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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and contest Tips. English Essays On My Favourite. There are a lot of “Best SAT Books” lists out there. We think most of them aren’t very good or thorough, and I’ve tried to write a much better guide here. You’ll learn which books are absolutely critical for your prep, which books you should use to improve individual sections, and northrop essay which books you need if you’re aiming for a top score. Importantly, you’ll also learn HOW to use these books to study effectively. Keep reading to learn more. This guide is conference detailed, so here are quick reference links.

I recommend you read the whole thing if you can. Northrop Essay. What’s Better About This Guide to the Best SAT Books? Because your SAT score is important, and define analytical you’ll probably spend a good amount of time studying, it’s important that you get the right advice. Follow the northrop, wrong advice, and it might be too late to book improve your score. Therefore, it’s important to vet the advice you get (including ours) before deciding on your SAT Prep plan. Before you read each article in essay contest your research, you should think – why should I trust this person online giving me advice?

To be transparent, here’s why this guide is better than others online, so you can decide for yourself: I explain in detail why good books are good, and what each book's flaws are. You probably haven’t heard of some of these books, because they're either newer or are hidden gems, and they're not featured as widely as the books from large companies that have large marketing budgets. Most other guides just list a few books without context. One important disclaimer: I’m co-founder of PrepScholar, an dead essays blog online SAT/ACT prep program. I believe we’ve built the best prep program available right now. It diagnoses your strengths and weaknesses and gives you a structured all-in-one program, combining the essay, best aspects of the books below, so you know exactly what you need to study at every point. But I want to stress that you don’t need a program to science excel at the SAT.

In fact, writing this guide may lose us some customers, since you might decide that you don’t need a program at essay all. But if you decide that you don’t want to manage 10 books and want an integrated complete program that customizes to your learning, check PrepScholar SAT out. If you’re serious about SAT prep, keep reading. Want to define analytical improve your SAT score by 160 points? Tired of wasting time prepping in ways that don't work? We have the industry's leading SAT prep program. Built by Harvard grads and SAT full scorers, the program learns your strengths and weaknesses through advanced statistics, then customizes your prep program to you so you get the most effective prep possible. It's the best prep program available right now. Best of all, we guarantee your money back if you don't improve your score by 160 points or more. Check out our 5-day free trial today: First, this guide is for students who are serious about their prep . You need to be motivated to get a high score, and northrop frye contest you need to be willing to put in hard work. Getting through these books will take dozens of hours, simply because the SAT covers so much material.

If you just plan to study 5 hours, your choice of book doesn’t make any difference . You should focus your time just on taking a sample practice test and reviewing your answers. Your score won’t go up much, and you shouldn’t expect miracles. Buying the research paper, books is the first and easiest step of SAT prep. You'll need to northrop frye essay contest put in serious work to actually get the score improvements. We’ll explain below the dead blog, best way to get the most out of these books. Secondly, this guide is for students who want to improve their score by over 100 points. To make consistent improvements of this level, you need more than just tricks. You need to understand the content of what’s being tested – the underlying math concepts and grammar rules – rather than just tricks that make you feel like you learned something but are actually not effective. Again, if you’re just looking to improve by 50 points, it’s possible for you to do that just by retaking the test, especially if you’ve taken the test only northrop frye contest once. Finally, to improve by analytical studying books, you need to have a great study strategy . Northrop Contest. It is NOT enough to just read a book cover by dead blog cover.

So many students spend dozens of hours cracking through book after book without improving their score. Why? Because they're not understanding what their weaknesses are and focusing their time on northrop frye contest their weaknesses. An Essay On Christmas For Kids. If you don't focus your time on your weaknesses, you won't improve! It sounds obvious, but it's pretty hard for many students to essay contest actually do this well. I write a lot more about this in my Perfect SAT Score guide, and essays that's how I designed our PrepScholar SAT program to do all the hard structural work for you. If you’re serious about score improvement, and you want to study with only books, this is the guide for frye, you. We’re going to divide the best SAT books into a few categories: Critical Books : Must have books as part of your prep program, no matter your skill level or weaknesses. Subject Training Books : The best books to use to train Reading, Math, and Writing.

Books for Top Scorers : Books that will push you over conference research paper the top. Frye. Books for Low Scorers and Low Motivation : If you only want to study for 5 hours and improve a little bit, this is OK. English On My Favourite Book. Otherwise avoid. The #1 Book to northrop frye essay Avoid : New for this year - a book I always used to recommend is now squarely in the Do Not Buy list. Find out which. Because the format of the test is ap us history essay questions changing so much, I do NOT recommend using Old SAT books to study for the New SAT. While the tests are more similar than not, you can waste a lot of time studying for northrop essay contest, the wrong thing, if you don't precisely know how the an essay, tests are different. Instead, use New SAT books, like the ones below, or use our PrepScholar SAT program. We rebuilt the essay, program from the ground up and and faith essays dissected the test to understand it fully. These are books that I believe everyone should have, regardless of their current score, regardless of where they need to northrop improve. This is extremely hard to qualify for, and in fact there are only two books out of dozens that I’ve tested: We’ve written at length about the importance of official SAT practice questions.

The SAT test is weird and tests concepts in ways that you’ve never seen in define analytical essay school before. This means that you need to train with realistic questions so you learn the patterns of the SAT. Official SAT tests released by the College Board are the gold standard for SAT practice questions. Each test released by northrop the College Board contains real questions given to real students at previous administrations of the SAT. The quality of official questions is far better than questions written by unofficial sources like Kaplan and Barron's.

Even better — all of the define analytical, Official SAT Practice Tests for the New SAT are FREE ! You can download the PDFs, then print them out to get the essay, realistic on-paper testing experience. For Kids. Visit our Complete Official SAT Practice Tests guide to download all the practice tests and answer keys for frye essay contest, yourself. The best set of practice tests you can get anywhere, period - especially since the New SAT is so new. If you want to take a practice test, these are the ones to on christmas for kids use. Answer explanations are not helpful for self-learning for northrop frye essay contest, most students. Most of the explanations read like this: “A is wrong because A is wrong. B is correct for these reasons” rather than showing you how to solve the question from step 1. If you don't know strategies for an essay on christmas, how to approach reading passages or alternative math strategies, you'll need more help. Now that the Black Book has finally been updated for the New SAT, it's only other Critical book I'd recommend.

It’s not sufficient by itself, and even with the practice tests above you’ll likely need more supplemental help, as I explain below. But what it does have is so good that I believe every student studying only with books should read it. What you’ll get from the Black Book is a way to frye contest think about the SAT. What does this even mean? Here are a few examples: You learn that the SAT is designed to be a predictable, standardized test . It needs to test basic concepts so that it can be administered nationwide to all students, but it also needs to make it difficult, so it distorts the questions in a weird way. The concepts in this book were things I understood intuitively when I took the SAT and was studying for a perfect score. It’s influenced the way that I think about teaching our students at PrepScholar. Of all books on the market, this book aligns most closely with my personal philosophy on the SAT and how to succeed on it.

Very lucid take on the SAT. The ideas within will change your view on the SAT and hopefully motivate you to science and faith essays work harder, knowing that any student can excel on the SAT. Requires a ton of self-discipline and insight to use effectively. Because you’re learning from your mistakes and no one is northrop essay there to guide you, you need to be self-driven to experiment with different strategies and find which one works best for you. For some students, following a set of straight guidelines could be less confusing. Once again, I highly recommend these two resources for all students studying purely through books.

We cover most of the important concepts in the Black Book in dead blog our SAT prep program and provide focused practice on individual skills. As I mentioned above, most likely you'll need specific training on northrop essay contest each subject to shore up your weaknesses. Next, we'll provide specific resources for individual subjects. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points? We've written a guide about the top 5 strategies you must be using to and faith essays have a shot at improving your score.

Download it for northrop contest, free now: Beyond the Critical books above, you’ll most likely need extra supplemental help on specific sections. Conference Paper. The following section discusses the best books for Reading, Math, and Writing. These books all follow my SAT prep philosophy: divide SAT content into skills, and get focused training on those skills use realistic, high-quality questions that prep you well for northrop frye essay contest, the real SAT cover only what you need to know, not advanced material not on the SAT. On My Favourite. In my experience with thousands of students, SAT Reading is the most difficult section to improve. It uses logical reasoning skills that aren’t as easily mastered as math concepts or grammar rules. It’s very important to essay contest drill down on what types of questions are asked, and science how to northrop contest approach these questions in essays on my book a systematic way. My recommendation for essay contest, best SAT Reading book is The Critical Reader 2nd Edition, by Erica Meltzer . This book dissects the define essay, SAT Reading section by question type and skill. She does a great job of teaching the core of what the question is asking, and how to northrop frye work with the passage to arrive at science essays the correct answer. Of all writers, Erica Meltzer aligns most closely with my personal philosophy of drilling questions skill-by-skill to recognize patterns to questions. Great breakdown of the Reading section on a skill-by-skill level.

Helpful strategies for every type of question. Exactly the same approach we use in our PrepScholar program. Pricey for a book that covers just one section ($26-$35) My philosophy on SAT math is that the best way to significantly improve your math score is to frye contest learn the on my favourite book, underlying math content . Getting familiar with the questions and learning some simple strategies like ‘plug in the answer choices’ can get you a little progress, but you’ll quickly run into a ceiling if you have gaps in your underlying math skills. Your best bet is therefore to find a book that can both teach you math content in frye an organized way and give you practice problems to focus on dead blog individual skills. It should also tailor to essay your skill level , since math questions that are too hard or easy for you are a waste of time. For these reasons, I recommend Steve Warner’s series of SAT Math books . On Christmas. He has multiple books out for Beginner, Intermediate, and Advanced students, as well as a set of 240 SAT Math problems organized by frye topic and define difficulty. Lessons teaching math concepts are clear and helpful. They suggest ways to speed up how you solve questions and identify what the question is northrop essay really asking.

The books split into the College Board's 4 major topics – Heart of Algebra, Geometry and Trig, Passport to an essay on christmas Advanced Math, and Problem Solving and Data. This is too broad. Essay Contest. I prefer splitting these larger topics into even more specific subjects - for example, within Algebra, PrepScholar teaches linear functions, single variable equations, systems of equations, and more. By focusing on each skill, you are able to define more accurately pinpoint your weaknesses and drill them. If you’re really struggling with math at a basic level (say, scoring 500 and below), I’d recommend that you supplement your work with Khan Academy’s math modules. It’s a free program and it provides an engaging way to northrop essay contest train your most basic skills. I believe the core Khan Academy program has better instruction than their SAT prep program, even though it's not focused on the SAT. The best way to excel at SAT Writing is to understand the grammar rules and how they appear on the SAT.

Then, you need to do a lot of focused practice questions to make sure you learn the patterns of the analytical essay, SAT. That’s how we designed our PrepScholar online program to teach you grammar. Once again, I’m returning to Erica Meltzer for her SAT Grammar books . Erica’s fantastic at distilling all of grammar into northrop frye essay contest, what you need to know for the SAT. You won’t learn arcane grammar concepts that aren’t tested. For the science and faith essays, rules that are tested, she presents them clearly and covers the foundation if you’ve forgotten the grammar rule from school. Unlike her Reading book, for Writing she has two books . The Ultimate Guide to SAT Grammar covers all the northrop frye essay, grammar rules you need to know. The SAT Grammar Workbook gives hundreds of practice questions as training material.

Neither book is sufficient on its own, which is a big drawback. The first book doesn’t have enough questions to possible history essay questions really drill the grammar rules. The second book doesn’t teach the grammar rules, and the questions aren’t organized by grammar rule. This really complicates the studying for the student, but I still believe this is the best Writing-focused book out there. Clear writing and articulation of grammar rules. There's no guidance on study strategy. It's a nice breakdown of the SAT, but you don't get instruction on northrop frye contest HOW to english favourite book use the book to best maximize your score. Frye. Reading cover to cover isn't the most effective way. English On My Favourite Book. Learn more about focusing on your writing weaknesses in my Perfect SAT Writing Score guide. Once again, the price is high - $50 to $60 for both books . It’s good content, but I believe she could get a lot more customers by lowering her prices.

Bonus: Looking for the very best guides to every SAT section? Check out essay our top guides for every single section of the SAT. Choose the on christmas for kids, score level you're aiming for: Choose these guides if you're scoring a 600 or above on northrop frye essay a section, and dead essays you want to get the highest SAT score possible. Choose these guides if you're scoring below a 600 on a section, and you want to boost your score to at least a 600 level. Northrop Frye Essay Contest. These are the very best guides available on boosting your SAT score, section by section. They're written by Harvard grads and perfect SAT scorers. Don't disappoint yourself - read these guides and improve your score today. Best Additional Book for Top SAT Scorers. With all the books above, you already have your work cut out for you.

With 8 full-length practice tests and 5+ books at your disposal, you will be studying for well over 50 hours. If you go through all your practice using the guidelines we recommend, you’ll likely have made huge improvements. If you still want additional practice, I recommend the essays favourite, Barron’s SAT books , especially if you’re aiming for near a perfect score. I remember using these books during my own prep in high school, and while their questions are inferior to northrop real SAT practice tests, they’re a good backup source when you finish everything else above. Conference Style Paper. A lot of content. Thousands of practice questions and northrop frye essay contest detailed lessons with many examples.

Topics can get too difficult for what you need to know on the SAT. Some questions are too hard in the wrong way – they can get unrealistically hard in a way that you’d never see on the SAT. If you’re not an SAT expert yet, you won’t be able to research paper detect when this happens and northrop you can waste time studying things that don’t matter. Best All-In-One Book for Less-Motivated Low Scorers. Possible Ap Us Questions. My recommendations have so far been for the ambitious student who really wants to improve his or her score. I know there are some students who just want to northrop frye essay put in 5 hours, get some exposure to the test, and then take the SAT and forget about it.

I personally believe that for most students, improving your SAT score is, hour for hour, the best way to improve your chances of college admission. So I would say that if you feel this way, you should question your philosophy. Dead Blog. But if you’re stuck in this mindset, the frye essay contest, book I would recommend is Kaplan’s SAT book . It’s an all-in-one book that covers the ap us history essay questions, three sections and contains practice questions and practice tests. It doesn’t excel at any of what it’s doing , but it covers the important bases. It also tends to have more reasonable content than other all-in-one books like Princeton Review. I don’t love this book. I don’t even really like it. I don’t recommend it if you at northrop frye essay all want to improve your score seriously and are willing to put in on christmas study time. But if you just want a single source that can do an OK job and is easily digestible, this is the best one out there. Covers all three sections and contains practice tests. Practice questions tend to northrop essay be unrealistic – they often don’t phrase questions the analytical, way the frye, SAT would, and they don’t test concepts in the right way.

The questions also don’t trick you in the same ways that the SAT does. Dead Essays. Want to contest improve your SAT score by 160 points? We've written a guide about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now: The #1 SAT Prep Book to define AVOID Buying. Unlike every other section on this guide, I'm making one specific recommendation against northrop, buying a book. Ap Us History Questions. This is unusual because, prior to 2015, this is the #1 book you would DEFINITELY buy. College Board's Official SAT Study Guide, 2018 Edition.

It feels really weird to recommend NOT buying this book, because for years and year, this was THE book to northrop frye use to study. It used to contain 10 practice tests that you could get only through buying this book. Define Analytical. Why release these tests for free? This is all part of College Board's moves to make the test more accessible and to frye essay contest reduce educational inequality. This is great and I support them - but it also means the Official SAT Study Guide is now a waste of money . The educational material outside of the practice tests is very superficial and unhelpful (we've written far better guides on Reading, Math, and Writing - all online and free). Ap Us History Essay Questions. Has eight practice tests pre-printed for you, so you don't need to print them yourself. Northrop Frye. Everything in this guide is available for define, free online. More important than buying the frye, books is knowing how to use them effectively. The more books you have, the more important it is to understand how to build a unified study system.

We've written thorough guides to help guide you through how to on christmas study. Build a study plan across your high school schedule so you know when to take the contest, SAT. Is Book Studying the essays favourite, Best Option for You? There are a lot of prep methods available to you, and book studying is just one of them. Just to explore all our options, let's quickly examine whether book studying is right for you.

People who choose to study by northrop essay contest books do so for essays blog, different reasons. Some so it for cost reasons. As I noted above, the best SAT books can get expensive. If you buy all the top books, you'll be spending around $200 . This is already close to the cost of our online SAT prep program, which goes beyond books by guiding your study step-by-step and and motivating you to put in contest study time. Others study with books because they're self-motivated, and conference style they like teaching themselves. If this isn't you, books can be a disappointing way for you to spend time and not improve . If you don't have good study strategy, you can put in dozens of hours and make zero improvement, because you're not understanding your weaknesses and solving them. By far one of the most important ways to essay contest improve your SAT score is to study your mistakes and dead essays blog learn from them. If you can't do this reliably, you'll need extra help to get you started. We've written a free guide to compare other methods of prep. Northrop Frye Essay Contest. Download this to compare the different methods and english favourite book see which one is essay best for you.

Want to style improve your SAT score by 160 points or more? We've put our best advice into frye essay contest, a single guide. English Favourite Book. These are the 5 strategies you MUST be using to have a shot at northrop essay contest improving your score. On My. Download this free SAT guide now: Check out our industry-leading online SAT program. We've designed it to cover all the advantages of books and tutors at an affordable price.

Featuring in-depth strategy lessons and essay contest thousands of science, practice questions, we have the content from the frye, leading books. We include the critical Official SAT Study Guide above. Beyond that, the program acts like your personal tutor. It guides you step-by-step through what you should be working on science and faith essays at every moment to best improve your score. It customizes to your strengths and weaknesses, then gives you focused practice so you learn the patterns on the SAT.

Furthermore, it motivates you to study so that you put in enough time. There's a 160 point guarantee - if you don't improve your score by 160 points, you get all your money back. Northrop Frye Essay Contest. Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! As co-founder and head of product design at PrepScholar, Allen has guided thousands of students to success in SAT/ACT prep and college admissions. He's committed to providing the highest quality resources to help you succeed. Allen graduated from Harvard University summa cum laude and earned two perfect scores on the SAT (1600 in 2004, and 2400 in 2014) and english essays on my book a perfect score on the ACT. You should definitely follow us on social media.

You'll get updates on essay our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in science essays a variety of other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep? Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here:

Get the northrop essay contest, latest articles and test prep tips! © PrepScholar 2013-2015. All rights reserved. Define Analytical. SAT® is northrop frye a registered trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board TM . The College Entrance Examination. Board TM does not endorse, nor is define it affiliated in any way with the owner or any content of this site.

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Northrop frye essay contest Research paper Writing Service

How to Write a Masterpiece of northrop frye contest a Resume. This award-winning guide to resume writing will teach you to blog, write a resume equal to one done by a top-notch professional writer. It offers examples, format choices, help writing the northrop contest objective, the summary and other sections. It is one of the most trusted resume-writing guide on an essay on christmas for kids the planet, recently updated, and viewed by more than 20 million people. Define your target market Play up transferrable skills Key in on the tribe. First: Focus Your Objective Your Summary Skills and Accomplishments. Own your digital footprint Use social media to your advantage Leverage keywords. Visual appeal, format, and length Consistency Details that matter. Writing a great resume does not necessarily mean you should follow the rules you hear through the grapevine. It does not have to northrop essay, be one page or follow a specific resume format.

Every resume is analytical, a one-of-a-kind marketing communication. It should be appropriate to your situation and do exactly what you want it to do. Instead of northrop essay contest a bunch of rules and tips, we are going to cut to the chase in this brief guide and offer you the on christmas most basic principles of northrop contest writing a highly effective resume. Who are we to be telling you how to essays, write your resume? Our specialty at northrop essay contest Rockport Institute is career change coaching, counseling and consulting. We help clients design and change to a new career or job, one they will love; work that makes full use of their talents, fits their personality, their values, and is also practical, from Fortune 500 C.E.O.s, mid and early career professionals, artists, technical people, millenials, and others in nearly every field of endeavor.

Our staff has been commended for history essay questions excellence by two U.S. presidents. Our first book, The Pathfinder: How to northrop frye essay, Choose or Change Your Career for a Lifetime of Satisfaction and Success was a top-10 national bestseller. That is our one and only specialty. If you think you may be in the wrong career, check out our main website. The most difficult resumes to write are those of career changers since they depend on thinking out a clear marketing proposition. So, we are resume experts, but WE DO NOT WRITE RESUMES. A resume for a mid-level professional can easily cost $1000. With this guide, you can do it yourself. The good news and the bad – The good news is that, with a little extra effort, you can create a resume that makes you stand out as a superior candidate for for kids a job you are seeking. Not one resume in a hundred follows the principles that stir the interest of northrop frye contest prospective employers. So, even if you face fierce competition, with a well written resume you should be invited to interview more often than many people more qualified than you.

The bad news is that your present resume is probably much more inadequate than you now realize. You will have to an essay, learn how to think and essay write in a style that may be new to you. If you’ve been online trying to make sense of all that’s out there about resume writing – much of it conflicting advice – stay right here. We have the final word on those nagging questions (Length? Format? Font? Keywords?). We have clear, no-nonsense guidance based on thousands of real-life success stories. On My. Here’s how to do it yourself, broken down in 10 parts. Our guide is based on one fundamental premise: Your resume is a marketing document. It’s not the frye contest history of dead essays your past; it’s an ad.

You’re selling yourself to the employer, and frye essay competing against other people who are attempting to an essay on christmas, do the same thing. A great resume doesn’t just tell them what you have done but makes the same assertion that all good ads do: If you buy this product, you will get these specific, direct benefits . It presents you in the best light. Northrop Frye Contest. It convinces the employer that you have what it takes to be successful in this new position or career. It inspires the prospective employer to pick up the phone and ask you to science essays, come in. YOU’RE ADVERTISING YOURSELF. Here’s a key thing we know based on deep research: Every resume is a one-of-a-kind marketing communication.

It should be appropriate to your situation and do exactly what you want it to northrop frye essay, do. The reality is science essays, that most resumes fail to northrop essay contest, stir the interest of possible ap us questions prospective employers. So, even if you face fierce competition, with a well-written resume you should be invited to interview more often than many people – even people more qualified than you. A great resume doesn’t only frye contest, tell the possible history essay employer what you have done. Essay. It makes the same assertion that all good ads do: If you buy this product, you will get these specific, direct benefits. Style Research. It presents you in the best possible light. It convinces the northrop frye employer that you absolutely have what it takes to be successful in this new position or career. The very best marketing is research-based marketing. So, do your research.

Visit the employer’s website often and follow the essay organization on social media. (Do this of northrop frye course after doing any necessary cleanup of analytical essay your social media profile – more on frye essay that in Section 8 of define this guide, WORK ALL THE DIGITAL ANGLES .) What types of accomplishments do they celebrate and how can you weave similar accomplishments into northrop frye essay contest your resume? What kind of analytical essay language do they use to describe achievements? If almost everything is frye, “significant” or “breakthrough,” how do you tactfully place those words in various sections of your resume? You have to know your customer’s needs – and have a very clear sense of the essays on my favourite skills they’re looking for frye contest in their ideal job candidate. Our experience shows that your resume must demonstrate that you have at least 70% of a job’s requirements to have a legitimate hope of landing an interview. Do all the research you can, from online searches and social media tracking to networking with people you know. If you know anyone who works there, definitely approach them for a conversation – or better yet, coffee or lunch. TIP: Avoid HR at dead blog this stage: HR teams are constantly pushing back on contest unsolicited inquiries from people who want jobs. A sobering fact is define analytical, that job recruiters spend an average of six seconds on frye contest every resume as they sort through digital stacks of define analytical essay applicants. So, focus on the employer’s needs, not yours . Northrop Essay Contest. It is imperative that you take what you learn during your research and apply it as you customize your resume.

There is no shame in an essay, adjusting your resume to northrop frye contest, appeal to your target audience; in fact, the opposite is true. It would be inadvisable not to adapt your resume – even if slightly – for each job application. Imagine that you are the person doing the hiring. This someone with skin in essays blog, the game. Often, it’s the person who is responsible for the bottom-line performance of the northrop frye project or team you hope to join. This is someone who cares deeply how well the job will be done. You need to write your resume to appeal directly to him or her: If this person thinks you can be an asset and help make them look good, you have a real shot. To reiterate: Your resume is a very informed, targeted advertisement. At the end of the day it’s an essays blog, ad…nothing more, nothing less.

2. YOUR RESUME’S #1 JOB: LAND AN INTERVIEW. It’s critical to always bear in mind that your resume is a tool with one specific purpose: to win an interview. If it doesn’t, it isn’t an effective resume. So how do you prevail? First, embrace some basic truths about the essay contest job-seeking landscape. First, let go of any misguided preconceptions about science, what your resume is: It’s not about you. Like any strong piece of advertising, it’s not about the product being sold – it’s about the buyer and what they want.

Consider Coke advertisements: They say very little about the soft drink; they say a lot about how people who drink the beverage are happy and have a lot of happy people around them. The focus is on the benefits of drinking Coke. Your resume is about the benefits of hiring you. Your resume is not a place to brag; nor is it a place to be modest. Its sole purpose is to generate interest in you.

What differentiates you from the competition. In addition to including all relevant information about your skills, background, accomplishments, etc. (see Section 5 and Section 6), find ways to include details that could generate curiosity. Were you born in a different country? Is there community or volunteer work that’s appealing? Are you fluent in multiple languages?

Did you go through college in three years – or later in life? These are real people reading your resume, and maybe there’s a fact about northrop essay, you they’ll relate to or find interesting. What does that mean? In The Pathfinder, we discuss how roughly 75% of style research paper people have a personality type we describe as Tribal. They are group workers, usually most successful and satisfied working with and through other people as members of an organization, group, or ‘tribe.’” They are at frye essay contest their best when they are attuned to the tribe and contributing to essay, its goals. (For the record, the other 25% are what we call Maestros who identify as specialist – e.g., “I am a software developer” versus “I work for Microsoft” – for frye essay more, see The Pathfinder.) Back to the tribe: If you’re selling yourself to an essay, an organization, you’re selling yourself to a tribe.

The tribe’s members will have to be convinced that you’re “one of them.” Use the research conducted in Section 1 to inform your approach in how you construct and write your resume. Consider the northrop frye scenario of two tribes living on opposite sides of define a lake. If you want to northrop frye essay contest, be hired by the tribe across the lake, you want to appear as though you’re already one of them. This will inform everything you put in your resume – from the adjectives you use to the aspects of your education and conference style work experience that you emphasize, to the outside interests you include. If the contest employer’s mission statement includes language about “customer focus” and its website talks about define essay, “innovation,” those words should be reflected in essay, your resume (in a not-too-obvious way). If the employer is “results-driven” and science and faith essays cares about “sustainable solutions,” make it clear that you are results-focused and understand the importance of sustainable progress. You have to learn how to write powerful but subtle advertising copy. An effective way to do this is to think of it as telling an introductory story. When you meet someone, you want to know “their story,” right?

It’s the same for that hiring manager looking at northrop frye your resume. It’s important that all of the information you present fits together cohesively, and helps the hiring manager understand your background, skills and capacities, and the educational and science work experiences that have led to northrop essay contest, you to where you are today. While you are selling a product, you shouldn’t “hard sell” or make any claims that are not true. Science. Most employers respond to resumes that are both impressive as well as credible. Frye Essay Contest. They are not fond of hyperbole; they also have no way of knowing if you’re being overly-modest. It’s a balancing act.

3. KNOW EXACTLY WHAT KIND OF RESUME YOU’RE WRITING. There are three basic types of science and faith essays resumes: Chronological, Functional, and “Combined” Chronological – Functional. Generally speaking, we prefer the frye essay contest Combined approach – but this decision should be informed by the type of job you’re seeking and essays the type of frye contest employer you’re seeking to impress. For example, if you’re applying for a job in a more traditional field such as law, science, or engineering, a Chronological approach would be best. If you are changing your career or returning to the job market after a break, a Functional resume is the way to go.

A Combined approach offers the most flexibility; and if you’re in a creative field, you might make modifications to a Combined format that showcase your artistic eye or style. At the define end of the day, it’s all about generating the northrop contest best marketing copy to an essay for kids, sell yourself. The chronological resume is the more traditional resume structure. The Experience section is the focus of the resume; each job (or the essay contest last several jobs) is described in some detail, and there is no major section of skills or accomplishments at the beginning of the resume. This structure is primarily used when you are staying in english favourite book, the same profession and in the same type of work. It is contest, also commonly used in certain fields such as law and academia.

We recommend that the chronological resume always have an Objective or Summary for the reader. Advantages: This approach may appeal to dead, more traditional readers and may be best in conventional or conservative fields. It makes it easier to understand what you did in what job, and may help the name of the employer stand out (if it’s impressive). The disadvantage is that it is much more difficult to highlight what you do best. This format is frye essay contest, rarely appropriate for someone making a career change.

The functional resume highlights your major skills and accomplishments from the very beginning. History Questions. It helps the reader see clearly what you can do for them, rather than having to read through the job descriptions to find out. Actual company names and positions are in frye essay, a subordinate position, with no description under each. There are many different types of formats for functional resumes. The functional resume is a must for career changers, but is very appropriate for science essays generalists, for those with spotty or divergent careers, for those with a wide range of skills in their given profession, for northrop frye essay contest students, for military officers, for homemakers returning to the job market, and for those who want to make slight shifts in their career direction. Advantages: It will help you most in english, reaching for a new goal or direction, and it is highly recommended for northrop frye such purposes. The disadvantage is blog, that it isn’t easy for the employer to quickly discern exactly what you did in each job (which could be a problem for northrop frye some conservative resume reviewers).

A combined resume includes elements of both the chronological and style research paper functional formats. It may be a shorter chronology of job descriptions preceded by a short “Skills and frye essay Accomplishments” section – or with a longer Summary including a skills list or a list of “qualifications”). It can also be a standard functional resume with the accomplishments under headings of different jobs held. There are important advantages to essays, this combined approach: It maximizes the advantages of both kinds of resumes, avoiding potential negative effects of either type. One disadvantage is northrop essay contest, that it tends to be a longer resume.

Another is that it can be repetitious: Accomplishments and skills may have to be repeated in both the “functional” section and the “chronological” job descriptions. 4. GUIDANCE FOR A CAREER CHANGE RESUME. Clearly, career change has become a new norm of conference style research paper working. As we noted in Section 3, a career-change job search calls for a Functional resume. DEFINE YOUR TARGET MARKET. “Target market” in advertising refers to people a company aims to turn into customers. Essay. In your career-change job search, your target is the collection of specific organizations that might hire you to do what you want to do…where you want to do it.

Start with geographic requirements – is the world…. or Seattle? Within that geographic area, target the type of organization that interests you: profit-making, non-for-profit, or government? What kind of business or industry? What size organization? Once you have your parameters, identify specific employers and learn all you can about them. What is their history? What do they emphasize in their messaging? Who are the decision makers? What is their hiring philosophy? What kind of work culture is possible, it?

In addition to digging around online and in social media, use your networking skills to essay, learn all you can to help inform how you customize your resume. PLAY UP TRANSFERRABLE SKILLS. Jobs in very different professional fields can often have a number of english essays similar requirements. Let’s say that you want to go from a marketing position in a pharmaceutical firm to northrop frye essay, a fund-raising role for style research a not-for-profit. What are the skills you’ve already demonstrated that are applicable? They may be more than you think. Consider these possibilities: Time management Project management Collaboration Persuasive communicating Strong decision-making Composure under pressure Innovative problem-solving. You should also be prepared to essay contest, speak to your motivation for style paper a career change. You can weave a little of this into your Objective, then also be prepared to write about essay contest, it briefly in your cover letter, and then of course speak to it when you land an interview. As a career changer, you are effectively moving from one tribe to another.

Within the bounds of integrity, the story you tell has to explain why the tribe you now want to enter is really the right one for you (and not the other one). This is another instance where research is and faith, critical. Go to LinkedIn and similar sites and frye essay take a look at a good number of english essays on my resumes of frye essay people seeking similar jobs. Also, tap into your circle of colleagues, friends, and family. Tune into the axis we call the Quality of Transactions in The Pathfinder. The basic premise of this model is essays on my favourite book, that the closer you are to connections that are “hot” (e.g., someone high up in the organization is northrop frye, willing to and faith, go to bat for you) versus “cold” (no connections and a basic resume submitted), the more likely you are to have quality transactions that can result in getting you hired. Even somewhere in the “warm” range – maybe you know someone who knows someone in northrop contest, a position to help – is highly preferable to coming in possible ap us essay, cold. And create partners: Scan the connections of northrop essay your connections on LinkedIn.

Then follow up energetically (more on this in Section 7 on Digital Angles). TIP: There tends to be higher scrutiny of career changers, so the extent to on my book, which you can gain traction within the tribe is of fundamental importance. 5. THE JUICE: YOUR ASSERTIONS SECTION. In most cases, a great resume has two main sections. Frye Contest. In the first, you make assertions about your abilities, qualities, and an essay on christmas achievements. You write powerful, but honest, advertising copy that grabs the northrop essay contest reader’s attention. (Exceptions to on my, this are resumes targeting generally conservative fields such as law, science, or engineering.) The second section, the evidence section, is where you back up your assertions with evidence that you actually did what you said you did. This is where you list and describe the jobs you’ve held, your education, etc.

And if you have opted to frye essay contest, pass on dead blog an Assertions section, you have to frye essay contest, build a powerful evidence-based resume that builds the case for possible history essay questions you as a candidate – with especially compelling skills and essay contest accomplishments summarized in define, the top half of the first page. The real juice in your resume is what you assert about yourself right up front. This is where you shine. The hard truth based on research: Only one interview is granted for every 200 resumes received by the average employer. Northrop Contest. Research also tells us that your resume will be quickly scanned, rather than read. You have only seconds to persuade a prospective employer to read further. The top half of the science essays first page of your resume will either make or break your chances. Ask yourself: What does the northrop essay contest employer really want? How would you fill those shoes?

What would set a truly exceptional candidate apart from a merely good one? If you are not sure what would make someone a superior candidate, you can gather intel from the dead blog job postings you see, and/or from people who work in the same company or the same field. You could even call the prospective employer and northrop frye essay contest ask them what they want. Don’t make wild guesses. Write down everything you have ever done that demonstrates that you’re the on christmas for kids right fit for the job and the prospective employer. You don’t have to confine yourself to work-related accomplishments.

TIP: Use your entire life as the palette to paint with. The point is to cover all possible ways of thinking about and northrop frye contest communicating what you do well. Dead Essays Blog. What are the talents you bring to the marketplace? If you are making a career change or are a new to the job market, you are going to essay, have to blog, be especially creative in getting across what makes you stand out. This initial brainstorming focus will generate the northrop raw material from which you craft your resume. So many resumes we see make a gallant effort to inform the reader. But we don’t want the employer to be informed; we want them to be interested and curious.

In fact, it’s best to leave your reader with a few questions they would like to ask you. In your assertions section, state your Objective – your intended job. Ideally, your resume should convey why you are the perfect candidate for english essays on my favourite book one specific job or job title. There is debate out there about whether to state an Objective, but generally speaking, we think it’s a good idea. Frye Contest. If you’re in a creative field or have gained insights suggesting that the employer would prefer an outside-of-the-box approach, perhaps you forego an an essay for kids, Objective. Keep it to the point, and keep the northrop essay contest employer front and center as your write. Consider this example. The owner of a small software company advertises for an experienced software salesperson. A week later they have 500 resumes.

The applicants have a bewildering variety of backgrounds, and the employer has no way of knowing whether any of them are really interested in dead, selling software. Then the employer spots a resume that starts with the northrop essay following: “OBJECTIVE – a software sales position in an organization seeking an extraordinary record of generating new accounts, exceeding sales targets and enthusiastic customer relations.” This is favourite, a fit . Not only does this candidate want the job, they want to make a real contribution. Job-seekers often make the mistake of saying something like, “a position where I can hone my skill as a scissors sharpener.” Examples follow. In all of these examples, the underlined words and phrases could be interchanged with words and phrases relevant to your expertise, industry, and the type of role you are seeking. In this example, the statement is not preceded by the word “Objective.” Experienced IT professional offering more than five years of frye contest hands-on experience in programming , web development , and dead essays blog IT trouble-shooting , and seeks leadership role in leading digital organization. In this example, you see a collection of brief descriptions versus a formally stated objective in a grammatically complete sentence. Strategic thinker and communicator . Northrop Essay Contest. Expert storyteller . A decade of science deadline -driven on-air reporting . Ready to pivot to executive producer role.

In this example, the applicant uses a first-person approach to a creative role. “If the client wants a logo people will remember, I give them one people will never forget. If they want their brand to communicate , I make it sing .” In this example, the job-seeker approaches a traditional job role with a traditional string of statements. CPA and CIA with 15 years of experience in financial services for global organizations. Financial strategist with track record for onsidered and decisive recommendations , as well as thorough compliance with all federal, state, and internal regulations . Excels at individual as well as collaborative efforts. Known for work ethic and integrity. In this example, you see a more traditional approach by a recent graduate seeking an northrop contest, entry-level role in a conventional job sector. OBJECTIVE: A starting position in an engineering organization where leading-edge skills and deep commitment to every project would be an conference paper, asset to the company and its people.

TIP: The point of using an Objective is to create a specific psychological response in the mind of the reader. If you are making a career change or have a limited work history, you want the employer to immediately focus on where you are going, rather than where you have been. If you are looking for another job in your present field, it is contest, more important to an essay on christmas for kids, stress your qualities, achievements and abilities first. It is sometimes appropriate to include your Objective in your Summary section rather than have a separate Objective section. The “Summary” or “Summary of Qualifications” consists of northrop essay contest several concise statements that focus the reader’s attention on your most important qualities, achievements, and abilities. (NOTE: If you are on LinkedIn, it is important that the summary in your resume be reflected in what you have in your LinkedIn summary. You have a lot more space to work with in LinkedIn, so they needn’t match exactly, but they should be close enough that they show consistency. You should be recognizable as the same person!) The things you mention should be the most compelling demonstrations of english on my book why you should be hired – not the other candidates. This is your brief window of opportunity to essay contest, highlight your most impressive qualities – the spiciest part of your resume. In fact, this may be the only section fully read by the employer, so it must be strong and convincing.

The Summary is the one place to include professional characteristics (highly energetic, a gift for solving complex problems in a fast-paced environment, a natural salesperson, exceptional interpersonal skills, committed to excellence, etc.). Gear every word in the Summary to your goal: getting that interview. Here are the most common ingredients of a well-written Summary. A short phrase describing your profession Followed by a statement of ap us history essay broad or specialized expertise Followed by two or three additional statements related to frye essay, any of the following: breadth or depth of skills unique mix of skills range of on christmas environments in which you have experience a special or well-documented accomplishment a history of awards, promotions, or superior performance commendations One or more professional or appropriate personal characteristics A sentence describing professional objective or interest. You would not necessarily use all these ingredients in one Summary.

Use the ones that highlight you best. The examples below show how to include your objective in the Summary section. TIP: If you are making a career change, your Summary section should show how what you have done in the past prepares you to do what you seek to do in the future. If you are new to the job market, your Summary will be based more on ability than experience. A few examples of Summary sections:

Highly motivated, creative and versatile real estate executive with seven years of experience in property acquisition, development and construction, as well as the management of large apartment complexes. Especially skilled at building effective, productive working relationships with clients and staff. Excellent management, negotiation and northrop contest public relations skills. Seeking a challenging management position in the real estate field that offers extensive contact with the public. Over 10 years as an organizational catalyst/training design consultant with a track record of producing extraordinary results for ap us history questions more than 20 national and community based organizations. A commitment to human development and frye community service. Energetic self-starter with excellent analytical, organizational, and dead essays creative skills. Financial Management Executive with nearly ten years of experience in northrop essay, banking and international trade, finance, investments and economic policy. Innovative in paper, structuring credit enhancement for frye corporate and municipal financing.

Skilled negotiator with strong management, sales and marketing background. Areas of expertise include (a bulleted list would follow this paragraph.) Health Care Professional experienced in management, program development and policy making in the United States as well as in several developing countries. Expertise in emergency medical services. A talent for analyzing problems, developing and simplifying procedures, and finding innovative solutions. Proven ability to motivate and work effectively with persons from other cultures and all walks of life. And Faith. Skilled in working within a foreign environment with limited resources.

Commander – Chief Executive Officer of the U.S. Navy, Atlantic Fleet. Expertise in all areas of management, with a proven record of unprecedented accomplishment. History of the highest naval awards and rapid promotion. Proven senior-level experience in executive decision-making, policy direction, strategic business planning, Congressional relations, financial and personnel management, research and development, and aerospace engineering. Extensive knowledge of government military requirements in northrop contest, systems and equipment. Committed to define analytical essay, the highest levels of frye essay contest professional and personal excellence. Performing artist with a rich baritone voice and unusual range, specializing in classical, spiritual, gospel and rap music. Featured soloist for two nationally televised events. Accomplished pianist.

Extensive performance experience includes television, concert tours and club acts. Available for commercial recording and essay questions live performances. SKILLS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS. In this final part of the assertions section, go into northrop frye contest more detail. In the summary, you focused on your most special highlights. Now you tell the rest of the best of your story. Let the employer know what results you produced, what happened because of your efforts, what you are especially gifted or experienced at doing. TIP: Don’t tell them everything you’ve ever done.

It’s okay – in fact, advisable – to leave to your readers wondering about essay, a thing or two in a positive way. Sometimes the essay “Skills and Accomplishments” section is a separate section. In a chronological resume, it becomes the first few phrases of the descriptions of the various jobs you have held. Conference Style Research. We will cover that in a few minutes, when we discuss the different types of resumes. Northrop Frye Essay Contest. When it is a separate section, it can have several possible titles, depending on your situation: SKILLS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS ACCOMPLISHMENTS SUMMARY OF ACCOMPLISHMENTS SELECTED ACCOMPLISHMENTS RECENT ACCOMPLISHMENTS AREAS OF ACCOMPLISHMENT AND EXPERIENCE AREAS OF EXPERTISE CAREER HIGHLIGHTS PROFESSIONAL HIGHLIGHTS ADDITIONAL SKILLS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS. There are options for how to blog, structure your “Skills and northrop essay contest Accomplishments” section. Dead Blog. Whichever you choose, put your skills and northrop accomplishments in order of essays importance for the desired career goal. If you have many skills, the last skill paragraph might be called “Additional Skills.” TIP: Be sure to use action-oriented words.

These include words such as Delivered; Created; Solved; Boosted; Designed; Transformed; and Elevated (for more see our Section 9 on Power Words). Here are a few ways you could structure your “Skills and Accomplishments” section: A listing of skills or accomplishments or a combination of northrop frye essay both, with bullets. SELECTED SKILLS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS. Raised $1,900 in 21 days in canvassing and advocacy on possible ap us environmental, health and consumer issues. Conducted legal research for four Assistant U.S. Attorneys, for the U.S.

Attorney’s office Coordinated Board of Directors and Community Advisory Board of community mental health center. Later commended as “the best thing that ever happened to that job.” A listing of northrop frye essay major skill headings with accomplishments under each. The accomplishments can be a bulleted list or in paragraph form. The material under the headings should include mention of accomplishments which prove each skill. National Training Project / Conference Management. Director of Outreach on Hunger, a national public education/training project funded by USAID, foundations and all the major church denominations.

Designed, managed and promoted three-day training conferences in cities throughout the U.S. Planned and managed 32 nationwide training seminars and a five-day annual conference for analytical essay university vice-presidents and business executives. Program Design: Universities. Invited by Duke University President Terry Sanford to develop new directions and northrop frye essay programs for essays the University’s Office of Summer Educational Programs, first Director of frye contest Duke’s “Pre-college Program,” first editor of “Summer at Duke.” Designed and successfully proposed a center for the study of define analytical creativity at The George Washington University. A list of bulleted accomplishments or skill paragraphs under each job (in a chronological resume).

Director of Sales and northrop frye Marketing. DELAWARE TRADE INTERNATIONAL, INC. Wilmington, DE. Promoted from for kids Sales Representative within one year of northrop frye contest joining company to an essay on christmas, Director of Sales and Marketing. Responsible for frye contest international sales of raw materials, as well as printing and graphic arts equipment. Oversaw five sales managers.

Was in charge of english essays book direct sales and marketing in 17 countries throughout Europe and the Middle East. Northrop Frye Contest. Recruited, trained and an essay for kids managed sales staff. Developed marketing strategy, prepared sales projections and established quotas. Selected and contracted with overseas sub-agents to achieve international market penetration. Frye. Negotiated and finalized long-term contractual agreements with suppliers on behalf of english on my favourite book clients. Oversaw all aspects of transactions, including letters of credit, international financing, preparation of contest import/export documentation, and shipping/freight forwarding. Planned and essays administered sales and marketing budget, and maintained sole profit/loss responsibility. Northrop Frye Essay Contest. Within first year, doubled company’s revenues, and produced $7-9 million in annual sales during the next eight years. 6. THE NITTY GRITTY: YOUR EVIDENCE SECTION.

The evidence section includes some or all of the following: experience, education, and possibly additional items such as awards, affiliations, and publications. Dead Blog. While this section is contest, secondary to your assertions section, it is still incredibly important. TIP: Think of it as the essays blog foundation holding up your assertions so they can shine. If this section isn’t strong enough, the frye essay contest resume doesn’t hold together and the hiring manager will question the style credibility of your assertions. List jobs in reverse chronological order. Don’t go into detail on the jobs early in your career; focus on northrop frye contest the most recent and/or relevant jobs. Style Paper. (Summarize a number of the earliest jobs in northrop, one line or very short paragraph, or list only the bare facts with no position description.) Decide which is, overall, more impressive – your job titles or the names of the firms you worked for – then consistently begin with the define analytical essay more impressive of the two, perhaps using boldface type. You may want to describe the employer in a phrase in parentheses if this will impress the reader. Include military service, internships, and northrop frye essay major volunteer roles if desired; because the section is labeled “Experience.” It does not mean that you were paid.

Other possible headings here include: “Professional History,” “Professional Experience”–not “Employment” or “Work History,” both of which sound more lower-level. A note about dates throughout the conference research paper evidence section: Be honest but also strategic. Generally speaking, put dates in italics at contest the end of the job to on christmas for kids, de-emphasize them. Don’t include months, unless the northrop job was held less than a year. If you’re old enough to have considered botox, consider what you might “botox” in your resume.

The year you earned your degree(s) doesn’t have to be included. And as you summarize your early career, there is no need to an essay for kids, include dates in this information. If there are gaps in your recent professional experience, use years versus months. Don’t put down anything that isn’t true – it’s too easy for employers to check information and discover mistruths. But be prepared to speak to any gaps in a way that supports the overall story you’re telling about northrop essay, yourself. List education in reverse chronological order – degrees or licenses first, followed by certificates and advanced training.

Set degrees apart so they are easily seen. Put in boldface whatever will be most impressive. Don’t include any details about college except your major and distinctions or awards you have won, unless you are still in college or just recently graduated. Include grade-point average only if over 3.4. List selected coursework if this will help convince the reader of your qualifications for on christmas for kids the targeted job. Include advanced training, but be selective with the northrop frye essay contest information, summarizing the conference style research paper information and including only northrop essay contest, what will be impressive for the reader. No degree yet?

If you are working on an uncompleted degree, include the degree and science and faith essays afterwards, in parentheses, the essay contest expected date of science and faith essays completion: B.S. Northrop Frye Essay. (expected 20__). If you didn’t finish college, start with a phrase describing the field studied, then the school, then the dates (the fact that there was no degree may be missed). Science. Other headings might be “Education and Training,” “Education and Licenses,” “Legal Education / Undergraduate Education” (for attorneys). If the only awards received were in school, put these under the Education section. Mention what the award was for if you can (or just “for outstanding accomplishment” or “outstanding performance”). If you have received awards, this section is northrop frye contest, almost a must. If you have received commendations or praise from some very senior source, you could call this section, “Awards and english essays on my book Commendations.” In that case, go ahead and quote the source.

Professional Affiliations. Include only those that are current, relevant and impressive. Include leadership roles if appropriate. This is a good section for communicating your status as a member of a minority targeted for special consideration by employers, or for northrop frye essay showing your membership in an association that would enhance your appeal as a prospective employer. This section can be combined with “Civic / Community Leadership” as “Professional and Community Memberships.” Languages. Being fluent in more than one language is definitely something to include. Civic / Community Leadership. This is essays, good to frye, include if the leadership roles or accomplishments are related to the job target and can show skills acquired, for example, a loan officer hoping to become a financial investment counselor who was Financial Manager of essays blog a community organization charged with investing its funds. Any Board of northrop frye Directors membership or “chairmanship” would be good to english essays, include. Be careful with political affiliations, as they could be a plus or minus with an employer or company. Publications.

Include only if published, and provide links where you can if you think the work is impressive and relevant. Northrop Contest. Summarize if there are many. Comments from Supervisors, Clients, other Professional Elite. Include only if very exceptional. Heavily edit for key phrases. Personal Interests. Tread thoughtfully here. While personal interests tend to essays, feature prominently on northrop frye contest social media platforms such as LinkedIn, you should weigh how much it can help you when applying for english favourite book a job—ideally on a case-by-case basis. Essay. It you include a section like this, keep the following in mind.

Advantages: Personal interests can indicate a skill or area of knowledge that is conference style research, related to essay, the goal, such as photography for essays favourite someone in public relations, or carpentry and wood-working for someone in construction management. This section can show well-roundedness, good physical health, or knowledge of a subject related to frye, the goal. It can also create common ground or spark conversation, and/or help a hiring manager see you as someone who would fit in their tribe. Disadvantages: Personal interests can be irrelevant to the job goal and purpose of the resume. Listing such interests can also have unintended negative consequences. Define Analytical Essay. For example, if you’re highly athletic and the people interviewing you aren’t physically fit – or perhaps eve self-conscious about that – the fact that you’re super-fit might not play in frye essay contest, your favor.If in conference research, doubt, do not include a Personal Interests section. Northrop Essay. Your reason for including it is most likely that you want to tell them about you. But, as you know, this is an ad. Science And Faith. If this section would move the frye essay employer to understand why you would be the best candidate, include it; otherwise, forget about it. This section may also be called “Interests Outside of dead essays Work,” or just “Interests.” References. You may put “References available upon request” at the end of your resume, if you wish.

This is frye, a standard close (centered at bottom in english on my favourite book, italics), but is not necessary: It is usually assumed. Do not include actual names of frye contest references. You can bring a separate sheet of references to dead essays blog, the interview, to be given to the employer upon request. 7. Frye Contest. WORK ALL THE DIGITAL ANGLES. Social media venues offer valuable possibilities for powering your job search, as well as a few potential downsides. Possible Ap Us History Essay. Be sure your digital footprint is an asset as you prepare your resume. OWN YOUR DIGITAL FOOTPRINT.

Social media is northrop frye essay, a primary vehicle for analytical communication. You will want to include at least one of your social media accounts on your resume. Be sure that any e-mail addresses and northrop social media handles look and sound professional. If not, get new ones. You want to be [emailprotected]; not [emailprotected] Understand that most employers – 65% or more – use social networks to research candidates. Roughly half of them do so to style paper, see if the candidate is frye essay contest, likely to be a “good fit” for their culture – in other words, right for their tribe. It is documented that employers regularly review social media to see if there are reasons not to dead, hire an applicant. So, it is imperative that you review all of your social media postings and contest clean up any content that you wouldn’t want a prospective employer to possible essay, see.

And keep an eye on northrop frye your accounts so that you can monitor and remove comments from on christmas for kids friends that don’t serve your professional image. Essay. Social media posts that employers cite as detrimental include evidence of possible drug use or excessive drinking, bad-mouthing of previous employers, and frye essay contest discriminatory language. TIP: Be sure that information on your various social media accounts is consistent. You can’t assume that an employer will only science essays, check out your LinkedIn page. They may also look for essay contest you on Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, or Google+.

It is define analytical, a good rule of thumb with social media posts to ask yourself whether what you are posting is something that you would be delighted for everyone in the world to see. USE SOCIAL MEDIA TO YOUR ADVANTAGE. Remember that you’re marketing yourself. Owning your digital footprint is also about taking advantage of an additional opportunity to make a good impression. Make an effort beyond any clean-up activity to create a strong social media profile. This is an opportunity for frye essay you to appear thoughtful, well-rounded, positive, a strong communicator – the kinds of things employers are generally seeking. In addition, be active on an essay social media in a way that advances your professional interests and possibilities. Engage on networking sites to increase your visibility and searchabilty with prospective employers. And while you’re active on social media, to accommodate search engines, be sure that you are using a consistent version of your professional name.

If you’re “Robert L. Smith” on LinkedIn, you should be Robert L. Smith in your resume and on your other social media accounts – not Rob Smith here and there. Your professional “screen name” is probably your most important keyword. As mentioned earlier, follow your prospective employer on Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, and northrop frye the like. Think of what you see as an aggregated news feed about the employer. It doesn’t take long to begin to get a real sense of the organization’s culture, values, and work environment intel can help you prepare the science essays most thoughtful resume possible – and northrop frye can also help you immensely as you later prepare for an interview. And bear in mind: The beauty of Social Media is that you can gain access to essays on my, people you otherwise might not. If you see someone within your connections who is northrop frye, connected to a person of interest to you. Perhaps they are in the field in which you are seeking work; perhaps they work for a company you wish to get in to possible ap us questions, – then ask your contact to introduce you. TIP: LinkedIn offers the frye contest opportunity for people to post recommendations. Be sure to define analytical essay, ask people to frye, provide recommendations for you, in define essay, particular those people who can speak to the strengths that you most want to be emphasized.

In addition to your professional name, there are many other keywords to consider. Many employers routinely digitally scan resumes for keywords relevant to their companies and cultures, as well as field of work. You should assume that this is being done. Use keywords that are customized for northrop the kind of position you’re seeking as well as your job field. For example: Consider that your current title is “Program Assistant.” But when you search online, you don’t see that title much.

What you do see with high frequency on Indeed, LinkedIn, etc. is “Administrative Assistant.” It’s not a misstep in integrity to list your current title as “Administrative Assistant” if that’s accurate, and it will increase your find-ability for recruiters and essays on my favourite hiring managers searching online. Similar guidance holds true for skills and accomplishments. Northrop. When customizing your resume for a specific position, take careful note of the skills required and use any number of those words in your resume. If you think of yourself as someone who “leads stakeholder communications,” but the employer uses the phrase “stakeholder engagement” – that’s right, you’re now an ap us essay, expert in stakeholder engagement. Contest. If you have “increased website and social media traffic” in your current job, but your prospective employer’s website discusses “online presence” – your resume should note that you “elevated online presence.” Then use this same approach to define analytical essay, find more keywords that will appeal to that hiring manager.

After conducting your research on frye the employer’s website and social media pages – as well as media articles about the organization – comprise a list of words and phrases that appear regularly. Be sure that these words and phrases appear in science and faith essays, your resume, but in a way that doesn’t seem forced or like overkill. You have a bit of a fine line to contest, walk – these have to be words and phrases you can own in the context of selling yourself through your introductory story. Think of your resume as a visually appealing piece of art. This your masterpiece! No matter how closely you follow the guidance we’ve delivered here so far, if you fall short on the presentation of what you’ve written you do yourself a tremendous disservice. A note here about using images or video. Of course, there have been instances where applicants have been hired after using creative visuals or creating “video resumes.” This kind of science and faith essays approach is highly situational, and essay contest should be carefully considered based on what you know about the job and possible history questions the tribe. Northrop Frye Essay Contest. For instance, if you’re a graphic designer, why not show off your stuff to a certain extent?

Or if you’re applying to a video production firm or a start-up with a culture that would accommodate a video submission – go for it. That said, we also recommend that a more traditional PDF with written information accompany your video. VISUAL APPEAL, FORMAT, AND LENGTH. Everyone freely gives advice on resume length. There is no universal right or wrong. Our rule of thumb is that shorter is better, as long as the define analytical essay resume contains all of your most relevant information. Northrop Frye Essay. If you’ve been in english essays book, the workforce for a while or have many accomplishments or publications to list, you might need to exceed a page – but only frye contest, if the content warrants it. And whether it’s one page or more, the same rules apply in terms of the dead essays front end of the resume being your big, brief chance to make an impression. Use a simple, clean, symmetrical structure. Don’t make it to crowded with text; conversely, don’t have so much white space that it looks oddly sparse.

A good rule of thumb is sections of writing that are no more than six lines, and shorter if possible. Be sure to design elements to your advantage. For example, if there is information you want to highlight, consider using boldface. You can also draw the northrop frye eye to something by history essay, ensuring there is ample white space around it. Order information in northrop frye essay contest, a way that draw attention to your strengths; readers tend to focus on the first and last items listed. NOTE: If you’re considering an infographic resume, be sure you give it very careful consideration. Dead Essays Blog. While one might make you stick out in a digital stack of resumes, I have never read one that didn’t make me work harder to northrop frye contest, get the information I wanted. Unless you are an infographic designer looking for that kind of work (or something close), I would veer away from this route.

Your resume must be error-free. On Christmas. There are no spelling errors, no typos. No grammar, syntax, or punctuation errors. There are no errors of fact. Any recruiter or hiring manager will tell you that such errors make it easy to weed out a resume immediately. List information in northrop, a consistent way. For instance, every job should list this information in define analytical essay, this order: Title, Name of Employer, City and State, and the years. Use boldface, underlining, and italics consistently. If you decide to bold one job title, all titles are in boldface. Northrop. If you underline one section heading, underline them all.

In addition, there is essays on my, uniformity in frye, the use of capital letters, bullets, dashes, hyphens, etc. Paper. So, if there is a period after one set of job dates, there is a period after all job dates. If one degree is in essay, bold, all degrees are in bold. If one job is lasted as 1999-2001 (versus 1999 – 2001 or 1999 to an essay, 2000). Whatever you decide about such things stylistically, be absolutely consistent. There are any number of details that really matter. Consider all of the following.

Font. Use a font that’s universally readable such as Arial, Calibri, Garamond, Georgia, Times New Roman, Helvetica, or Didot (a good choice for creative industry). Whatever font you select, use it consistently. Frye. And use a font size that’s readable, but not distractingly large: 12-point is the way to go with some fonts, but sometimes 11-point can get the job done just as well. English Essays Book. PDF.

Save your resume file as a PDF. You don’t want to risk what can happen if someone opens your Word document using a different version than you have, which can disrupt your careful layout, formatting, and more. File name. When saving your PDF file, be sure you give a distinctive and relevant name. Northrop. Definitively don’t give it a number (e.g., NickSmith_V3.pdf) and don’t call it NicksResume.pdf. If Nick is applying for a Marketing Director position, a great file name would be NickSmith_MarketingDirectr.pdf). Keep track. As you customize your resume for science each application, keep track of northrop essay which resume you send to which employer. If you’re called for an interview you will want to essays on my favourite, show up with nicely printed hard copies of frye essay that precise document. Don’t mix first-person and third-person.

Use either the essays on my favourite book first person (“I) or third person (“he,” “she”) point of view, but do so consistently. Northrop Essay. Watch your verb tense. If the accomplishment is completed, it should be past tense. Ap Us Essay Questions. If the task is still underway, it should be present tense. If the skill has been used in the past and will be used again in northrop frye essay, the future, use present tense – e.g., “conduct presentations on recruitment to professional and english essays trade association.” Experience first. Northrop Essay. Experience sections should come before Education. This is because your qualifications are more related to your experience than your education. Exceptions would be (1) if you have just received or are completing a degree in a new field, (2) if you are a lawyer, (3) if you are an undergraduate student, or (4) if there’s something particularly impressive about your education – for example, a Rhodes Scholarship or an MBA from define Harvard. Sell yourself – first and northrop frye essay foremost. Always bear in mind the needs of your customer – the employer. Essays. What do they need to know to assess that you’re right for frye contest the job and will deliver for them?

Customize your resume for each job application. Use keywords selected with your prospective employer in mind. Dead Essays. Be sure you can back up what you say (pumping up is northrop, fine but within the bounds of integrity). Use dynamic, high-energy language. Tighten up sentences where you can. Space is at a premium.

Use quantitative information when possible as you describe accomplishments (e.g., ($1 million portfolio, increased sales 30%, double revenues). Define Analytical. Look at essay everything you’ve written in your resume and conference style add action verbs wherever possible. Frye Essay Contest. Make your resume long enough to include all relevant information. Define Essay. Be sure any e-mail addresses and social media handles shared are appropriate (not unprofessional). Use the same version of your professional “screen name” consistently. Be unduly modest. You are selling yourself, period.

Wing it. Frye Contest. Real preparation and homework is required – no matter how lucky you’ve been in the past. Include information – even if you’re proud of it – that could be construed as controversial or possible be off-putting to science, the employer (e.g., fringe personal interests, religious activity, political affiliation). List everything you’ve ever done. It’s better to leave an employer a little curious and more apt to interview you. Include salary information.

It is appropriate for you to provide this information only when asked. Mention reasons for leaving jobs. You can have tactful, professional reasons ready for interviews. Include references. Provide them when requested, and northrop frye essay contest be sure your references know that an inquiry is on the way.

Try to essays on my book, be funny or cute – no matter how great your personality, these things don’t translate on paper. Include every single piece of information about northrop frye essay contest, yourself – this is not your resume’s job. If the employer wants to know more about you, they’ll ask you for an interview. Get wordy. Don’t use three examples when one will suffice. Be hyperbolic. Don’t use more than one power word or adjective in possible history essay questions, one sentence. Underestimate the northrop frye contest power of reading the job posting carefully and doing all of your homework.

An astute hiring manager will recognize that you’ve done your advance work and will respect that about you. 10. USE YOUR WORDS (POWER WORDS) This isn’t about using fancy or unique words. It’s about and faith, using words that connect with your customer. Remember: This is customized ad copy. accelerated accomplished achieved acquired addressed administered advanced advised advocated aligned allocated amplified analyzed answered appeared applied appointed appraised approved arbitrated arranged assembled assessed assigned assisted assumed assured attained audited authored authorized awarded. blocked boosted bought briefed broadened brought budgeted built. campaigned capitalized cascaded cataloged caused changed chaired charted clarified classified closed coached collected combined commented communicated compared compiled completed computed conceived conserved concluded conducted conceptualized considered consolidated constructed consulted continued contracted controlled converted conveyed convinced coordinated corrected counseled counted created critiqued cultivated cut. dealt decided decreased defined delegated delivered demonstrated described designed determined developed devised diagnosed digitized directed discovered discussed distributed documented doubled drafted.

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Toast of the Resume Industry Awards (TORI) Each year, CDI hosts the resume writing industry’s most prestigious Toast of the northrop frye essay contest, Resume Industry™ (TORI) resume writing competition. The TORI™ Award competition is truly the and faith, resume writer’s #1 secret to explosive business growth. CDI members are eligible and encouraged to strive for writing and creative awards, which benefit the general membership, members’ clients, CDI, and the industry as a whole. CDI introduced the frye contest, TORI™ Awards to the industry in 2000 to essays celebrate a new standard in contest excellence through rigorous criteria requirements. While award standards have always been demanding, never before has the resume writing industry embraced the concept of a standardized criteria for resume judging. 2017 offers eight (8) categories to enter!

There are 40 chances to be nominated and 24 chances to win with gold, silver, and bronze awards! But you can’t wait or you could miss out. Ready to enter? Scroll to bottom of page. It is a great honor to science and faith essays be nominated, but a truly distinguishing accomplishment to be selected as the 1st, 2nd and northrop essay contest, 3rd place TORI Award Winner in each category. Imagine you woke up this morning, a morning seemingly like every other morning except for one considerable difference – today you’re swamped with new resume clients who are excited to have the chance to science work with you and pay your rates. So, what’s so different about today that suddenly your prospects seem to be sold before you even talk to them? Why they appear to be waiting to work with you? Why it’s suddenly so much easier to gain their buy in on the higher rates you are quoting for your services? It’s not magic…it’s not a course to take, a certification you need to northrop frye essay earn, or even an ad or marketing campaign you need to ap us develop… It’s the AWESOME power of northrop taking home a prestigious TORI nomination or award.

If that makes you feel skeptical, take a moment and look at the testimonials from your fellow colleagues in the right column of this page. While winning or being nominated will change your business forever, there are big wins for ALL who enter! Here’s the thing about the TORI Award competition — you need to throw caution to the wind and JUST DO IT! Telling yourself you are not ready, not good enough or worse, too busy, causes you to dead essays lose out on an amazing opportunity to challenge yourself, grow, learn, and even surprise yourself! It’s a loooong 365 days between each annual competition. Frye. Do you really want to wait that long to even challenge yourself and dead blog, see where you rank in an anonymous review by a panel of frye contest industry top performers?

Here are seven ways you can win just by dead, entering: #1 – You Win and Overnight You Become a Business Success. This one is northrop frye essay, a no-brainer, unless you discount just how much of a difference a TORI can make. Just read some of the testimonials below if you aren’t sure. An Essay For Kids. It’s a total game-changer. #2 – You Get Nominated for frye a TORI and Discover It’s Better Than Any Advertising You Could Ever Do. Believe it. You don’t have to just win an award to benefit — making the possible ap us, top five puts you in a class by yourself, as you will rapidly discover. #3 – You Win Just by northrop frye, Studying Winners.

Success doesn’t exist in a vacuum so when you prepare for the TORIs and look at former winning resumes, you help yourself see other possibilities and dead blog, explore new channels for how resumes can be written and designed. Spend some time with the frye, TORI winning resumes and your whole idea of an essay for kids wording alone can be broadened immensely. Northrop Essay Contest. It’s like taking a culinary world tour (if resume were food)! #4 – Taking a Chance Challenges You and Keeps You in the Game. Just like studying the winners, if you look at entering as a chance to paper elevate your skill, reach further, and present your best of the best, then you are winning in essay contest keeping your commitment to growing in your craft alive. #5 – Being Motivated to Go to the Next Level Charges You Up. Ever notice when you go to essays favourite a live training event you feel charged up and rejuvenated? It’s because you are learning something new and that’s exciting. If you dive into the TORIs, study winners, and northrop essay contest, then look at how you can take your writing to an essay the next level, you ARE rejuvenated. Is that a win?

You bet – when you aren’t tired of doing the frye essay, same old thing, you are eager and alive. You and an essay on christmas for kids, your clients win! #6 – Solving Puzzles Builds Brain Muscles, Which Pays Off in the TORIs. Just like games like Soduko can challenge and stimulate your brain (and keep it fresh as you age), figuring out why you don’t win a TORI can be your brain-building business success puzzle (and magic bullet). IT IS A FACT that when those who don’t win sought feedback, made changes, and kept trying, they started to win at the TORIs. Many multi-time TORI winners were once entrants who previously didn’t even get nominated. Not getting nominated or getting nominated and winning is an exciting call to northrop essay action to gear up and strive for the next level! Don’t let not winning stop you. Accept the challenge. Possible History Essay. If you do, you really can win, and win big at that!

#7 – There are Multiple Winners Each Year. Getting nominated for or winning a TORI works, plain and essay contest, simple. Otherwise, you wouldn’t see the same names entering year after year (becoming nominees and winners). While one TORI award or nomination can (and has) made a whole career, many choose to keep pursuing those wins each year and in multiple categories. The beauty is that with eight categories there are 40 chances to get nominated and eight chances to win. You’re not vying for only one coveted award — there is plenty of opportunity! Take the advice of those who have come before you and cover your bases to win at this once-a-year career-making opportunity! Sure the TORIs are a challenge – it wouldn’t be a worthy competition otherwise.

Like any competition, you might have to train, learning advanced skills, studying layouts, elevating your writing – building those muscles. Or, you might already be at a peak performance level of resume writing fitness (and maybe not even know it) ready to scoop up an award on your first try. It happens all the time; just look back over define essay prior years and northrop, you will see many names you have never seen before! But either way, why make excuses not to enter….? Why not take a chance at being what appears to others as an science, overnight success? You just never know, unless you try! SO, MAKE THIS YEAR YOUR TIME.

If you don’t want to wait until December of NEXT YEAR for another chance to see if you are a winner and what that can do for northrop frye essay contest your business and your industry reputation, then go for it now. Commit to making time for this opportunity as it could change your life as a resume writer. Each year, the english essays on my, TORI Awards Director, in contest tandem with the CDI Board of Advisors, selects the define, most applicable categories which best reflect current market trends. CDI members are welcome to contribute one (1) entry to each category. The TORI Awards Director will ensure all submissions appear anonymous to the panel of judges so that fair and essay contest, equitable judging can take place.

The first tier of research paper judges are all certified resume writers, members of CDI’s resume certification committee, and many former TORI winners. They are responsible for northrop contest selecting five nominees in each category. A second similar panel of highly-qualified and certified resume writers will then select the first, second, and for kids, third place winners in northrop frye each category, leading to 40 nominees, and 24 total winners. These are the ONLY categories available for entry this year. Best Hospitality (Travel/Tourism) Resume – encompasses any level of hospitality position from style paper travel agents to frye cruise line staff, hotel staff, management through executive, tour guides, banquet/catering, etc. Best Sales Resume – encompasses any level of sales, business development, or producing sales management. Best Information Technology (IT) Resume – encompasses information technology professionals and managers, etc. Possible Ap Us Essay Questions. Best Healthcare/Medical Resume – encompasses resumes written for northrop contest medical technicians, doctors, surgeons, medical transcriptionists, laboratory staff, administrators, pharma, etc. Best Executive Resume – encompasses any executive-level position in any industry.

Best International Resume – encompasses resumes written for any profession within a non-US market. Best New Graduate Resume – encompasses any discipline, industry, or career level as long as the and faith essays, focus is on leveraging a recent degree as the career target. Best Accounting/Finance Resume – encompasses any level of accounting and/or finance professional from clerk to CPA, and up through CFO. The Master List of TORI Categories. This list is displayed ONLY to show the northrop contest, breadth of the competition across the essays blog, years. Please refer to contest the 2017 list above for open categories.

Best International Resume Best New Graduate Resume Best Healthcare/Medical Resume Best Education/Training Resume Best Legal/Law Resume Best Hospitality (Travel/Tourism) Resume Best Creative Resume Best Re-entry into ap us, the Workforce Resume Best Federal Resume Best Military Conversion Resume Best Executive Resume Best Information Technology (IT) Resume Best Technical Resume Best Web Resume Best Career Change Resume Best Cover Letter Best Career Web Portfolio Best Professional Resume Best Sales Marketing Resume Best Sales Resume Best Accounting/Finance Resume Best LinkedIn Profile. TORIs are only essay, open to blog CDI members. Each entry is northrop frye essay contest, $25-40 depending on quantity of categories entered. Not a member? Learn more about membership.

The registration deadline to receive entry instructions is Thursday, June 29, 2017 at 12 AM Pacific time. The entry submission deadline is Thursday, July 6, 2017 at 5:00 PM Pacific time. Just Three Easy Steps to Get Started. Important Rule: TORI entries must be created solely through your own efforts and an essay on christmas for kids, the input of contest your client. However, utilizing a third-person proofreader is acceptable. Select what categories you plan to enter from the 2017 category list above. Register online for the number of TORIs you plan to submit. You can start with one in possible ap us history order to receive the submission rules, and then add more categories before the deadline. Once registered you will receive instructions for fictionalizing, Client permissions, naming, saving, and submitting your resume(s) via email. Refunds will not be issued should you opt not to enter a purchased category after registering or submit after the deadline. Nominations and winners will be announced via email once all judging is completed (Oct-Dec).

For initial annual TORI purchases made at any one time*: You can save, and northrop essay contest, increase your chances to win, when you purchase multiple category entries at one time! When you buy 1-2 total categories = $40 US each When you buy 3-6 total categories = $30 US each When you buy 7-8 total categories = $25 US each. Cart will automatically calculate the discount based on essay questions, number entered. Please remember there are only eight categories. Already purchased categories this year and frye essay contest, want to enter more*? Use this option if you are coming back to add additional categories after already registering this year. $35 US each. * Rates will not be adjusted for categories entered after the initial TORI registration purchase. Refunds will not be issued should you opt not to science enter a purchased category after registering or submit after the deadline. Please plan your time during the several months available for TORI registration and northrop frye, entry to paper meet the deadlines.

Why You Should Want to Win a TORI. Read a few of the testimonials from former TORI nominees and winners to northrop frye contest get a sense of the research, value and power of the essay contest, competition: Sharon Williams shares in dead essays 90 seconds why you should want to northrop frye essay win: The TORI was a game-changer for my business. Almost immediately, I had more engaged clients from the market that I am continually seeking to define analytical attract. Frye Essay Contest. In fact, many of my clients find *me* because they are seeking a resume writer whose expertise has been impartially validated. Also, I find that mentioning the TORI helps in conference style research marketing me effectively on my web site and frye contest, when cold calls come in. An Essay On Christmas For Kids. Overall, the TORI has given me more visibility and northrop essay, more professional credibility than I had prior to the win. - Amy L. Adler, Five Strengths Career Transition Experts. I honestly believe winning a TORI award has been instrumental in catapulting my business to the next level. Being nominated or winning an award says to a potential client 'Wow this person is a cut above, I want some of that to and faith essays rub off on me!'

Whether people have heard about TORIs or not is immaterial. Northrop Contest. It's all about education. I proudly display my TORI awards on my website and TELL the client of their value by possible history, saying, 'Hey look no further! I'm an award-winner!' It's one of those things that is little work for contest great rewards. It takes no time to fictionalise an existing resume and provide a synopsis, but if you WIN or even if you are nominated, you have strong marketing collateral that you can repeatedly use to sing your own praises and give you that extra edge for and faith years at no additional cost. - Gayle Howard, Top Margin Career Marketing. “Thanks in part to a whole paragraph on the TORI awards I received, I landed a contract for northrop frye essay contest my company to provide outplacement to 134 employees. Many of the employers are impressed that there is such a thing as resume writing awards and a body such as CDI that oversees it. The TORIs helped to possible essay elevate our credibility. Northrop Frye. In my office, I proudly display the on my, nomination and northrop essay, winning certificates for all to on my favourite see.

- Surranna Sandy, Resume Solutions. I received more press coverage for the NOMINATION than I have received for virtually any other publicity over the course of my first 11 years in business. I can only speculate what kind of media attention winning a TORI would have garnered. - Arnie Boldt, Arnold-Smith Associates. What 'blew me away' (about the TORIs) was the overwhelming feedback from prospective clients. I always ask in initial communications how others heard about me.

I keep track. More than one third have indicated they contacted me after learning of my TORI wins. The links to find out my status varied, i.e. my own website, LinkedIn, Twitter, referrals, etc. Northrop Essay. But the message was clear; they indicated they 'wanted the analytical, best' and my awards cemented their trust in my capabilities to perform to this level. The TORI has been an ROI that is northrop frye, quite simply, phenomenal! - Barb Poole, Hire Imaging, LLC. The TORI Awards have increased my client base dramatically. For Kids. Since winning the TORI for Best Technical Resume, I have had a flood of frye essay tech clients wanting their resumes written.

When I asked why they have chosen my services they usually tell me that they want the dead, best! - Jennifer Rushton, Keraijen. Since receiving a nomination for a prestigious TORI award in northrop the category of Best New Graduate Resume, I received free publicity in define the newspaper, and frye contest, saw my business increase three-fold among college seniors seeking to put their best foot forward upon graduation. - Susan Geary, 1st Rate Resumes. Learn More About Training #038; Growth. Copyright 2017 Career Directors, All Rights Reserved. Looking for something? Visit the Sitemap.

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Collective Bargaining as Industrial Democracy: Hugh Clegg and the Political Foundations of British Industrial Relations Pluralism. Peter Ackers is at essay contest, Loughborough University Business School, UK. Hugh Clegg and Allan Flanders are generally recognized as the founding fathers of postwar British academic Industrial Relations (IR). While Flanders is regarded as the chief ‘theorist’ of pluralism, Clegg’s own contribution is seen mainly in terms of his empirical research and public policy work: as the author of numerous detailed studies and the field’s major textbook, the first Director of the Industrial Relations Research Unit at the University of Warwick, a member of the Donovan Commission and many other enquiries. Indeed, Trade Unionism under Collective Bargaining (1976) is dead, often regarded as Clegg’s one and only foray into IR theory. This paper explores Clegg’s largely forgotten early writing on industrial democracy to argue that he made a critical, independent theoretical contribution to the British IR paradigm. Sometime during the summer of 1949, Hugh Clegg first met Allan Flanders, who had arrived at Oxford to take up the post of Senior Lecturer in contest, Industrial Relations (IR). For the on christmas, next 20 years, their partnership shaped the development of a peculiarly British IR paradigm. Contest. Flanders and Clegg were the nucleus of the early postwar ‘Oxford School’, 1 the editors of the conference research, 1954 foundation text that defined the northrop frye, modern field and the intellectual architects of the 1968 Donovan Commission that shaped academic and possible ap us questions public policy research and debate. Arguably, British academic IR has only frye, just begun to transcend their theoretical legacy, as voluntary joint regulation or collective bargaining has palpably ceased to essays, be the focus of the employment relationship and the policy emphasis has shifted to legal regulation and Human Resource Management (see Edwards 2003).

As the field struggles to redefine itself for a very different society, it is worth re-inspecting the intellectual foundations of the northrop, old dispensation, to understand better the core ideas that shaped the fledgling IR discipline. Among the British IR community, Hugh Clegg is remembered today largely as a prodigiously productive empirical researcher, textbook writer, academic research manager and public policy specialist, who left deeper theoretical formulation to Allan Flanders. An Essay On Christmas For Kids. Clegg’s (1976) Trade Unionism under Collective Bargaining has been recognized as ‘probably the high-water mark of northrop frye essay Institutionalist theory in the Dunlop-Flanders tradition’ (Kelly 1999: 19), but there is little sense that he contributed much in the way of english essays favourite ideas to the genesis of northrop that tradition. 2 Elsewhere, Kelly (2004a) has described Flanders as a ‘much more powerful intellectual figure’. On Christmas For Kids. 3 According to Hyman (1989: 8) too, ‘Allan Flanders . . . was the first British industrial relations scholar since the Webbs to northrop, devote sustained attention to theory’; a view endorsed by Rowley (1998: 861). Clegg is thus positioned as a pragmatic empiricist who manned the public enquires and built the academic institutions through which Flanders’ ideas could flow. This is possible essay questions, also how Clegg, in his modesty, often presented their partnership. ‘He was more of a theorist, and he was a slow worker, and northrop frye contest a bit of a perfectionist, whereas I’m a fast worker and science essays more slapdash’. 4 Even an admirer, Brown (1998: 848), depicts a similar division of frye labour: Leaving the Communist Party, Clegg committed his remarkable intelligence to the factual analysis of organized labour, leaving the more theoretical aspects to Flanders in a close division of effort which, after Flanders’ death in 1973, he was to have difficulty shaking off.

Finally, Bain and Clegg’s (1974) review of British IR research, while calling for more and better theory and quoting Dunlop and Flanders, makes no mention of Clegg’s theory of industrial democracy. Those early years of academic British IR apparently saw mainly ‘a brisk business in guide books’ (p. 98); a rather damning judgement on Clegg’s own early work. The very notion of a Flanders and dead essays blog Clegg ‘partnership’ plays an important part in northrop, obscuring Clegg’s own early distinctive contribution. Unlike the blog, Webbs (see Harrison 2000) who wrote almost everything together, Flanders and Clegg co-authored only the introduction to frye contest, their 1954 textbook. Clegg’s own huge academic output, moreover, began just as Flanders entered the scene and continued long after his death, while much of it was researched and written with only slight reference to his partner. Possible Ap Us Essay Questions. When Flanders first met Clegg in northrop frye, the summer of 1949, the latter was a Fellow in IR at Nuffield College, with almost three decades of possible life, learning and experience behind him. Within a year, he had published two monographs, which established his broad approach to IR. There is little sense of this in Clegg’s own ‘Introduction’ to Flanders’ (1975: 7) first book of contest essays, when he proclaims that: With the publication of The Fawley Productivity Agreements in 1964, Allan Flanders became almost overnight the outstanding theorist of industrial relations in Britain and, many would say, in the world. Yet, the earliest of for kids Flanders’ academic essays was from 1961, a year after Clegg’s body of work discussed here.

So behind the popular academic image of the composite Flanders/Clegg partnership lie two very singular men with entirely different backgrounds who published separately. Because of northrop frye contest this, we can quite easily isolate and evaluate, by topic and chronology, Clegg’s own independent theoretical contribution to early British IR. The biographical details of Clegg’s early life also suggest a much more independent and analytical interesting character than does his later image as a dry-as-dust empiricist, while explaining why he enjoyed playing this role. Essay. As Brown (1998: 849) observes, ‘theory’ was regarded by define essay, him with some suspicion, in essay, reaction against dead essays blog, his early Communism: A view once expressed by Clegg was that ‘an ounce of fact is worth a pound of theory’ and there can be no doubting that his published life’s work amounted to a great weight of frye books containing little discussion of theory and a vast amount of sparely expressed fact. It was not, as we shall see, that he was unaware of the theoretical underpinnings of his work; it was rather that he was painfully aware that the study of organized labour has long been awash with, in varying degrees, plausible and optimistic theories, which have usually been sustained by an essay, little more than myth and ignorance’. Mention of northrop frye ‘theoretical underpinnings’ suggests a hinterland of history questions ideas and beliefs supporting the empirical work. Brown expresses this succinctly: ‘Perhaps as a result of his rebellion against both Christianity and northrop contest Marxism, Clegg exhibited both an antipathy to dogma and a strong sense of morality’ (p. 849). Once we shed a little more light on this intellectual formation, Clegg’s early writing becomes more comprehensible as an integral part of an interesting personal and political journey to IR pluralism. Clegg’s father was a highly itinerant Methodist minister, who exposed him to both a powerful religious and moral influence and, very likely, an existential insecurity occasioned by constant resettling in very different communities from posh central Glasgow to industrial Lancashire.

5 These influences were probably intensified by attending Kingswood Methodist boarding school outside Bath from the an essay on christmas for kids, age of 12. Here, Clegg became a schoolboy Communist and remained an active committed party member for over a decade, through his time at northrop frye essay, Oxford and the intervening years in the army, leaving only in 1947. This was hardly a brief adolescent fad. And it was made all the more intense by the fact that Clegg’s elder brother, Arthur, was at essay, once a major influence on his early life and a high profile Communist. Frye Essay Contest. The intellectual core of Clegg’s Communism was broken by his philosophy tutor at Magdalen, Harry Weldon, between 1945 and conference 1947, leading him to frye, drift away from the party rather than directly reject it. There was a loss of faith, but no fierce ‘God that failed me’ anti-Communist backlash. As we shall see below, in his IR writing, Clegg’s attitude to blog, Communism gradually toughened, but remained liberal and contest thoughtful. Finally, the war allowed Clegg, the uprooted child, to re-invent himself in two down-to-earth commonsense roles: as an analytical essay NCO among ordinary working class men with their suspicion of the officer class; and northrop essay contest as a conventionally domestic, family man of the time.

Perhaps the other small but remarkable episode worth recalling is the months in 1939 when Clegg volunteered to work for Mass Observation. It is hard not to read this as an early introduction to empirical research on working class life that was sustained by participant observation in essays blog, the army. 6 This thumb-nail sketch recalls a highly ideological young man and northrop frye contest suggests new insights into on christmas for kids Clegg’s intellectual life at Nuffield in the late 1940s, the 1950s and the early 1960s. The task of purging his own Communist beliefs, over time, and challenging the labour myths that Brown mentions, was itself a monumental theoretical task of destruction and reconstruction, utilizing the sharp logic that Weldon had taught him at Magdalen. As I argue below, through an examination of Clegg’s writing on nationalization and contest industrial democracy between 1951 and essays 1960, 7 this early intellectual ‘clearing of ground’ was a crucial element in the emergence of a distinctive British IR pluralist paradigm.

Clegg’s academic starting point was the frye essay contest, work of the define analytical, Webbs and G. D. H. Northrop Frye Essay Contest. Cole. The former’s analysis of co-operation had rejected producer democracy in favour of consumer democracy moderated only by an essay for kids, collective bargaining to protect the interests of workers and prevent management from taking the cheap labour route (Coates and Topham 1970: 6572; Potter 1895; Webb and Webb 1921). In their view, any attempts at direct worker involvement in management, either undermined management expertise and damaged business efficiency or failed as participation. Industrial Democracy (1897) established the link between trade unionism and representative democracy, though the Webbs continued to see the union role largely in terms of the northrop frye contest, economic contribution of collective bargaining. Moreover, as a method of regulation, the Webbs generally preferred legal enactment over essays, collective bargaining, because it was both more comprehensive and less conflict-prone. Still, the flexibility and attention to local detail of collective bargaining made it an essential supplement. The Webbs conclude: In the interests of the community as a whole, no one of the frye, interminable series of dead blog decisions can be allowed to run counter to the consensus of expert opinion representing the consumers on northrop essay contest, the one hand, the producers on the other, and the nation that is paramount over both. (Webb and Webb 1897: 8223) In the margin of his annotated copy of Industrial Democracy , Clegg has written ‘nonsense’.

8 Cole’s (1913, reprinted 1972)‘Guild Socialism’ is an explicitly normative pluralist theory, which attempts to blend nationalization of the means of science essays production with ‘the co-management of industry by the State and trade unions’ (p. Northrop Frye Contest. 68). Within this blueprint for a new society, without private enterprise, Cole seeks to balance ‘consumption and production’ and reserve the ‘final right’ of the paper, ‘community’ (p. 72). Northrop Frye. As we shall see, Clegg’s writing on nationalization and industrial democracy absorbs, criticizes and possible ap us history refines this important body of work on the British labour movement. 2. The early Clegg: trade unions, nationalization and industrial democracy. From the late 1940s to the early 1960s, while still at Oxford, Clegg drew upon political theories which he was teaching to frye, undergraduates at essays favourite, Magdalen and Wadham to define a pluralist outlook that centred on trade unions and essay contest collective bargaining. And Faith Essays. 9 He accomplished this through a sustained critique of the Marxist wing of the frye essay contest, British labour movement and the ideas of one early mentor at Nuffield, Cole, on the topical themes of english on my nationalization and essay contest industrial democracy. Using both theoretical arguments about the nature of democracy and empirical evidence about the efficacy of different approaches, these books helped to dead essays, establish the central analytical and policy focus of British IR research on joint regulation. They are a polemic directed at practical socialists, rather than ‘ivory tower’ academics and, as a result, they are light on references and unsophisticated in style. Yet, for essay all this, they effectively marginalize debates about possible ap us history questions potential new forms of worker participation, by projecting a mainline IR discipline focused on trade unions and collective bargaining.

Labour in Nationalised Industry (1950) This Fabian pamphlet was Clegg’s first publication and established the nucleus of a position on industrial democracy and nationalization, which he elaborated over the next decade. Cole (as Chairman of the northrop contest, Fabian Society) both commissioned the pamphlet and wrote the preface, which heralded ‘the reformulation of Labour and Socialist programmes in the light of the experience of recent years’ (p. 3). The pamphlet was subtitled an ‘Interim Report of a Fabian Research Group’ that had met in consultation with the english on my book, Amalgamated Engineering Union, but had not yet reached any shared view. The policy background to the discussion was the Morrisonian ‘Board’ structure of the Nationalized Industries and northrop essay contest Clegg confines his specific comments to the public sector, after noting, in his future characteristic style, ‘the varying historical development of define analytical essay systems of labour organisation and collective bargaining’ (p. 5). Frye Essay Contest. He registers criticism of the Morrisonian model, but excludes himself from this debate. This marks his early independence of mind and science unwillingness to walk passively in the footsteps of the Webbs and Cole, although the pamphlet was a compromise. Cole set up this thing about industrial democracy. It was a Fabian group, and northrop contest asked me if I would be the rapporteur of it, and I agreed.

And then at some point I produced the draft of a pamphlet. And he was very upset about it, and he drafted another one. We had strongly different views, you see. It was a matter of compromising . . . Analytical Essay. The source of disagreement was that I was pressing this idea that proper industrial democracy was the development of trade unionism and collective bargaining in other directions, and he was a workers’ control chap. 10. Clegg begins with a description of the relationship between trade unions and joint consultation. ‘Hitherto, trade unions have taken as their essential task, the protection of their members’ economic interests and northrop essay contest rights’ (p. An Essay For Kids. 8). As ‘bargaining’ and ‘democratic’ bodies, they have had ‘no responsibility’ for the conduct of industry, other than maintaining their agreements with employers. In his view, wartime joint production committees had changed this, by making unions also responsible for securing efficient production and this had continued since, especially with joint consultation in the nationalized industries. ‘But the implications of this involvement in responsibility have not been at northrop frye essay contest, all thoroughly considered by the trade union movement’ (p. Favourite Book. 8).

So, the key question which already preoccupies Clegg and shapes his other writing on this theme, is that ‘these fresh functions and northrop obligations’ should not undermine the unions’‘traditional function of blog protecting their members’ interests’, which, he insists ‘must not be sacrificed’ (p. 9). The pluralist principle is already clear (although not yet labelled as such): ‘in any form of northrop frye contest society, and under any form of management, workers will need trade unions to history, look after their interests’ (pp. 910). Northrop. This must remain the unions’‘first objective’. Yet, unions and their members have a wider interest in history essay questions, ‘the improvement of the human conditions of employment over a wider field and the fuller recognition of human rights in industry’ (p. 10). And, joint consultation promises an ‘extension of the scope of collective trade union action into contest these new fields’, linked, ultimately, ‘to a widening of the scope of collective bargaining itself’, into an essay training, work organization, time study, discipline and promotion (p.

10). At this time, Clegg is clearly optimistic about the ‘opportunities’ joint consultation offers trade unions, provided they are willing to accept a measure of ‘responsibility’. The pamphlet next looks forward to how to ‘increase that responsibility in such a way that it does not conflict with the protective functions of the unions’ (p. 12). This is secured by distinguishing the ability to influence management decisions through consultation from the ‘power of decision ’ or ‘joint control’ which would be a bridge too far for union independence. Although writing in northrop, the third person, Clegg clearly judges that taking ‘a direct share in management’ is unwise, whereas ‘effective consultation, reinforced by a continual widening of the possible history questions, scope of collective agreements, is the frye contest, trade unions’ best form of approach to industrial democracy’ (p. On Christmas. 13). This anticipates his mature alternative theory of industrial democracy, as does the analogy with political democracy and northrop frye the nascent discussion of the ‘various interests’ that add substance to liberal democracy. Mooting, for a moment, the alternative, Colesian model of ‘joint control in science, nationalised industry’ (p. 13), Clegg suggests that ‘it might undermine trade union power’ by providing a rival ‘focus for workers’ loyalty’.

This ‘might be highly desirable in a full socialist society, provided that the trade unions could retain as much of their protective function as would still be needed in such a society’ (p. 14). In the frye essay contest, meantime, however, ‘no such alternative structure ought to be developed, and the trade unions, far from relaxing, ought to strengthen their hold over the machinery of joint consultation, especially at the establishment level’ (p. 14). Thus already, in 1950, we find Clegg in rapid transition from Colesian democratic socialism to analytical, pluralist social democracy. The rest of the northrop frye, pamphlet turns to institutional description of the various industries and to policy proposals. Clegg endorses the institutional separation of consultation and bargaining at all levels in the nationalized industries. He is particularly concerned to decentralize power to lay union representatives at the establishment and ap us history questions department level, ‘since it is here that representative government begins to northrop, become self-government’ (p. 22). He recommends consultation as early as possible in the planning stage and that trade unions should ‘provide more adequate research assistance’ to their officials on these committees. Consultation topics covered include: production; welfare, ‘perhaps the most obvious subject of all for consultation’ (p.

31); training and education; promotion; recruitment and dismissal; and discipline. Throughout he balances union independence and responsibility. Thus, though absenteeism was a major issue for the new nationalized industries: ‘In matters of discipline the first duty of a union is to defend its members’ and ‘discipline must remain managerial’ (pp. 3536). Strong criticism is reserved for the ‘attitudes’ of dead essays managers in the nationalized industries, ‘who do not understand workers, who have no time for unions, who do not know how to consult, and northrop frye who may equate discontent, demand for wage increases, and strikes with sabotage’ (p. 37). The solution lies in properly trained, professional ‘personnel or staff officers’ (p. 35) and managers who ‘learn to manage as democratic leaders’. Overall, this early pamphlet anticipates the style and themes of and faith Clegg’s later work to a surprising degree. A pluralist IR theory is already emerging from the background framework of industrial democracy and northrop essay contest human rights.

The central idea of collective bargaining as a democratic process is coupled with a poorly disguised suspicion of forms of ‘workers’ control’ that might undermine trade union efficacy. Essays Book. A residual and ill-defined ‘socialism’ remains, but the analytic weight has shifted to frye essay, micro-reforms of the newly established social democratic settlement, rather than radical change. Labour Relations in London Transport (1950) Published in the same year, this book contains some of Clegg’s earliest thoughts on IR from 1948/9. As Clegg’s first book, in lieu of a research thesis, this is the fruit of postgraduate research since his arrival at Nuffield as the 1947 George Webb Medley Scholar.

In it we see, both his early conceptualization of IR and his brand of institutional and historical research method. Cole and Henry Clay are thanked, but the book is dedicated to ‘my past supervisor and present colleague, Mr D. N. Chester, for his aid, his wise advice, and his constant encouragement’ (p. v). Cole’s place in the pre-history of IR is well-known. Clegg belonged to essay, the famous ‘Cole group’ as an northrop essay undergraduate in the late 1930s and conference rejoined him at Nuffield, but still insisted, ‘he wasn’t a major influence’. He pointed instead to the role of Chester, who, as Warden of frye contest Nuffield, was also his supervisor and who suggested the subject of London Transport for a research thesis. And I worked with that for about a year . . . and I suppose I had it ready sometime in the spring of 1949, and he showed it to Cole and said ‘would this get the english essays on my, D.Phil.?’ and Cole said ‘no; he was afraid he’d give it a B. Litt. With regret that he couldn’t do more’ and so Chester said ‘well, let’s forget about that’, and went around to see Richard Blackwell. Northrop Contest. 11. And so began a long publishing association.

In 1949, Chester was also instrumental (with Cole) in securing Clegg a fellowship at Nuffield: I had by define analytical essay, this time cut my links with the frye contest, Communist Party. The reasons for it were both academic and on christmas for kids political. Marxist economics and dialectical materialism had been undermined for me by the teaching of my philosophy and economics tutor; and the behaviour of the northrop essay, Soviet Union in the post-war world disillusioned me about Communism as an ideal form of government and social organisation. So when Chester told me he was proposing to nominate me for a fellowship at Nuffield College, and wanted to know, before he did so, whether I was a member of the Communist Party, I could answer with a clear conscience that I was not, and had ceased to pay dues to the party a couple of years ago. 12. Labour Relations is described as ‘an attempt to describe and evaluate the labour relations of a publicly-owned undertaking’, at a time when ‘labour relations are more and possible ap us history essay more coming to be regarded as an important subject’. Trade unions have reached ‘a fairly general recognition of their right to consideration and consultation in all matters affecting industry’. As part of the new public mood, ‘Personnel management, industrial psychology, “human relations in industry” are raised to northrop contest, the dignity of independent studies’ (p. 1). Full employment is a factor, but so is conference style research, ‘a long-period of frye development in attitudes to essays on my favourite, industrial relations’.

The growing scale of northrop essay industry calls for: ‘institutions and generalized procedures to supplement attenuated personal relationships’ and ‘specialized techniques for dealing with labour matters’ (p. 2). Moreover, a major debate is taking place over whether or not public ownership will improve the english on my favourite book, conditions of workers and IR as most socialists had predicted. Here, Clegg recalls the hopes of the early Christian Socialists, Syndicalists and Guild Socialists for industrial democracy and the subsequent rejection of joint control in the newly nationalized industries. Northrop Frye Essay Contest. As yet, it is define analytical, too early to assess ‘the success or failure of industries nationalized since 1945’ (p. 8), but London Transport provides an ideal historical laboratory, since it was nationalized in 1933, largely following Morrison’s model. Chapter 1 meticulously recounts, in northrop frye, great institutional detail, the history of public ownership and labour relations at London Transport, including the response of the trade unions and the Communist Rank-and-File Committee, which looms large in the book. Conference Research. Indeed, it illustrates Clegg’s emerging argument that if trade unions become too involved in management, they will lose credibility with their members and frye face challenges from below. He also develops the sort of stakeholder or pluralist argument that he had drawn from the Webbs and from Cole. ‘In any undertaking the financial interest of the shareholder is to some extent opposed to that of the salary or wage-earner, and the interest of both must be to some extent opposed to favourite, that of the consumer’ (p. 98).

And he is already suspicious of some of the performance claims for nationalization, given the London Transport experience. Chapter 4 is a detailed historical analysis of the 1937 Coronation Strike of Central Busmen. 13 Although Clegg recognizes that strikes are hardly typical of northrop contest everyday IR, he is interested in assessing ‘how far public ownership increases or reduces the likelihood of conflict between employer and employed’ (p. 103). He roots this analysis in other rank-and-file revolts, such as the ‘Miners Next Step’ movement in the coalfields, and in London Transport explores the blend of spontaneous revolt and Communist leadership, concluding that ‘both Mr. Bevin and Mr. Campbell had overestimated the importance of Communist influence among the busmen’ (p. 108). Nevertheless, ‘The Coronation Strike brought the busmen nothing that could not have been obtained without a stoppage’, and while London Transport, overall, had not seen more strikes due to public ownership, the Coronation strike ‘was perhaps in essays, part due to frye, public ownership’ (p. 137), since the employers could not easily pass the cost of settling onto the customer, as a private sector operator would have done.

The remainder of the book explores management policy, beginning with joint consultation another central theme of Clegg’s early work. Here, he distinguishes consultation from negotiation. ‘The objects of joint consultation are to develop the interest of workers in their jobs, and to make better use of an essay on christmas that interest by essay, bringing the science, workers into closer contact with industrial policy-making’ (p. 143). Already, however, he is sceptical of the efficacy of consultation as against deeply rooted collective bargaining: ‘The more enthusiastic supporters of the frye essay contest, principles of consultation, who find therein the complete answer to the problems of industrial democracy, might think this a disappointing result, but it cannot yet be said that their faith in science, consultative committees has been fully justified’ (p. 151).

The sceptical, pragmatic, empirical tone is well in evidence as Clegg concludes thus on the entire experience of public ownership at London Transport: ‘It is at least clear that the most optimistic and the most pessimistic forecasts made before 1933 have not been fulfilled’ (p. Northrop. 168). Possible Ap Us History. Public ownership does not lead to a land of milk and honey, but nor does it lead to Sodom and Gomorrah! The performance indicators productivity, the quality of service and labour turnover are inconclusive and restrictive practices have not eased. ‘There is little evidence that the attitude of the employees to their work or to London Transport has changed under public ownership’ (p. 179). Finally, Clegg addresses the usual socialist alibis that London Transport has not had enough time yet, and that, in any case, this is not ‘true’ nationalization.

After 16 years, ‘if there is anything in northrop contest, the socialist predictions of improved labour relations under nationalization, the science and faith essays, most patient of northrop contest us would have expected some results by now’ (p. 182). But, he asks, ‘can we attribute this to shortcomings in the form of public ownership?’ (p. 182). Certainly, there are limits to expenditure on employee welfare if nationalized industries are to serve the public, as taxpayers and customers. Possible Essay Questions. And had the unions been more directly involved in the management of the industry, this would have merely exacerbated tensions between the official union and the rank-file. [London Transport] has not, so far, shown that the public corporation provides an adequate and permanent solution to the problems of relations between employer and employed, between union and management . . . it may be that the public corporation has no special advantage in this respect; that, although both sides have done their best (certain shortcomings excepted) to promote good relations, the results predicted of nationalization have not been obtained because they could not be; that such results should not have been expected . Frye Contest. . Science. . if it is true it follows that the road to the Utopia of the essay contest, industrial democrats does not lead this way, if indeed there is such a road. (p.

188) Thus, at this early point in his career, Clegg has pricked the bubble of socialist dreams and begun to map a more prosaic route to english on my favourite, industrial democracy and IR while perhaps trampling on the dreams of northrop frye contest his younger self. Industrial Democracy and Nationalization (1951) The second book marks the completion of the Fabian project aired in the initial pamphlet. Apparently, that interim report had ‘represented the limits of the group’s agreement’ (including the decision not to address directly the pros and cons of the Morrisonian model) and there was ‘such controversy’ that Clegg carried on an essay on christmas for kids, alone to write this essay (p. v). The only help he records was from the Fabian group, but, with no Cole looking over his shoulder, this piece is much more audacious and direct than the earlier work and written provocatively with ‘socialists’ as its audience. The opening chapter on ‘The meaning of northrop essay contest Industrial Democracy’ guides us through the historical evolution of the theory and ap us questions practice of a socialist idea, taking in Marx, Bakunin and contest William Morris, Syndicalism, Guild Socialism, Whitley Councils and Joint Production Committees. As for these later institutional manifestations, Clegg notes how they often met ‘trade union indifference or hostility’ (p. 9), and with good reason. ‘Workshop representation in this form bears a close resemblance to company unionism or to profit-sharing schemes, which are anti-trade union devices of style paper industrial paternalism’ (p.

8). This also explains the triumph of the Morrisonian model of nationalization over earlier aspirations for workers’ control. Clegg turns next to ‘Socialist views of Democracy’, arguing that democratic socialists now take ‘a more sophisticated view of democracy’, rejecting the Syndicalist idea that ‘industrial democracy must replace political democracy in a socialist society’. Drawing on the experience of frye essay Communism and Fascism and stressing the utopian character of much socialist thinking, he roots this new realist view of democracy in ‘the dangers of power’ (p. 14) and the importance of conference research paper opposition in a large-scale state or society: ‘the price of northrop essay contest liberty in the state is organized opposition’ (p. 17). In a classic pluralist or functionalist analysis, the internal democracy of parties or trade unions is less important than the fact that they provide effective opposition groups. There is nothing new in this analysis of parliamentary democracy . . . An Essay For Kids. The purpose of restating it here is to frye, show that in thinking about industrial democracy we must not take an over-simplified view of the nature of democracy, as industrial democrats have too often done in the past. (p. 19)

The political analogy and recognition of the limits of it, lead Clegg to his famous conclusion. ‘The trade union is thus industry’s opposition an ap us history questions opposition which can never become a government’ (p. Frye Contest. 22). Yet, this still leaves the ‘problem of trade union responsibility’ as the union tries to balance its dual role as ‘champion of the workers’ and ‘policeman’ of history essay questions joint agreements with the employers (pp. 2627), and out of this tension comes unofficial strikes. Since Clegg is not only declaring a trade union right, but also outlining a stable social democratic constitutional order in industry with collective bargaining at its centre, the balance must be attempted: ‘it is necessary for a union both to oppose and to agree’ (p. 30). Direct union control of northrop industry, or even joint control, would undermine real pluralist democracy, and these are ‘ideas which live on only as the pale ghosts of the enthusiasms of the crude but heroic army of the early syndicalists’ (p. 28). Against the threat of ‘totalitarianism’, which Clegg sees as rooted in utopian conceptions of ‘active participation’, he chooses ‘to interpret democracy passively’ and to stress the fundamental independence of the union from management (p. 34). Having grounded his approach in political theory, Clegg applies his ‘theory of industrial democracy’ (p.

37) to some ‘general problems’ of nationalization. He notes the need to be accountable to consumers and essays the national interest, and explores existing institutions for this. En route, he highlights the changing expectations of nationalization since full employment, redistributive taxation and the welfare state have achieved many goals that were formerly expected of it. ‘The hopes of socialists have long been centred on nationalization. Few to-day expect as much of nationalization as did socialists of frye two generations ago’ (p. 44). The ‘extravagant claims of socialists’ deserve some of the blame for the sense of disappointed expectation surrounding public ownership (p. 61) and here he returns to his polemic against various utopian brands of socialism, while insisting that the mainstream view was more ‘utilitarian’.

Even so, ‘workers certainly do not see their interests as radically changed by nationalization’ (p. 65), just as he had found at London Transport. Indeed, ‘a sense of ap us essay questions partnership’ was just as likely to be found among progressive private employers (p. 67). Frye Essay. And once more, joint consultation is a disappointment, especially on issues of production and efficiency, notwithstanding ‘a general level of moderate achievement’. Clegg repeats the case for a national wages policy, as part of the ‘progress towards equality’: ‘Every extension of essays socialism makes it more essential that the government should set up some body to essay contest, compare the demands made by, and increases granted to, every group of workers’ (p. Conference. 117). By now, Clegg has toughened his stance on Communism, which was regarded as misguided but fairly harmless in the London Transport study. One of the most potent causes of inter-union conflict, and of conflict within unions . . . Communists put the interests of the U.S.S.R. before those of frye their own country and are therefore regarded almost as enemies of the state . . . the complaint against the Communists is that they do not play the game, and they regard any means as justified if it leads towards their social revolution. (p. 97) This said, Clegg recognizes, ‘that some of the most competent and english favourite book conscientious trade union leaders, at every level’ (p.

97) are Communists and doubts whether they are a principal cause of unofficial strikes. While ‘strikes in nationalized industries are not an northrop frye essay advertisement for socialism . Essay. . . not even a Communist can manufacture a strike without a grievance’ (p. 99). Frye Essay Contest. 14 In short, the biggest problem with Communism in IR, apart from dead essays, its dubious motives, allegiances and methods, is its damaging impact on northrop essay contest, the cohesion and efficacy of trade unionism and hence on industrial democracy. Communism weakens unions as an effective democratic opposition and makes it harder for them to take on legitimate responsibilities. Even so, Clegg explicitly rejects moves ‘to suppress Communists . . . because it is a severe limitation of liberty, and because the difficulty of dead blog defining a Communist always involves the extension of repression beyond their numbers’ (p.

139). Speaking as a socialist to fellow socialists, Clegg’s main practical recommendation is a decentralization of frye essay management to conference research paper, increase industrial democracy at northrop, the place of work. By this logic, ‘industrial democracy consists, in part, of the possible ap us history essay questions, opposition of the trade unions to the employer, and, in part, of the attempt of the employer to build his employees into a team working together towards a common purpose’ (p. 121). For now, he is prepared to entertain the ‘democracy of common purpose’ at the level of the northrop frye essay, ‘team’ or establishment, even while he rejects it at an essay for kids, the level of industry. Northrop. And he is still optimistic that nationalized industries should be able ‘to attain a standard of management above that of private industry’ because of the ‘greater attention given than before to human problems’ (p.

126). English On My Book. The main obstacles to this are over-centralization and poor quality management. ‘The right sort of establishment manager is only the beginning of northrop essay industrial democracy’, however (p. 127). Science And Faith Essays. ‘Shop stewards and equivalent representatives’ are equally essential. ‘Any attempt to by-pass the essay, unions and their representatives, even by seemingly democratic methods, to build up a paternalism which excludes them is no democracy at all’ (pp. 1289). This allots a dual role to the trade union representative in the establishment, both defending the an essay for kids, interest of workers and participating in its running. In this way, Clegg makes some concession to the contemporary human relations view at the local level. The overall dilemma for essay contest trade unions is that while ‘there can be no democracy without responsibility, the acceptance of too great a degree of responsibility will weaken and eventually destroy democracy’ (p. History Essay. 137). In its quiet, understated way, Industrial Democracy and Nationalization is northrop, a major and innovative contribution to revisionist social democratic thinking on possible ap us essay questions, IR, drawing on northrop essay contest, both political theory and in-depth empirical study of the institutions and mechanics of industry. Clegg’s theoretical conclusion was striking and influential. Organized opposition is a prerequisite of analytical essay democracy, at least on a large scale.

Only so long as the trade unions act as an opposition to management will they serve the northrop frye essay, interests of industrial democracy. (p. 141) A ‘democracy of common purpose can only exist if it is contained within a larger democracy of opposition’ (p. And Faith. 142). The larger industrial democracy is a system of northrop frye collective bargaining centred on ap us essay, trade unions, while what remains of the northrop frye, old ‘noble ideal’ of workers’ control should be pursued by joint consultation in the workplace and on christmas for kids those small units where talk of common purpose is meaningful. Northrop Essay. Trade unions need to preserve their independence, yet ‘dual loyalties are essential if there is to an essay, be socialism’ (p. 147). Finally, nationalization per se contributes nothing to industrial democracy, which can be developed just as effectively by collective bargaining and consultation in private industry. It is worth pausing to register here that we are still in 1951 and, as yet, there has been no reference to Flanders or his writing from this uncommonly generous academic. A New Approach to Industrial Democracy (1960) This book offers the most sophisticated, fully developed and influential version of Clegg’s thesis, without fundamentally altering the perspective of the two 1950 publications.

Clegg thanks Alan Fox, Bill McCarthy, John Plamenatz (the political philosopher) and Allan Flanders the first mention of northrop frye contest his name in this stream of writing. ‘Above all, however, I owe my thanks to C.A.R. Crosland, M.P., who has given me more help with this book than I have received before in any book that I have written’ (p. Style. vi). Clegg and Crosland had both attended the September 1958 Congress for Cultural Freedom in Vienna on the subject of ‘Workers’ Participation in Management’, which featured a wide range of ‘philosophical and sociological’ perspectives on contest, the subject, including different comparative institutional experiences (p. v). Once more, Clegg had been asked to write an essay responding to the various presentations. These included delegations from science, Austria, Finland, France, (West) Germany, Holland, India, Iran, Israel, Italy, Japan, Sweden, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States and Yugoslavia.

The UK delegation included, Crosland, Clegg’s co-author T. Frye Contest. E. Chester, Harry Briggs from Unilever and Eric Trist from the Tavistock Institute whose paper looms large in Clegg’s analysis (Daniel Bell’s paper, by an essay on christmas for kids, contrast, receives no specific reference). Clegg notes that ‘there are several points on which my views have changed considerably’ since the 1951 book (p. Northrop Frye Contest. vi), and I will comment here only on those passages that either mark significant departure from or additions to previous positions. Part 1 provides another tour through the labour history of industrial democracy in theory and practice, from ‘workers’ control’ to consultation, this time with a wider comparative lens. The exposition is more systematic, especially on Guild Socialism’s attempt to reconcile the different stakeholders in industry. Clegg opines that these ‘tended to stray right outside socialist territory’ and cements his revisionism by asking: ‘why not also admit the possible history essay questions, rights of the private employer?’ (p. 13). ‘A New Theory of Democracy’ emerges from the dystopian experience of Stalin, Mussolini and Hitler, as ‘Political thinkers began to pay more attention to the analysis of the nature of democracy as it existed in Western countries’ where it had survived and thrived (p. 20). Among Western socialists, a new realism has triumphed as ‘enthusiasm will give place to more sober emotions’ (p.

106). The strength of these ‘stable democracies’ (the Anglo-Saxon countries plus Scandinavia) lies in frye essay contest, their ‘pressure groups’ of which ‘trade unions have become by far the most noticeable and probably the most powerful’ (pp. 2021). Essays. These provide ‘countervailing power’ against major, potentially totalitarian concentrations of power in society (p. Essay Contest. 25). Such realities and precautions lead to ‘three principles of industrial democracy’, all evident in define, his earlier work. It seems to me that there are three main elements in this theory. The first is that trade unions must be independent both of the frye, state and of management. The second is that only the unions can represent the industrial interests of workers.

The third is that the ownership of industry is irrelevant to dead essays, good industrial relations. (p. 21) But now, the political implications are more explicit. ‘Conversion to this view has been one of the signs of maturity in western socialist parties’ (p. 27) as labour movements converge on a new social democratic consensus. Northrop. The author claims: A practical and empirical creed, the creed of define essay democracy achieved, of trade unionism which has arrived . Frye. . . The new theories are both pessimistic and traditional. Dead. They are rooted in distrust distrust of power.

They argue that the political and industrial institutions of stable democracies already approach the best that can be realized. They return to traditions of liberal thought which preceded the rise of socialism. Northrop Contest. (p. 29) Part 2 considers postwar developments in light of the three principles, to test their comparative reach. Joint consultation, the main British innovation, is adjudged largely a ‘failure’ in its ambitions to improve productivity, IR and working conditions, although there is on christmas, still ‘something’ to frye, be said in its favour even if many of the best private firms manage without it (p. 38). The problems are that consultation committees are widely bypassed and science and faith essays the formal distinction between consultation and collective bargaining does not hold up in practice, while it is the latter that really matters for industrial democracy. Whereas in 1951, Clegg had placed some hope on ‘local consultative committees’ and ‘in the face-to-face relationships of local managements and their employees, . . . its failure at this level has been most marked’ (p. 40). Partly because ‘management has not made it work’, consultation is no more than an ‘occasionally useful adjunct ’ to collective bargaining.

15 In institutional terms, at least: ‘it may follow that no great improvement can be made in the system of industrial relations already established in Britain’ (p. 41). France, in contrast, merely displays ‘an inability to achieve anything like a satisfactory system of collective bargaining’ (p. 43), due to a combination of fragmented, political trade unions, intransigent employers and an overweening state. Once again, Clegg is critical of essay contest ‘the duplicity of the essay, Communists’ who ‘thrive on bad relationships with management’ (pp. 4546), but is frye essay contest, not prepared to get hot under the collar about it or to lay the full blame for IR failure at their door. German co-determination presents a different dilemma, since by conference style research paper, Clegg’s earlier theory it should have enfeebled trade unions, whereas: ‘On balance, Works Councils may have done more to northrop, strengthen the unions than to an essay on christmas for kids, undermine them’ (p. 55). Northrop Contest. Clegg squares this circle, by arguing that in possible history questions, the special case of de-Nazification, co-determination has been a necessary route to restoring strong independent trade unions. In his view, ‘collective bargaining is a process much more obviously akin to co-determination. Essay. Each is a process of arriving at joint decisions’ (p.

96). It works for possible history German workers, but countries with mature systems of collective bargaining, like Britain and the United States, have no need of this institutional crutch. Likewise, the Yugoslavian Works Councils and the Israeli Histradrut have nothing to offer countries with strong independent trade unions, but may be of benefit in northrop frye, less developed societies: ‘In those countries devices of essay this sort might serve as a means of frye contest moving towards the political system of the west, the system of pressure group democracy’ (p. Dead Essays Blog. 118). Hence, Clegg is not prepared to condemn ‘the Jugoslav experiment . Frye Essay Contest. . . It is a venture into the unknown, a voyage of discovery’ (p.

107). This comparative evidence suggests that two of the three principles must be applied flexibly. Trade unions can have relationships with political parties, the state and employers without forfeiting their basic independence. Strong unions are best able to possible ap us essay, represent the interests of workers, but they may co-exist with works committees, and northrop frye essay where unions do not exist, something is better than nothing. Part 3 largely reiterates his 1951 conclusion, albeit in a more sophisticated way. Essay. What should industrial democracy aim to achieve? Above all, it should protect the ‘rights and frye interests’ of workers against ‘those with power’ (pp. 8384). Despite the claims of Elton Mayo and industrial sociology, Clegg questions the easy claim that ‘Industrial democracy is essays, good business’ (p. Northrop Frye Contest. 84). For him, there is ‘no logical connection between democracy and efficiency’ and probably not much evidence either, while the case for industrial democracy rests on political principles alone (see Martin 2003).

He doubts that participation in management has much to do with ‘the primary causes of industrial conflict’ or with job satisfaction in general. As for joint consultation, there is no evidence that it contributes to high productivity or low strike rates, while trade unions protect the rights of workers. Hence, ‘joint consultation can be written off as an effective instrument of industrial democracy’, although it ‘may serve the purposes of personnel management’ as one communications option among others (pp. 9193). As the system of collective bargaining has matured, it has become largely redundant. To conclude, ‘there is no effective alternative to collective bargaining as a means of protecting the interests and rights of workers’ (p.

113). Lest we wonder where this IR system comes from, Clegg confidently asserts: ‘Trade Unions necessarily follow industrialization unless totalitarian methods are used to destroy them’ (p. 117). Brown (1998: 85051), a former student and colleague of Clegg, argues that Anthony Crosland had a crucial influence on Clegg’s ‘new theory’ of industrial democracy. As we have seen, Crosland had accompanied Clegg to research, the Vienna conference and gave detailed comments on the draft of his 1960 book. These and his broader political vision may partly account for the ‘uncharacteristic panache’ of Clegg’s final book on industrial democracy. And judged purely as an academic text, it clearly supersedes all the others.

However, to understand historically intellectual influence, it is crucial once more that we account for chronology. As I have shown, in substance, Clegg’s ‘new theory’ had already appeared in his 1950/51 books. The 1960 version presented the case better, developed a more nuanced view of the dynamics of trade union independence and responsibility, and a more terminal diagnosis of consultation; but the core arguments were a decade old. Even the realistic political analysis had appeared in the 1951 book. No doubt, Clegg was influenced by Crosland’s (1956), The Future of Socialism , given the similarity between their ‘non-Marxist, egalitarian and strongly pluralist political’ philosophies. And Brown testifies to the scale of Clegg’s ‘sense of personal loss’, on northrop essay, Crosland’s premature death. But it seems likely that the theoretical influence flowed both ways and that on this issue, Clegg’s own ideas were decisive. The Gaitskell papers contain an annotated galley proof of Clegg and Chester 1953, The Future of Nationalization , indicating that Clegg’s IR ideas were already in circulation among Labour revisionists. 16 Crosland’s (1962) own essay and report of the define, Vienna conference, ‘Industrial Democracy and Workers’ Control’, published in Encounter , February 1959, also supports this view. The politician references Clegg’s (1951) work, and much of the frye, article reads as a précis of the academic’s arguments. Collective bargaining has already secured workers greater influence ‘ without formal participation in management and largely outside the machinery of joint consultation’ (p.

218). Unions must maintain their ‘ opposition role’ (p. 219). English. The ‘mere fact of public ownership has had little effect on industrial relations’, but: ‘Nor is northrop frye, formal consultation a panacea’ (p. 225); while ‘paternalism . . . may be used to undermine the essays, position of the unions’. Most of these ideas come from essay contest, Clegg, since it seems unlikely that Crosland knew much about the institutional details of British IR; others, like the characterization of German co-determination and Yugoslav workers’ councils as an on christmas for kids immature surrogate for mature collective bargaining, could have come from either man, but sound more like Clegg too. Where Crosland appears not quite convinced is on ‘the participation of the primary work-group’. In his judgement, ‘the hard-headed leading men in government, industry, and the Trade Unions should suppress their “practical man’s” suspicion of sociology’ (p. 227); a suspicion Clegg shared at that time. 3. Conclusion: The early Clegg’s theoretical contribution. Clegg’s early writing on nationalization and industrial democracy revised the earlier perspectives of the Webbs and Cole.

He rejected both Fabian statism and Guild Socialist workers’ control, to synthesize a new IR pluralism grounded in the postwar social democratic realities of Morrisonian nationalization and trade union power (Dahl 1947). As a direct human link between the great pre-war socialist tradition of British non-Marxist theory about the contest, labour movement and the modern University social sciences that accompanied the rise of postwar social democracy (Ackers 2005a), Clegg’s principal ‘outside’ intellectual source is the realist, pluralist political thinking of Schumpeter and Dahl (see Benewick and Green 1992: 2056; Pateman 1970: 4144), taken from his PPE training and his work as an Oxford Politics tutor at Magdalen and conference style Wadham. 17 Thin referencing makes the frye, precise source of Clegg’s ideas hard to trace, but also reflects the relaxed scholarly style of the time and his intended public policy audience. The objective seems to essays blog, have been to make readers aware of their own socialist presuppositions about nationalization and industrial democracy and northrop essay contest then to systematically replace these with new and more robust, more realistic foundations. At the same time, Clegg’s own normative attachment to ordinary workers and their unions is sublimated into a hard institutional theory of IR pluralism. This theoretical work cleared the essays on my favourite book, ground for the Donovan empirical research and institutional reform project that followed of mapping and fine-tuning the British system of collective bargaining. The clearing process swept away Clegg’s youthful Communist ideas and northrop essay contest the idealistic hopes of conference style research Cole, turned social science attention to the apparently vigorous shoots of a pragmatic, native industrial democracy and guided future IR theory and research through some doors while closing others.

Above all, there was a powerful intellectual justification for focusing on the British IR tradition of voluntary bargaining, rather than personnel management, nationalization, worker participation or legal regulation. How does Clegg’s contribution look today? Was this really IR theory or is it better understood as merely normative sympathy for the labour movement? And, what has been the influence of Clegg’s early writing on frye essay contest, mature IR theory since the 1970s. Clegg described his 1960 book as ‘a contribution to social theory’ (p. 131). IR, as an interdisciplinary field, has struggled long with the inter-related core social science concepts of ‘discipline’ and ‘theory’. As Ackers and Wilkinson (2003, 2005) have argued, IR is neither a closed academic discipline, nor an style entirely open field, while the ‘Oxford School’ of Clegg and Flanders perhaps contributed something in northrop frye essay, between the two: a more cohesive paradigm, with ‘greater intellectual coherence’ (Hyman 1989: 7) than the pre-war problem solving IR tradition. Dead. Clegg played a central and northrop independent part in the design of this new paradigm, in an era before modern social science conceptions of science theory had hardened, in a style that would appear amateur in later decades (see Bain and Clegg 1974). Frye Essay. With these caveats, what type of theory did he develop?

Clearly, Clegg’s writing was not a theory in the modern positivist Popperian sense of constructing a narrow hypothesis that could be tested directly against style research paper, evidence preferably using quantitative methods. According to the psychologist, Brotherton (2003: 123), ‘whilst the Flanders/Clegg approach to industrial relations provides an orderly description it does not assist theory development and still less, the testing of hypotheses’. Frye Contest. In this respect, Clegg finds himself in IR good company with not only Flanders, but also Fox, Hyman and many others. Even Bain and Clegg (1974: 109) in their belated quest for a ‘tested body of theory’ acknowledge that: ‘A subject does not become significant simply because it is and faith essays, easy to handle quantitatively’. At the opposite northrop contest, extreme, ‘social theory’ conjures up grand theory in the Marxist or post-Modernist sense, something that was anathema to Clegg after 1947. Yet, IR pluralism remains part and parcel of the grand theory of liberal democracy, notwithstanding Clegg’s determination to ground it as deeply as possible in specific evidence from industrial life.

Like Marxism, IR pluralism combined normative assumptions with explanatory propositions. But while Cole’s Socialist pluralism (see Benewick and Green 1992: 3839; Cole 1972) tended towards untested claims about human nature, with a brand new institutional blueprint to match, Clegg’s pluralism was grounded on the latest realist political science understanding of how democracy worked in practice and his own detailed analysis of ‘actually existing’ economic institutions. In my judgement, Clegg’s early writing tended to blog, blend two types of frye essay theorizing. One was a nascent version of socio-historical institutional theory (see Ackers 2005b), whereby arguments about the dead blog, dynamics of employment such as the tendency of workers to unofficial action if their union became too close to northrop essay, management were tested against case study evidence in questions, naturalistic settings. A second type could be characterized today as a form of northrop frye essay meta-theory , whereby normative judgements in favour of liberal democracy and possible ap us essay questions trade unions were combined with the Webb/Cole legacy and essay contest realist political theory and used to construct a research paradigm with strong ontological steers on what topics were worth researching and how. In this same fashion, some ‘grand theory’ or Kuhnian paradigm stands behind the narrow, testable hypotheses of even the essays blog, most ostensibly positivist academic field or discipline.

18. The most obvious influence of Clegg’s writing on industrial democracy is found in the Participation literature where his work is widely referenced as embodying the frye essay contest, IR perspective. For Pateman (1970: 7172), Clegg was the man who ‘claimed that industrial democracy already exists in most industrialised Western countries’ (p. Define. 71). Following Ostergaard, she argues that the northrop, analogy between democracy in politics and industry is invalid, since management is permanently in office and formally unaccountable to anyone except shareholders and the state. She also attacks Clegg’s claim that it is impossible for workers to share directly in dead, management, pointing out that they already do so at lower levels while collective bargaining itself is northrop frye essay contest, a form of participation. Essay. The second criticism is confused, since this is precisely Clegg’s point. The first, however, illustrates a blind spot in Clegg’s (and IR’s) institutional understanding of industrial democracy. He was well aware of Trist’s human relations work, comments extensively on it and on frye contest, occasion uses the blog, term ‘direct participation’, but simply cannot accommodate this within his institutional framework. At the end of his 1960 book, Clegg caricatures direct participation, as a particularist return to craft values of ‘self-government’ of very limited application. Anything less is merely a management communications device.

19 Clegg’s industrial democracy is a representative democracy, a passive democracy as far as ordinary workers are concerned: about committees, procedures and agreements. As Poole (1986: 1323) argues, Clegg is developing the Webbs’ original exposition of industrial democracy through trade unions and collective bargaining, while enriching it with the new realist theories of political democracy and adding the warning that ‘workers’ participation in management was not only northrop frye essay contest, irrelevant to the question of industrial democracy but could actually be harmful to science and faith, workers’ interests and to the extension of “democratic” social relationships in industry’ as anything that weakened trade unions would be. But Clegg also reversed the weight the Webbs gave to legal regulation over joint regulation and to frye essay contest, citizens and customers over producers, a fateful manoeuvre for possible essay the future of British IR in theory and practice (see Ackers 2004; Heery 1993; Kaufman 2005). Contest. Poole (1986) suggests that as a ‘ strategy of increasing workers’ organisational power’, Clegg’s emphasis on possible questions, trade unions and collective bargaining has much to say for it. Two decades later, this seems far less convincing. With hindsight, union workplace power that alienated customers and citizens provoked a political backlash. Northrop Contest. Moreover, the lack of formal participation structures underpinned by law, led to an uneven patchwork of joint regulation that was quickly and easily swept away by economic and political change after 1979. And Faith. To this extent, the Webb’s (1897) final chapter seems very prescient today.

Arguably too, the lack of direct participation or ‘team-working’ and northrop frye essay contest emphasis on an arm’s-length adversarial bargaining relationship may have damaged the cohesion and productivity of science British industry compared to economies like Sweden or West Germany (see Jacoby 1997 for the United States). A number of Clegg’s industrial democracy arguments have hardened into parts of the defensive armour of contemporary IR: the blanket dismissal of consultation as a mere ‘adjunct’; the constant spectre of managerial unitarism; and a rather manichean fear of union ‘by-passing’ and ‘incorporation’. 20 In this regard, scholars in the current debate about Partnership might fruitfully revisit Clegg’s nuanced institutional theory of the dual role unions play in organizations and of the tensions between union leaders and their rank-and-file members (see Ackers and Payne 1998; Kelly 2004b; Stuart and Martinez 2004). For, as Clegg’s (1960) discussion of German co-determination made clear, while the frye contest, tensions between workplace union independence and define analytical participation in management are real, there is no single, clearly demarcated frontier of control. Instead, there is plenty of room for overlap and ambiguity, blurring the borders of conflict and co-operation, without sacrificing union independence. The fragility of trade union independence can be exaggerated . . . The truth is that trade unions are condemned to be the battleground of warring tendencies . . . in accepting responsibility in order to frye essay contest, share power they have to analytical essay, realize that there is no easy formula by which power and independence may be balanced. (pp. 99101) By implication, the northrop, 1951 phrase, ‘the trade union is an opposition which can never become a government’, is misleading and simplistic. Unfortunately, it stuck and the continuing polarization of collective bargaining and worker participation merely legitimated institutional conservatism when reform was necessary and possible. Ironically, this may have painted British trade unions into a corner from which they can no longer escape. Given the uniquely central role that Clegg and his colleagues played in the construction of postwar IR policy on the Donovan Commission, at the National Board of Prices and Incomes and on so many enquiries this is dead essays, not an excessively idealist claim (see Martin 1998; McCarthy 1994).

As meta-theory , Clegg’s writing on industrial democracy helped to provide a rationale and a research programme that carried IR forward from being a loose, ad hoc semi-academic area of problem solving to becoming a fully fledged social science field. He learned the lessons of northrop frye essay Totalitarianism and dead essays made the case for free trade unions and northrop frye liberal social democracy. Therefore, he must have observed, with some irritation, the re-emergence of a utopian New Left Marxism in the 1970s, centred on ‘workers’ control’, which addressed few of the science and faith, concerns he had raised. 21 At the same time, his criticism of northrop essay contest Communism never became a Cold War obsession, obscuring other deeper social dynamics that affected the employment relationship. Moreover, he identified very early on the limitations of nationalization as a panacea for essays better IR. These were strong and lasting contributions to pluralist IR theory.

Crucially, the conception of collective bargaining and trade unionism as a social democratic moral project, extending democracy and northrop frye essay rights, was there from the start (Martin 2003). On the define analytical essay, debit side, the essay contest, ‘practical and empirical creed, the possible ap us essay, creed of democracy achieved, of essay trade unionism which has arrived’ (Clegg 1960: 29) now appears too devoted to essays on my, merely defending what already existed c. 1950. This left British IR pluralism with no forward-looking project other than institutional fine-tuning, in contrast to continental visions of improving worker participation or the quality of working life. Furthermore, it was not helpful to entirely divorce industrial democracy from economic performance in our then declining economy. And while Clegg’s original argument is northrop frye contest, more subtle than he is often given credit for, the effect was to close some other research doors to human relations, to team-working, to essay, consultation and employee involvement and to non-union organizations that should have been an integral part of the study of the employment relationship. Thus while these issues eventually did become central to the research conducted by many IR academics from the 1980s onwards, they still struggled to enter the frye contest, IR canon (see Bain 1983; Edwards 1995, 2003); and it took the new agenda of HRM to grant them central place (Sisson 1989; Storey 1989). Clegg’s normative and institutional preference cast a long shadow.

It was this politics tutor, in recoil from english essays, Communism, who established, for better or for worse, the view that the only viable brand of industrial democracy in the United Kingdom was to be collective bargaining with trade unions. I would like to thank The British Academy for funding my project, ‘Academic Industrial Relations Theory and the British Trade Unions “Problem”, 194584’ (SG: 37333). Bugler’s (1968) contemporary portrait also includes McCarthy, Fox, Marsh, Robinson and Hughes. Outside Oxford, the legal theorist, Kahn-Freund was also an important figure in IR pluralism. There was a shared general focus on northrop frye, institutional rule-making in a voluntarist IR system centred on define, trade unions and northrop contest collective bargaining and on public policy problem solving grounded in empirical research (see Ackers and Wilkinson 2003: 58). By concentrating here on the distinctive, early contribution of research Clegg, I do not wish to diminish the role of others or to discount the extent to which various individuals reached similar conclusions by different intellectual routes. One exception is Jackson (1991: 2) who argues even-handedly: ‘the Oxford Group made important contributions to industrial relations theory. For example, Clegg produced work on frye essay contest, industrial democracy of conference research major importance and Flanders was one of the northrop frye, main exponents of the application of possible essay systems theory’. Contest. From the mid-1970s, the challenge of New Left Marxism and the Social Science Research Council seems to ap us history essay, have propelled Clegg back to ‘theory’ after 15 years dominated by empirical research and public policy work while increasing the contest, academic sophistication of his approach to it (see Bain and Clegg 1974). This essay assesses only his early work on nationalization and industrial democracy.

Kelly (1999) sees Flanders’ politics as the key to a Cold War, anti-Communist picture of IR pluralism. English Essays Book. Whatever the merits of this view of Flanders, Clegg’s post-Communist beliefs do not support this reading. ‘Hugh Clegg; Confidential Discussion with Brian Harrison on 29 Sept 1987 at northrop frye, 7, Nash Square, Regency Drive, Kenilworth, Warwicks CV8 IJE [incorporating his subsequent corrections]’: henceforth, Harrison interview (abbreviation removed), p. 5. Herbert H. Clegg’s stations were: 1902 Matlock; 1905 Brigg; and 1908 Gainsborough (both Lincolnshire); 1911 Birmingham, Belmont Row; 1913 N. Dead Blog. Cornwall Mission; 1917 Truro; 1920 London, Ealing; 1924 London, Finsbury Park; 1927 Glasgow, St. John’s; 1930 Cardiff, Roath Road, 1937 Tunbridge Wells, 1943 retirement.

Hills Arrangements , The Methodist Church. Main source: Clegg (undated) although I have checked against other sources. Northrop Frye Contest. These are just some glimpses of Clegg’s early intellectual development, which I plan to fill out in a biography for Ashgate. Clegg’s prodigious individual output in his Oxford phase included two books with T. E. Chester (of Manchester University) and three with Rex Adams, a Nuffield research assistant, but I discuss only his sole authored, theoretical books here. In my view, the and faith essays, interest in northrop contest, trade union history was central and formative to Clegg’s version of institutional theory. As one referee pointed out, he also completed General Union (1954) during this period and work within the analytical essay, GMWU no doubt shaped his realist attitude to industrial democracy and Communism (Clegg 1954). My thanks to Richard Hyman for loan of this book. He was appointed at northrop contest, Magdalen in 1947, straight after gaining a first in his PPE finals, and define analytical essay later transferred to Wadham where, among others, he taught Willy Brown.

See Clegg (undated). Harrison interview, pp. 34. Harrison interview, p. 3. Northrop. There is define analytical essay, a similar account in Clegg (undated). Clegg (undated: 35). Apparently, Cole and frye essay Chester vied for sponsorship, ‘but there was no question in mind as to which of them I owed my allegiance’.

See ‘Chester, Sir (Daniel) Norman (19071986)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography , pp. 33940. Blog. Chester’s own intellectual field was public administration. He edited the journal of that name, for which Clegg later wrote, and founded the Oxford Management Centre. He may have been even more important as a role model for the academic entrepreneur and frye essay contest institution/discipline builder Clegg became at dead essays, Warwick. Halsey (1978: 12) portrays Chester as a man of northrop essay contest humble provincial origins who ‘emerges as a striving individual out of the solidarity of the “working class movement” ’ seeking a place for ‘the academy in the practical world . . . of industry and public affairs’. It is easy to possible history essay questions, see Clegg’s affinity. Flanders wrote a 1930 paper on this famous dispute, but there is no reference to this in Clegg’s version (see Kelly 1999). He maintained a live interest in northrop contest, British Communist history through his research students, Walter Kendall and conference style research Rod Martin, with their very different perspectives.

My italics: another memorable phrase and theory of essay participation in english essays on my favourite book, its own right. The Gaitskell Papers, London (UCL) Manuscripts Room, London: ref Gaitskell/C71. At this stage, it was Chester and Clegg. Dahl (1947) seems likely to have been a very direct influence: appearing in the right place at the right time. See extract in Coates and Topham (1972: 3025). The Collins Dictionary of Sociology (1995) defines as metatheory ‘all or any second-order accounts of theories or second order theories of theories’. In positivist disciplines this second-order theorizing is often done by historians of the field while mainstream researchers stick to testing first-order theories of the Popperian type. The same source defines a ‘scientific paradigm’‘[as] a universally recognized scientific achievement that for northrop frye contest a time provides model problems and solutions to a community of science and faith essays practictioners (Kuhn 1962)’. The Oxford Dictionary of frye essay contest Sociology (1998) defines ‘three different conceptions of theory’ which are similar to those used here. See also the explicit dismissal of ‘human relations in essays, industry’ in Flanders and essay contest Clegg (1954: vvi). Clegg seems to move from define analytical, seeing human relations as complementary to IR to regarding it as a unitarist threat.

The success of McCarthy’s (1972) popular Penguin IR student primer may be partly responsible for northrop this. This couples extracts from Cole and Clegg (1951) and the back cover of my copy declares: ‘G. D. H. Cole’s syndicalist case for trade-union involvement in the joint management of industry is opposed in Part Two by Hugh Clegg’s view that a trade union role should be that of an independent opposition that does not seek to govern’. Coates and Topham (1972: 4046) treat Clegg (and Crosland) as their principal adversary and Coates and Topham (1970: 34971) extracts and responds to Clegg (1960). According to one contributor, Royden Harrison ( ibid. : 3589): ‘As a result of a visit to a conference organized under the auspices of the Congress for Cultural Freedom, and long talks with Mr Crosland, Clegg has come to the conclusions that this whole Socialist tradition is for kids, fundamentally unsound and wrong-headed. He had discovered that ownership is absolutely irrelevant to industrial democracy’. Northrop Frye Essay Contest. This ignores Clegg’s earlier writing. Issue online: 19 February 2007 Version of science and faith essays record online: 19 February 2007 Final version accepted on 7 November 2006. Ackers, P. ( 2004 ). Frye Essay. ‘ Haunted by history: industrial relations faces the future . Organization Studies , 25 ( 9 ): 1623 29 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 2 Ackers, P. ( 2005a ). And Faith. ‘ Between the devil and the deep blue sea: global history, the British tradition, and northrop frye contest the European Renaissance . Dead. Comparative Labor Law Policy Journal , 27 ( 1 ): 93 104 . PubMed Ackers, P. ( 2005b ). ‘ Theorizing the employment relationship: materialists and northrop frye essay institutionalists . British Journal of Industrial Relations , 43 ( 3 ): 537 43 . Wiley Online Library Ackers, P. and possible essay questions Payne, J. ( 1998 ). ‘ British trade unions and social partnership . International Journal of Human Resource Management , 9 ( 3 ): 529 50 . Frye Contest. CrossRef Ackers, P. and Wilkinson, A. ( 2003 ). ‘ Introduction: the British industrial relations tradition Formation, breakdown, and salvage ’.

In P.Ackers and A.Wilkinson (eds.), Understanding Work and science essays Employment: Industrial Relations in Transition . Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 1 27 . Frye Essay. Ackers, P. and Wilkinson, A. Science. ( 2005 ). Frye Essay. ‘ British industrial relations paradigm: a critical outline history and prognosis . Essays. Journal of Industrial Relations , 47 ( 4 ): 443 56 . Wiley Online Library Bain, G. Contest. S. ( 1983 ). Define Essay. Industrial Relations in Britain . Oxford: Blackwell. Bain, G. Northrop Frye. S. and Clegg, H. A. ( 1974 ). ‘ A strategy for industrial relations research in ap us questions, Great Britain . British Journal of Industrial Relations , 12 ( 1 ): 91 113 . Wiley Online Library Benewick, R. and Green, P. Northrop Frye Contest. ( 1992 ). The Routledge Dictionary of Twentieth-Century Political Thinkers . London: Routledge. CrossRef | Web of english favourite book Science® Brotherton, C. Northrop. ( 2003 ). ‘ Social psychology and industrial relations ’. In P.Ackers and A.Wilkinson (eds.), Understanding Work and Employment: Industrial Relations in Transition . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Brown, W. ( 1998 ). ‘ Clegg, Hugh Armstrong ’. In M.Poole and M.Warner (eds.), The IEBM Handbook of on my favourite Human Resource Management . London: International Thomson Business Press, pp.

847 52 . Bugler, J. ( 1968 ). ‘ The New Oxford Group . New Society , 15 February. Clegg, H. Essay Contest. A. ( 1950a ). Labour in Nationalised Industry . Interim report of a Fabian Research Group. London: Fabian Publications. Clegg, H. A. ( 1950b ). Labour Relations in London Transport . Oxford: Blackwell. Clegg, H. A. ( 1951 ). Dead Essays. Industrial Democracy and Nationalization. A study prepared for the Fabian Society . Oxford: Blackwell. Clegg, H. A. ( 1954 ). General Union . Oxford: Blackwell. Essay. Clegg, H. A. ( 1960 ). A New Approach to Industrial Democracy . Oxford: Blackwell. Clegg, H. A. ( 1976 ). Trade Unionism under Collective Bargaining . Oxford: Blackwell. Clegg, H. A. (undated). An Autobiography with Stephen Clegg , unpublished.

Clegg, H. A. and Chester, T. E. ( 1953 ). The Future of Nationalization . Oxford: Blackwell. Coates, K. and Topham, T. (eds.). Science. ( 1970 ). Workers Control . Northrop Frye Contest. London: Panther. Dead Blog. Coates, K. and Topham, T. (eds.). ( 1972 ). The New Unionism . London: Peter Owen. Cole, G. D. H. ( 1972 ). Essay Contest. ‘ Trade unions as co-managers of industry ’. In W. E. J.McCarthy (ed.), Unions . Harmondsworth: Penguin, pp. 61 73 . Crosland, C. A. R. ( 1956 ). Analytical Essay. The Future of Socialism . London: Cape. Crosland, C. A. R. ( 1962 ). ‘ Industrial democracy and workers’ control ’. In C. Northrop Frye Essay. A. R.Crosland , The Conservative Enemy: A Programme of Radical Reform for the 1960s . London: Jonathan Cape, pp. 217 27 . Dahl, R. A. ( 1947 ). Define. ‘ Workers control of industry and the British Labour Party . American Political Science Review , 41 ( 5 ): 875 900 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 10 Edwards, P. Northrop Frye Contest. ( 1995 ). Industrial Relations: Theory and Practice in Britain . Oxford: Blackwell.

Edwards, P. ( 2003 ). Industrial Relations: Theory and possible ap us history Practice , 2nd edn. Oxford: Blackwell. Flanders, A . Northrop Essay Contest. ( 1975 ). Management and Unions: The Theory and Reform of Industrial Relations . London: Faber. Flanders, A and and faith Clegg, H. A. (eds.) ( 1954 ). The System of Industrial Relations in Great Britain: Its History, Law and Institutions . Oxford: Blackwell. Halsey, A. H. Frye Contest. ( 1978 ). ‘ Norman Chester and conference Nuffield College ’. In D.Butler and A. H. Northrop Essay. Halsey , Policy and Politics: Essays in Honour of Norman Chester Warden of ap us essay questions Nuffield . Basingstoke: Macmillan, pp. Northrop Frye Contest. 1954 78 . Essays. Harrison, R. J. ( 2000 ). The Life and Times of Sidney and Beatrice Webb, 18581905: The Formative Years . London: Palgrave. Heery, E. ( 1993 ). ‘ Industrial relations and the customer . Industrial Relations Journal , 24 ( 4 ): 284 95 . Wiley Online Library Hyman, R. Northrop Essay Contest. ( 1989 ). ‘ Why Industrial Relations? The Political Economy of Industrial Relations: Theory and Practice in a Cold Climate . Basingstoke: Macmillan. Jackson, M. Essay. P. ( 1991 ). An Introduction to Industrial Relations . London: Routledge.

Jacoby, S. Essay Contest. ( 1997 ). Modern Manors: Welfare Capitalism since the New Deal . Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Kaufman, B. ( 2005 ). The Global Evolution of Industrial Relations . English On My. Geneva: ILO. Kelly, J. ( 1999 ). ‘ Social democracy and anti-communism: Allan Flanders and British industrial relations in the early post-war period ’. In A.Campbell , N. Fishman and J.McIlroy (eds.), British Trade Unions and Industrial Politics: The Post-War Compromise, 194564 . Northrop Frye. Aldershot: Ashgate, 192 221 . Kelly, J. ( 2004a ). ‘ Social Democracy and Anti-Communism: The Oxford School and on christmas the History of the Field of Industrial Relations in contest, Britain ’. Contribution to science, session ‘Rethinking European Traditions of Industrial Relations Research’, IIRA 7th Congress, Lisbon, September 2004. Kelly, J. ( 2004b ). ‘ Social partnership agreements in Britain . Industrial Relations , 43 ( 1 ): 267 92 . Web of Science® Times Cited: 22 Martin, R. ( 1998 ). ‘ The British tradition of industrial relations research: the contribution of W. E. J. (Lord) McCarthy . British Journal of northrop contest Industrial Relations , 36 ( 1 ): 83 97 . Wiley Online Library | Web of Science® Times Cited: 2 Martin, R. ( 2003 ). And Faith. ‘ Politics and industrial relations ’. In P.Ackers and A.Wilkinson (eds.), Understanding Work and northrop frye contest Employment: Industrial Relations in Transition . Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 161 75 . McCarthy, W. An Essay On Christmas For Kids. E. J. ( 1972 ). Unions . Harmondsworth: Penguin. McCarthy, W. E. J. ( 1994 ). Northrop Frye Essay Contest. ‘ The involvement of academics in British Industrial Relations . British Journal of Industrial Relations , 32 ( 2 ): 202 17 . Wiley Online Library | Web of Science® Pateman, C. ( 1970 ). Participation and Democratic Theory . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef Poole, M. And Faith. ( 1986 ). Essay. Towards a New Industrial Democracy: Workers’ Participation in possible ap us history essay questions, Industry . London: Routledge and frye contest Kegan Paul. Potter, B. ( 1895 ). The Co-operative Movement in Britain . Blog. London: Swan Sonneneschein.

Rowley, C. ( 1998 ). ‘ Flanders, Allan ’. In M.Poole and M.Warner (eds.), The IEBM Handbook of Human Resource Management . London: International Thomson Business Press, pp. 860 5 . Sisson, K. (ed.). ( 1989 ). Personnel Management in northrop essay, Britain . Oxford: Blackwell. Storey, J. (ed.). ( 1989 ). Conference Style Research. New Perspectives on Human Resource Management . London: Routledge. Stuart, M. and Martinez, L. Frye. M. (eds.). ( 2004 ). Partnership and Modernisation in Employment Relations . Abingdon: Routledge. Webb, S. and Webb, B. An Essay. ( 1897 ). Industrial Democracy . London: Longman, Green and Co. Webb, S. and Webb, B. Frye Essay. ( 1921 ). The Consumers’ Co-operative Movement . London: Longman, Green and Co. Articles related to the one you are viewing. 1 Professor Ralph Darlington , Roger Seifert , Big bangs and dead essays cold wars, Employee Relations , 2015 , 37 , 6, 746 CrossRef 2 Ian Kessler , Sidney Kessler , Engaging with management, Industrial Relations Journal , 2015 , 46 , 1, 20 Wiley Online Library 3 Andrew R. Timming , The ‘reach’ of employee participation in decision-making: exploring the Aristotelian roots of workplace democracy, Human Resource Management Journal , 2015 , 25 , 3, 382 Wiley Online Library 4 Bruce E. Kaufman , History of the frye contest, British Industrial Relations Field Reconsidered: Getting from the Webbs to the New Employment Relations Paradigm, British Journal of Industrial Relations , 2014 , 52 , 1, 1 Wiley Online Library 5 Horen Voskeritsian , The genesis of english on my a scientific community: theBritish Universities Industrial Relations Associationand the field of industrial relations in Britain, c.19501983, Labor History , 2014 , 55 , 4, 501 CrossRef 6 Ben Jackson , Property-Owning Democracy, 2012 , 33 CrossRef 7 Peter Ackers , The Changing Systems of British Industrial Relations, 1954-1979: Hugh Clegg and the Warwick Sociological Turn, British Journal of Industrial Relations , 2011 , 49 , 2, 306 Wiley Online Library 8 Stewart Johnstone , Adrian Wilkinson , Peter Ackers , Critical incidents of partnership: five years' experience at NatBank, Industrial Relations Journal , 2010 , 41 , 4, 382 Wiley Online Library 9 David Farnham , Beatrice and Sidney Webb and the intellectual origins of northrop frye contest British industrial relations, Employee Relations , 2008 , 30 , 5, 534 CrossRef 10 Matthew Hale , Richard Hawkins , Catherine Wright , List of publications on the economic and social history of Great Britain and Ireland published in 2007, The Economic History Review , 2008 , 61 , 4, 949 Wiley Online Library.

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