice Movement, 2006).
Fair Trade is part of this push for assignment online, fair market rules. And it is the deliberate goal of Fair Trade, stated by the four major Fair Trade organizations as one of three strategic intents, to Physiology, “play a wider role in the global arena to achieve greater equity in international trade” (FINE, 2001: 1). Assignment Papers Online! Also the above mentioned widely recognized definition of bad effects of internet Fair Trade states: “Fair Trade organisations (backed by assignment papers, consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in the rules and bad effects practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). Just one example: At the WTO meeting in Hong Kong in 2005 FINE, the informal network of Fair Trade organizations, organized a “Fair Trade Fair” that featured producers from Asia, Africa, the assignment Middle East and Latin America which were displaying and selling their products, including coffee, chocolate, spices, crafts, textiles and many others. At a symposium producers shared their stories the impact Fair Trade had on with stress, their communities and experts discussed the development of Fair Trade and the implications of the WTO rules for its functioning. 35 Besides this eventful critique of free trade FINE also lobbied the WTO with a position paper stating what the Fair Trade movement thinks “is wrong with the WTO” (FINE 2005a). Papers! The style of evolution this document is captured in its beginning statement: “We, members of the international Fair Trade movement, know from experience that trade can reduce poverty and assignment papers online contribute to sustainable development. However, if not carried out in a fair and responsible manner, trade can exacerbate poverty and inequality.” FINE, acting as the evolution advocate of small scale producers around the papers online world, demands the end of subsidies and tariff escalation mechanisms, argues against deregulation and liberalization and promotes the expansion of Fair Trade principles of regulating and entropy analysis patterns case bay managing the global supply chain (FINE, 2005a). After the papers meeting, another publication described the essays outcome of the WTO summit as serving “the interests of companies operating globally” instead of promoting an papers online agenda that is in any way favourable to the developing countries (FINE, 2005b). The political impact of Fair Trade operates as well on the micro level. With Stress! Besides contributing to assignment papers online, a necessary change in evolution essay, consciousness that has been described above Fair Trade politicizes people and strengthens the Global Justice Movement through the thousands of world and solidarity shops that are important centres of this movement.
Although some activists might see this as the most crucial part of Fair Trade, arguing that the structural change promoted by the Global Justice and Third World Movements is necessary for real improvement in the producers lives, the political side of Fair Trade should not be used as an assignment excuse for the economic and social problems described above (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 41). Organizations working with Fair Trade are thus using the practical example of Fair Trade to lobby for a change in the international trading rules away from free trade and towards cooperative trade, essentially seeing Fair Trade as a practical prefiguration of essays pan a more desirable trade. 5. Conclusion: Fair Trade as a Re-embedding Countermovement. So what is Fair Trade: A neoliberal solution to papers online, current market failures that works within the free market regime or a practical tool of social change that aims at transforming the free market? The discussion of the impact of Fair Trade on the level of producers as well as on of spm patterns study, the level of the free market in general has shown that there is no easy and clear-cut answer to this question. The social reality of Fair Trade entails both, free market mechanisms and non-markets restrictions and Fair Trade seems to both undermine free trade and to be used and interpreted as supporting neoliberalism. Assignment Papers! To better understand this rather puzzling result I will propose a theoretical framework to understand Fair Trade that is essay heavily influenced by Polanyi’s work. In order to better understand the effects of Fair I will situate Fair Trade historically using Polanyi’s theory of the double movement. And I will then use Polanyi’s concept of embeddedness to argue that Fair Trade is neither a free market solution nor a transformation of free trade.
In order to situate the emergence of Fair Trade in a broader context the work of Karl Polanyi (1944), especially his understanding of capitalism as progressing in form of a ‘double movement’ concerning the relations between the market and society has been increasingly used and seems very instructive (Barham, 2002: 350-352; Murray Raynolds, 2000; Mutersbaugh, 2005a). Polanyi argued that the unleashing of markets for the three ‘fictitious commodities’ land, labour and assignment online money causes intense social and environmental destruction and generates counter-tendencies that demand regulation, intervention and social protection from these destructive market forces. This protective countermovement is, however, not an external intervention into darwin essay a structurally determined process but these opposing forces are contained within capitalism (Hart, 2002: 304). Assignment! Polanyi’s historical analysis of the double movement has its contemporary parallels (Silver Arrighi, 2003): 36 The neoliberal revolution of the 1980s on the one hand destroyed societal regulations protecting labour, money and land/nature by promoting free market economies as the only model, liberating financial transactions and privatising and destroying natural resources. The growing importance of civil society in the 1990s and entropy study of liverpool bay the rise of papers transnational social movements that push for “counter-hegemonic globalization” (Evans, 2005) on the other hand represent efforts to re-embed the destructive market forces into societal norms and regulations. These actors promote political regulations for financial markets, fight against the commercialization and privatization of natural resources and counter the dismantling of labour regulations that restrict exploitation. 37 It is important to note that these attempts to re-embed the market have also been incorporated into conservative discourses and practices where they represent efforts to contain dissent and to enable the neoliberal project to continue. They are employed by personalities in neoliberal institutions like the world bank and the IMF (Wade, 1997; 2001; Sachs, 1998; Stiglitz, 2000) and essays in chinese have shaped the paradigm shift from assignment papers online, orthodox neoliberalism to ‘revisionist’ or ‘inclusive’ neoliberalism (Hart, 2001; Porter Craig, 2004).
And exactly here is where Fair Trade comes into the picture: Fair Trade, so I will argue, is part of the protective countermovement. I will come back to this point, but first I want to on peter pan, employ Polanyi to argue that Fair Trade is neither a neoliberal free market approach nor an attempt to transform free trade. Fair Trade is concerned with the unleashing of markets for the fictitious commodities labour, and, to a lesser degree, land/nature. While markets might be useful and efficient mechanisms to assignment papers, produce and distribute products, if labour and entropy analysis of spm case bay nature are included into assignment the market as free and with unrestricted commodities the results are destructive. Free trade theory rests on assignment papers, the notion that free competition results in essays on peter, the lowest possible price, and assignment papers online that because the producers with the lowest price outcompetes other producers competition stimulates efficiencies and improved technologies. Free trade theory does, however, falsely assume that competition does only essays, take place regarding technological innovation, productivity and marketing. 38 In reality, and especially in trading relations between large retailers and small-scale producers in the global south, business companies use the assignment papers online externalization of costs onto other parties as one of the main strategies of bad effects competition. If Chiquita cannot outcompete another retailer in papers, the banana market with improved technology or better marketing strategies it can do so by externalizing the social and environmental cost of production.
This means that the social cost of production is passed on to the entropy patterns case producer and the environmental cost of production is passed on to future generations. This is possible if labour and nature are not socially embedded through political legislations like minimum wages and environmental restrictions or social forces like unions or NGOs. Papers! And Fair Trade is exactly this, an attempt to re-embed the market within society by internalizing both the real social and environmental cost of production into the price. The real price of a product and the price Fair Trade tries to pay thus consists of the charles darwin essay real social cost of the work (human wages, dignified working conditions etc.) plus the real environmental cost of production. Roozen and VanderHoff Boersma (2002), two founders of the first labelling organization Max Havelaar, argue convincingly: “The costs of assignment online a socially responsible production are included in the price of the product in the Fair Trade market. Competitiveness does not depend on the level of exploitation that goes into the production of the product.” Fair Trade is thus not abandoning the market, but it also does not provide a free market solution.
Fair Trade rather re-embeds the market by internalizing the social and environmental cost of production into the price. By paying a guaranteed minimum wage that reflects the real social and bad effects essays environmental costs of production it restricts market competition from exploiting labour and assignment nature, but at the same time uses competition in the production process to coping stress essay, function in the market. The essence of Fair Trade is according to Brown (1993: 158) “that the consumer should be told the truth, not only about what is in the product but also the truth about the producer, her or his conditions of life and work, what they get for their work and what it does to papers, the environment.” Far from pure competition or state-led planning, Fair Trade combines the power of producers and consumers to darwin, create links between them that both limit and engage competition and that consist of information: 39 “Connections between consumers and assignment Fair Trade organizations [and producers] are rooted largely in flows of Physiology information. Fair Trade networks socially re-embed commodities, so that items arrive at the point of papers consumption replete with information regarding the social and environmental conditions under which they were produced and traded” (Raynolds, 2002a: 415). Fair Trade challenges the idea that the setting of bad effects essays prices on the market as an automatic and depersonalized process is the only instrument for valuing commodities (Raynolds, 2002a: p. 409). Instead of competition as the main driver of the market, Fair Trade introduces an interesting type of “contract economy” into the market, in which the assignment papers online price is Exercise negotiated between consumers, producers and salesmen and their contradictory interests are resolved in cooperation.
As one scholar has put it: “Fair Trade is primarily about reasserting human control over assignment online a mechanism that claims to be in the best interests of everyone but no longer even bothers to prove it” (Ransom, 2001: 9). The fact that Fair Trade does not challenge the existence of the market as such does not mean that it is not a radical vision, since, as the domestic Mexican Label Comercio Justo insists, Fair Trade is about transforming the very purpose of markets; by reorganizing markets in a way that can benefit the charles darwin more disadvantaged members of society Fair Trade creates un mercado donde todos quepamos “a market where we all fit” (quoted in Jaffe et al, 2004: 192). Fair Trade, as an attempt to assignment papers, re-embed the market in the sense described here, is part of the protective countermovement. But back to the question do the broader effects of Fair Trade stabilize or transform free trade? The dichotomous and somewhat mutually exclusive conceptualizations of Fair Trade in the two visions that underlie the question this paper tried to answer both turn out to be present and future tendencies and trajectories of the Fair Trade movement rather than descriptions of on peter Fair Trade. As such the two visions both describe somewhat idealized versions of different simultaneous and contradictory effects of Fair Trade. A definite answer to this ‘either, or’ question is impossible since the papers online impact study shows that Fair Trade as a multilayered social phenomenon works both in essays, and against the market, partly stabilizing neoliberal free trade and partly challenging it. Instead of the question what Fair Trade is in terms of its broader effects the papers impact study forces one to ask more specific questions about how Fair Trade works and what exactly its effects and outcomes are in the multiple arenas it works in. Rather than being either “in or against” the market Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and coping stress multilayered process of social defence against destructive effects of unrestricted market. But this process, since it is part of assignment papers online capitalist development, is a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors with different and partly opposing interests. Because the protective countermovement as a whole is fundamentally threatening those power structures that rely on the exploitation of analysis of spm land, money and labour, these power structures, Polanyi’s “liberal creed”, engage in online, containing, controlling and weakening the movement.
These opposing interests, as has been demonstrated in many examples in coping stress, this study, bring about assignment papers multiple and partly contradictory effects on different levels. Anticapitalist activists support and propagate Fair Trade as a practical alternative to capitalist trading relations while revisionist neoliberals see Fair Trade as useful mechanism to privately regulate a small part of the market without fundamentally changing the bad effects political market rules. Both support Fair Trade for different reasons, they thus understand Fair Trade differently and papers online these contradictory understandings in turn shape and change what they try to explain, the Exercise Physiology Fair Trade movement. Similarly, what small-scale coffee growers in Ecuador think about Fair Trade and what they want Fair Trade to do differs dramatically from the understandings and interests of large retailers like Nestlé. How these different, partly contradictory and partly mutually supportive interests play out depends on the power relations between the different stakeholders. Particularly since Fair Trade entered the mainstream market in assignment papers online, the late 1990s and actors with opposing interests became stakeholders, Fair Trade is at a crossroads: On the evolution one hand the mainstreaming of papers online Fair Trade opens up immense possibilities to increase the impact of on peter Fair Trade in transforming neoliberal trade relations, in benefiting more disadvantaged producers and in assignment, further re-embedding the market. Charles Evolution! But on the other hand the mainstreaming of Fair Trade bears a variety of dangers, mainly due to the power of the assignment papers mainstream companies to undermine the meaning and practice of Fair Trade and, instead of using Fair Trade to the advantage of producers, to misuse it for the interests of their shareholders.
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2003. “Fair trade and the coffee crisis in the Nicaraguan Segovias” Small Enterprise Development 14 (2): 36-46. Milford,, Anna. 2004. Coffee, Co-operatives and Competition: The Impact of Fair Trade. Entropy Case Study Bay! Bergen, Norway: Chr. Milford Institute, http://www.cmi.no/publications/2004%5Crep%5Cr2004-6.pdf (April 2006). Moore, Geoff. 2005. The Fair Trade Movement: Parameters, Issues and Future Research, in Journal of Business Ethics 53: 7386. Muradian, Roldan and Wim Pelupessy.
2005. “Governing the assignment papers Coffee Chain: The Role of Voluntary Regulatory Systems” World Development 33 (12): 20292044. Murray, Douglas and Laura T. Raynolds. 2000. Essays On Peter Pan! “Alternative trade in bananas: Obstacles and papers online opportunities for progressive social change in entropy of spm case study bay, the global economy.” Agriculture and Human Values 17(1): 6574. Mutersbaugh, Tad. 2005a. “Fighting standards with standards: harmonization, rents, and social accountability in certified agrofood networks” Environment and Planning 37: 2033-2051. -. 2005b. Papers! “Just-in-space: Certified rural products, labor of quality, and charles regulatory spaces” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 389402. -. 2005c. “Certifying rural spaces: Quality-Certifed Products and Rural Governance” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 381388. Nestlé. 2005. “Nestlé UK to launch fair-trade coffee” Press Release, October 7. Nicholls, Alex and Charlotte Opal. Online! 2005.
Fair Trade: Market-driven ethical consumption. London: Sage Publications. Osorio, Néstor. 2004. Of Internet Essays! “Lessons from the world coffee crisis: a serious problem for sustainable development.” London: International Coffee Organization. Paul, Elisabeth. 2005. “Evaluating Fair Trade as a development project: methodological considerations” Development in papers online, Practice 15 (2): 134-150. Perezgrovas, Victor and Edith Cervantes. 2002. “Poverty Alleviation through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: The Case of Union Majomut, Chiapas, Mexico.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Polanyi, Karl.
1944. The Great Transformation: The Political and coping essay Economic Origins of Our Time. Assignment Online! Boston: Beacon Press. Ponte, Stefano. 2002. “The ‘Latte Revolution’? Regulation, Markets and Consumption in the Global Coffee Chain” World Development 30 (7):10991122. Porter, Doug and essays David Craig. 2004. “The third way and the third world: poverty reduction and social inclusion in the rise of ‘inclusive’ liberalism” Review of International Political Economy 11 (2): 387-423. Putnam, Robert.
2000. Bowling Alone. New York: Simon and Schuster. Ransom, David. 2005. “Fair trade for assignment online, sale: David Ransom thinks not” New Internationalist, April 2005. Raynolds, Laura T.. Essays! 2000. “Re-embedding global agriculture: The international organic and fair trade movements” Agriculture and Human Values 17: 297309. -. 2002a. Consumer/Producer Links in assignment online, Fair Trade Coffee Networks in Sociologia Ruralis 42 (2). -. 2002b. “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Existing Research and Critical Issues”, http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup/doc/rayback.pdf (April 2006). Raynolds, Laura T., Douglas Murray and Peter L. Charles Darwin Evolution! Taylor.
2004. “Fair Trade Coffee: Building Producer Capacity via Global Networks” Journal of assignment papers online International Development 16: 1109-1121. Reardon, Thomas, C. Peter Timmer, Christopher B. Barrett and Julio A. Berdegué. 2003. “The rise of supermarkets in Africa, Asia, and Latin America,” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 85 (5): 1140-1146. Redfern, Andy and essays Paul Snedker. Assignment! 2002. Creating Market Opportunities for Small Enterprises: Experiences of the Fair Trade Movement Geneva: International Labour Office. Renard, Marie-Christine.
2003. “Fair trade: quality, market and conventions” Journal of essays on peter Rural Studies 19: 8796. -. 2005. “Quality certification, regulation and power in fair trade” Journal of online Rural Studies 21: 419431. Riedel, Carl Philipp, Federico Manzano-Lopez, Amy Widdows, Alim Manji and Markus Schneider. 2005. Impacts of Fair Trade. London School of Economics.
Ronchi, Loraine. 2002. The Impact of Fair Trade on Producers and their organizations: A case study with Coocafe in Costa Rica. Prus Working Paper. Brighton: University of Sussex, http://www.sussex.ac.uk/Units/PRU/wps/wp11.pdf (April 2006). Roozen, Niko and Frans VanderHoff Boersma.
2002. Fair Trade: An Adventure in the Fair Trade Market. Entropy Analysis Case Study Of Liverpool Bay! excerpt, http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Sachs, Jeffrey. 1998. “The IMF and the Asian Flu” The American Prospect 37. Shreck, Aimee. 2005. “Resistance, redistribution, and power in the Fair Trade banana initiative” Agriculture and assignment Human Values 22: 1729. Silver, Beverly and Giovanni Arrighi. 2003. “Polanyi’s ‘Double Movement’: The Belle Époques of British and U.S.
Hegemony Compared” Politics and Society 31 (2): 325-355. Smith, Sally and pan Stephanie Barrientos. 2005. Assignment! “Fair Trade and Ethical Trade: Are There Moves Towards Convergence?” Sustainable Development 13: 190198. Starbucks. 2006a. Beyond the cup.
Corporate Social Responsibility Fiscal 2005 Annual Report, http://www.starbucks.com/aboutus/csrannualreport.asp (Mai 2006). Stecklow, Steve and Erin White. 2004. Essay! “What Price Virtue? At Some Retailers, 'Fair Trade' Carries A Very High Cost: Stores Charge Big Markups On Goods Intended to Help Farmers in Poor Countries” Wall Street Journal, June 8, 2004. Stiglitz, Joseph. Assignment Papers! 2000. “What I Learned at the World Economic Crisis”, New Republic, 17, April 2000. Tallontire, Anne.
2000. “Partnerships in fair trade: reflections from a case study of Cafe´ direct” Development in Practice 10 (2). Tallontire, Anne and Bill Vorley. Exercise Physiology! 2005. Achieving fairness in trading between supermarkets and their agrifood supply chains. London, UK: Food Group. Taylor, Peter Leigh. 2002. “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Synthesis of Case Study Research Question Findings.” Report Prepared for assignment papers online, Project Funded by coping essay, the Community and Resource Development Program.
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Vorley, Bill. 2003. Food, Inc. Corporate concentration from farm to essays pan, consumer. London: UK Food Group. Wade, Robert. 1997. “Greening the Bank: The Struggle over the Environment, 1997-1995”, in D. Kapur (ed.) The World Bank: It’s first Half Century.
Washington: Brookings Institution Press. Williamson, John. Assignment Papers Online! 1990. “What Washington Means by Policy Reform”, in John Williamson (ed.) Latin American Adjustment: How Much Has Happened? Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics. -. 1993. “Democracy and the ‘Washington Consensus” World Development 21 (8):1329-1336. -. 2000. Physiology! “What Should the World Bank Think about the Washington Consensus?” in The World Bank Research Observer 15 (2): 25164. Young, Graham. 2003. “Fair trade's influential past and the challenges of its future”, paper presented at Fair Trade, An Asset for assignment online, Development, An international dialogue, Conference organised by the King Badouin Foundation, Brussels, 28-05-03, www.kbs-frb.be/files/db/en/PUB%5F1337%5FFair%5FTrade.pdf (April 2006).
Zehner, David. 2002. “An Economic Assessment of ‘Fair Trade’ in Coffee” Columbia Business School’s Chazen Web Journal of bad effects essays International Business, Fall 2002. 1 Peter Mandelson, EU commissioner for trade, said in assignment papers online, 2005, after having emphasized the pan success of the Fair Trade movement: “Fair Trade has shown that those working in difficult conditions in commodity-dependent and poor developing countries can aspire to a better life for themselves and assignment papers their families” Mandelson (2005). 2 FINE involves the Fairtrade Labeling Organizations International (FLO), the Network of European Shops (NEWS!), the International Federation for Alternative Trade (IFAT), and the European Fair Trade Association (EFTA). The aim of FINE is to enable these networks and of liverpool their members to cooperate on strategic levels on crucial issues affecting the future of the Fair Trade movement, such as advocacy and campaigning, standards and assignment papers monitoring. See http://www.worldshops.org/fairtrade/netw.html (April 2006). 3 This paper will focus mostly on those products that are certified by the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO), since most data are only available for certified products and of internet essays since certified products make up the huge bulk of papers all Fair Trade products sold worldwide. 4 All standards are publicly available under http://www.fairtrade.net/sites/standards/sp.html (Mai 2006).
Quality requirements for coping with, Fair Trade bananas for example include among others: “Size of assignment online bananas. Minimum length 16 cm (baby bananas 14 cm), minimum thickness 27 mm. Tolerance: 10% of the bananas. Packing. slippage and “high pack” are not permitted. There must be reasonable uniformity among the bananas in a carton. Tolerance: 5% of packing cartons. () Residue and Exercise foreign matter. No residue or foreign matter may be encountered in the cartons. Tolerance: 1% of the cartons.” FLO (2005c: 10). 5 The coffee market price is fluctuating highly. The current prices are summarized by the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations): “Coffee prices reached 101.44 US cents per pound in March 2005, a 67 percent increase compared to the level of 60.80 US cents per pound the corresponding month last year.
In April 2005, the average daily price fell to 98.2 US cents per pound, following some profit taking by papers, investment funds”. See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 6 According to the FAO “Industry sources report that farm-gate prices in Ecuador decreased below the official minimum price of US$3 per essays box, and in some cases, fell to less than US$1 per box.” See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 7 In 2001 the FLO had registered over 300 coffee grower associations that represent 500,000 small-scale growers. This amounts, according to one estimate, to 30 percent of the world’s small-scale coffee growers most of which however could only sell a small portion of their harvest on the Fair Trade market. (Murray et al, 2003: 6). 8 The scope of the organic world market is considerably larger than the Fair Trade market.
In 2003 organic sales amounted to US $ 31,3 billion while Fair Trade only reached one billion in 2005 (Nichols Opal, 2005: 182). 9 “Though blurred by the uniform term “Fair Trade” tension remains between two visions: one, a more radical conception that sees ‘‘fair’’ trade as a tool for modifying the dominant economic model, and papers the other, more pragmatic, that emphasizes the insertion of analysis patterns study bay products from the assignment papers online South under fair conditions in the markets of the North.” Renard, 2003: 91. 10 For a further discussion of these difficulties see Mayoux (2001) and Nicholls Opal (2005: 201). 11 A report of the Fair Trade coffee market in Latin America that is of internet essays based on seven case studies concludes, for example, by exclusively citing the most positive study (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002), concluding (and thereby implying this as the general finding) that the direct financial “revenues for Fair Trade coffee [are] twice the assignment online street price for conventional coffee, even after deductions were made for bad effects of internet essays, cooperative management and other expenses.” (Murray et al, 2003: 7). Other studies by the same research team (which are only cited at other instances), however, sound less promising. In a cooperative in El Salvador for example, the financial benefits were only enough for outstanding debt servicing (Mendez, 2002). 12 But to put this into perspective it is interesting to note that more or less the same amount (€ 18.3 million) is spent annually only in Europe by Fair Trade organizations for education and awareness-raising campaigns (Krier, 2005: 31). 13 And even the most studies point at several advantages of Fair Trade.
Robbert Maseland and Albert de Vaal (2002) at the University of Nijmegen in Holland for papers online, example compared Fair Trade with free trade and protectionism and concluded that it was “obvious” that Fair Trade is the only way to guarantee the fulfilment of minimum requirements such as stopping child labour or environmentally harmful effects. They however argued also that concerning the reduction of inequality it is not clear that Fair Trade is always fairer than other options. 14 “The low prices paid to small producers on entropy analysis of spm case study, the national market mean that the best Mexican products are exported. Assignment Papers Online! Fair Trade makes it possible for small producers to also receive dignified prices in bad effects essays, the national market and to not depend exclusively on online, export.” Comercio Justo México on of internet essays, its webpage in assignment papers, 2001, quoted in Nicholls Opal (2005). 15 “Sainsbury's, which says it sells more fair-trade bananas than any other British supermarket, sells the fruit in bagged bunches of six, not by weight. A bag of fair-trade Dominican Republic bananas, weighing about of internet a pound, recently cost around $2.74 in London. That's more than four times the price of a pound of unbagged regular bananas, also from the Dominican Republic.
According to FLO, Dominican Republic fair-trade banana growers receive about 16 cents a pound from middlemen. Sainsbury's won't disclose its banana margins, but industry executives estimate British supermarkets pay their suppliers about 71 cents a pound for fair-trade bananas from the Dominican Republic. Assignment Papers! If that's the case, Sainsbury's is earning almost $2 a pound.” 16 This claim totally goes against what Paul Rice, chief executive of Transfair USA argues: “As a core philosophy, Fair Traders believe in analysis of spm patterns of liverpool, as little market intervention as possible [and: regulating retail prices goes against papers, the idea of] using the market as a vehicle for creating a win-win scenario for farmers and for industry.” The growth of fair-trade sales in the U.S. suggests “millions of U.S. consumers are willing to pay a bit more to feel that they are making a difference.” (Stecklow White, 2004) 17 “In the essays on peter pan past six years, TransFair has leveraged limited resources to certify 74.2 million pounds of Fair Trade coffee. Papers! This has provided coffee farmers in some of the poorest communities in Latin America, Africa, and Asia with over $60 million more than they would have earned selling their harvests to local intermediaries. This means that each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in supplemental income for farmers and farm workers since 1999.” TransFair USA (2006). 18 Harriet Lamb, Fairtrade's executive director in the UK, in Jones (2004).
19 Nicholls Opal (2005: 181-190) have collected a variety of research and essays surveys. A survey of 30.000 consumers in Britain by the Cooperative Group and MORI in 2005 for example showed that 84 percent of consumers are willing to papers online, pay a little extra to help producers in stress, developing countries and 6 out of 10 are willing to boycott for their ethics. Producers especially emphasized the importance of complete product information on food labels, which was important to assignment, 96 percent of the sample (Cooperative Group, 2004). Another study argues: “The most in-depth research into ethical consumerism to date reveals that just over half the population have bought a product and recommended a supplier, because of its responsible reputation, at some time in the last year. A third of consumers are seriously concerned with ethical issues when shopping and a quarter have investigated a company’s social responsibility at least once. Roughly one in six shoppers say they frequently buy or boycott products because of the entropy of spm study of liverpool bay manufacturer’s reputations” (Cowe Williams, 2000). 20 In a recent survey the “ 2003 Corporate social responsibility monitor ” finds that the assignment papers online amount of consumers looking at social responsibility in their choices jumped from 36 percent in 1999 to 62 percent in 2001 in Europe. 21 “The approach to in chinese, Fair Trade becoming dominant among ATOs can be termed `partnership’, where partnership is assignment papers online defined as a trading relationship between stakeholders that has both market-based and darwin essay ethical elements and that aims to be sustainable in the long term.
For Fair Trade, the key stakeholders are the producers, the producer group, the ATO, and the consumer; and the partnership between these stakeholders is based on papers online, a combination of market and ethical elements.” (Tallontire, 2000: 167). Partnership in an economic relationship like Fair Trade can be understood with Tallontire (2000: 172) as requiring the following necessary conditions: a shared understanding of the problem or issue and its context, shared objectives, mutual commitment to the partnership, a distinct or unique contribution, and mutual trust. Besides that some related structural condition can be identified that will determine the success of the analysis patterns case study of liverpool relationship, such as a shared timeframe, equal participation, a balance of assignment papers responsibilities, autonomy of the partners, accountability and transparency (Tallontire, 2000: 173-176). 22 This lack of understanding that is prevalent in most case studies applies even to leading positions. Exercise Physiology! An example given by Lyon (2002: 24): A member of the Junta Directiva in this cooperative told a researcher that the FLO had visited their plantations and, asked whether the FLO had certified the cooperative, answered: “no she [the FLO person] is assignment papers online just here to stress, see how everything is going with us.” 23 “Many Mexican interviewees concurred in calling for a renewed commitment to developing and papers online maintaining direct ties between Northern consumers and Southern producers. These visits help producers better understand the charles nature of the Fair Trade market, and papers create positive impacts on producer self-esteem and coffee quality.” Taylor (2002: 10). 25 It has been argued that Fair Trade by including the livelihood, culture, indigeneity and difference of the producer communities into their advertising strategies “deepen rather than subvert the processes of commodification by objectifying and analysis of spm bay commoditising the very things they are trying to save“ (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 114). Assignment Papers Online! Another concern points at the contradiction between Fair Trade’s message of inclusion and cooperation and its exclusive elements. Since it is a label that relies on quality standards and higher prices, Fair Trade is exclusive both on the producer side with its “dictates of quality” (Goodman and essays Goodman, 2001; Mutersbaugh, 2005c) and on the consumer side with its higher and sometimes extraordinarily high prices (see Jaffe et al, 2004: 183). 26 “What happens if there is adjustment to world supply or demand and prices in papers online, one part of the market are fixed?
Prices in other parts of the Physiology market must fall by more other growers suffer more. What happens to those employees of large producers when Fair Trade consumption shifts away from them towards small producers who frequently offer poorer working conditions than the papers multi-national corporations?” Booth (2005: 7). 27 A further example: In 2003 several supermarkets in Britain were accused of charging too much for Fair Trade products Tesco among them overcharging one US dollar per kilogram bananas, more then double the premium for producers. The Sunday Times, 29 June 2003, quoted in essays in chinese, Ransom (2005). 28 Thomson (2003), quoted by assignment papers, Low Davenport (2005a: 151); see similar comments in Tiffen (2000) 29 Renard (2005: 430) reports: “Furthermore, Starbucks obligates producers to sell their coffee through Starbucks-affiliated importers which, in entropy analysis patterns case study, this case, turns out to be the assignment online largest Mexican coffee marketing corporation, AMSA (of the Omnicafe-Atlantic Coffee group), which engages in decidedly non-equitable commercial practices.
A few cooperatives have broken off from Starbucks, denouncing the AMSA practice of misusing the registry of certified-organic producers for AMSA’s benefit.” 30 While this is an important critique for international trade with organic products and might apply to coping essay, first party certifications of some TNCs like Starbucks it does not apply to Fair Trade. Contrary to Mutersbaugh (2005a) the cost for compliance with the standards are in the Fair Trade system paid for by the consumers, not by the producers (Raynolds, 2002b). 31 The contemporary discourse and practice regarding development in the dominant institutions and in academia has been characterized by several observers as constituting an important departure from orthodox neoliberalism and assignment the Washington Consensus of the late 1980s and the early 1990s. While the Washington Consensus held that good economic performance merely required getting the prices right through liberalized trade, macroeconomic stability and by getting the essays state out of the market, the post-Washington Consensus is a more inclusive approach that focuses on good governance, new institutional economics and the state (Williamson 1990; 1993, 2000) 32 This translates into the following: “Developing countries account for less than one-third of developed country imports but for two-thirds of assignment papers tariff revenues collected. They also account for two-thirds of developed country imports subjected to tariffs higher than 15%.” (HDR, 2005: 127) 33 The WTO makes bans this as discrimination against foreign or domestic “like products” on the basis of “related characteristics”, wher like product is defined as “products with the same or similar physical characteristics or end uses” (Dankers, 2003: 74; Young, 2003: 11). 34 A full discussion of WTO rules and voluntary labelling initiatives is bad effects of internet given in a FAO report by Dankers (2003: 73-88). Online! See notes of a panel on the PPM clause at the Fair Trade symposium during the WTO meeting 2005 in Hong Kong under http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/symposium.cfm?refID=78673. This clause is defined on the world bank webpage: “ PPM : Production and processing method.
Used in instances where trade policy action by a country is motivated by a desire to ensure that imports have been produced in a way that satisfies a national or international production or process norm. Pan! Often these norms will be environmental in nature.“ http://www.worldbank.org/research/trade/glossary.htm#P (April 2006). 35 The webpage http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/index.cfm gives a good overview of the events and features a variety of resources, including transcripts from the symposium. A similar event was staged at the 2003 WTO summit in Cancun. 36 Polanyi analyses the papers first movement, the economic liberalization and integration of the evolution essay late 19 th century, as one that involves the replacement of local and assignment papers traditional socio-cultural relations by mere market relations.
In particular the bad effects of internet incorporation of the three fictitious commodities money, labour and online land/nature into the market and thus the evolution essay total disembedding of the market from society unleashed destructive tendencies, which in turn lead to a variety of counter movements. This second and embedding moment is the attempt by social movements and ‘enlightened reactionaries’ to counter the social disruption of the market-led liberalization with social and environmental protection and intervention. The main question Polanyi is trying to answer with this framework is the assignment rise of fascism in Exercise, Europe. He interprets fascism as part of the protective countermovement, suggesting that the papers online protective countermovement is not inherently good but rather that it contains a variety of different responses to the destructive market forces, some of which are very dangerous. 37 Examples would be firstly the promotion of the Tobin tax by the international ‘anti-globalization’ network ATTAC that would tax all the financial transactions and invest the money in poverty alleviation (Ancelovici, 2002); secondly the environmental and entropy analysis of spm patterns case study of liverpool bay the anti-privatization movement that fight deforestation, genetically engineered food, patents on living beings or destructive infrastructure projects like the Narmada dam in India; and lastly efforts to counter the neoliberal agenda to create a global labour market without any restrictions, that has produced an papers online incredibly destructive downward spiral of wages and, especially in essays, the Global South, leading to conditions of immense exploitation. McMichael (2004) has collected a variety of case studies that vividly illustrate this situation. 38 This argument is explained in length in Roozen Boersma (2002). 39 “Decentralization of economic decision-making and ensuring that authorities are made accountable to the people for their actions is where we need to papers, start. But such democratic models have generally been based either on Exercise Physiology, workers' control at the work place or on consumer power in the market. The fact is that the two have to be combined.
Markets which split us into two halves - into producers and online consumers - have to be modified so that we can once more become whole.(. ) The conclusion of Exercise this book is that it will be by new forms of cooperation and assignment papers not by entropy analysis of spm patterns study, relying solely on competition, that this [the new economic order] will be done. We cannot now foresee what the new structures will be.” (Brown, 1993:191).